DAILY MAINS NEWSLETTER FOR UPSC | 09 APR 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Mains Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

09 APRIL 2021

Index

Mains Value Addition

Mains Analysis

Topic No

Topic Name

Source

1

Explaining Pakistan’s flip-flop on trade with India

The Hindu

2

Developing a counterinsurgency strategy that actually works

Indian Express

Mains Value Addition

RBI’s first purchase under G-SAP 1.0 set for April 15

Syllabus-GS 3: Science and Technology

Analysis: –

  • A day after announcing the introduction of the G-sec Acquisition Programme (G-SAP 1.0), the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) on Thursday announced the Open Market Purchase of Government of India Securities under the program.
  • Left-wing extremism is a form of armed insurgency against the state motivated by leftist ideologies.
  • They reject parliamentary democracy and aim at waging a war against the government.
  • Maoists, one of the extremist groups derive their ideology from Maoism, a form of communism backed by Mao Zedong of China.

After diesel, fertilisers to take toll on farmers; IFFCO hikes prices by 45-58%

Syllabus– GS 3: Science and Technology

Analysis: –

  • In the midst of Assembly elections in West Bengal and ongoing protests against the Centre’s farm laws, the country’s largest fertiliser seller – Indian Farmers Fertiliser Cooperative (IFFCO) – has steeply raised prices of nutrients.
  • A 50-kg bag of di-ammonium phosphate (DAP), the most widely consumed fertiliser in India after urea, will cost farmers Rs 1,900, more than 58 per cent higher than the existing rate of Rs 1,200/bag.
  • IFFCO has also significantly increased the maximum retail prices of other popular complex fertilisers with different NPKS (nitrogen, phosphorus, potash and sulphur) proportions.
  • These include 10:26:26 (from Rs 1,175 to Rs 1,775/bag), 12:32:16 (from Rs 1,185 to 1,800/bag) and 20:20:0:13 (from Rs 925 to 1,350/bag). The new prices are effective from April 1.
  • Left-wing extremism is a form of armed insurgency against the state motivated by leftist ideologies.
  • They reject parliamentary democracy and aim at waging a war against the government.
  • Maoists, one of the extremist groups derive their ideology from Maoism, a form of communism backed by Mao Zedong of China.

Copyright (Amendment) Rules, 2021 notified

Syllabus– GS 3: Science and Technology

Analysis: –

  • The Government of India has notified Copyright (Amendment) Rules, 2021 vide Gazette notification under reference G.S.R. 225(E) dated 30th March, 2021.
  • In India, the copyright regime is governed by the Copyright Act, 1957 and the Copyright Rules, 2013.
  • Left-wing extremism is a form of armed insurgency against the state motivated by leftist ideologies.
  • They reject parliamentary democracy and aim at waging a war against the government.
  • Maoists, one of the extremist groups derive their ideology from Maoism, a form of communism backed by Mao Zedong of China.

Mains Analysis

Explaining Pakistan’s flip-flop on trade with India

Why in News: –

The shadow of politics still looms over trade, which runs contrary to Islamabad’s statements on the need for better ties.

Syllabus: -GS 2: International Relations

  • Pakistan’s double U-turn on resuming trade with India highlights the internal differences within Ministries, between business and political communities, and the emphasis on politics over economy and trade.
  • It also signifies Pakistan cabinet’s grandstanding, linking normalization of ties with India to Jammu and Kashmir.
  • On March 31, Pakistan’s new Finance Minister Hammad Azhar, announced Pakistan’s Economic Coordination Committee (ECC)’s decision to import cotton, yarn, and 500,000 metric tons of sugar from India.
  • The media dubbed it as a political breakthrough but the ECC’s decision was not on bilateral trade; it was about importing only three items — cotton, yarn and sugar.
  • A day later, Pakistan’s cabinet overruled the decision; the meeting was chaired by Prime Minister Imran Khan and which included Shah Mohammad Qureshi (Foreign Affairs Minister), Fawad Chaudhry (Science and Technology Minister) and Shireen M. Mazari (Human Rights Minister).
  • However, Pakistan’s textile industry has not taken the cabinet’s decision kindly; for them, importing cotton yarn from India is an immediate need; else, it would impact their export potential.

Three takeaways can be identified from the above.

  • The first relates to the ECC’s decision to import only three items from India, namely cotton, yarn and sugar.
  • It was based on Pakistan’s immediate economic needs
  • It was not designed as a political confidence-building measure to normalize relations with India.

Economic Challenges: –

  • For the textile and sugar industries in Pakistan, importing from India is imperative, practical and is the most economic.
  • According to the latest Pakistan Economic Survey, 2019-20, though the agriculture sector witnessed a growth of 2.67%
  • Cotton and sugarcane production declined by 6.9% and 0.4%, respectively.
  • Sugar exports came down substantially last year, by over 50% in 2019-20, when compared to 2018-19.
  • Yarn, cotton cloth, knitwear, bed-wear and readymade garments form the core of Pakistan’s textile basket in the export sector.
  • By February 2020, there was a steep decline in the textile sector due to disruptions in supply and domestic production.
  • When compared to the last fiscal year (2019-20), there has been a 30% decline (2020-21) in cotton production.
  • According to the State Bank of Pakistan’s latest quarterly report,
  • The decline in cotton production is also due to fewer areas (the lowest since 1982) of cotton cultivation.
  • By the end of 2020, there was a sharp decline (around 40%) in cotton production.
  • The ginning industry estimates that in 2021, it would receive less than half of what was projected.
  • Pakistan’s cotton export would reduce, creating a domino effect on what goes into Pakistan’s garment industry.
  • Pakistan is the fifth-largest exporter of cotton globally, and the cotton-related products (raw and value-added) earn close to half of the country’s foreign exchange.

Industrial challenges:

  • The sugar industry in Pakistan is also in crisis. When compared to cotton, the sugar industry’s problem stems from different issues
  • the availability for local consumption and the steep price increase.
  • The sugar industry has prioritized exports over local distribution.
  • Increased government subsidy and a few related administrative decisions resulted in the sugar industry attempting to make a considerable profit by exporting it.
  • By early 2019, the sugar prices started increasing, and in 2020, there was a crisis due to shortage and cost.
  • In February 2020, Mr. Imran Khan announced an investigation and constituted a commission of inquiry into Pakistan’s sugar crisis, 2019-20.
  • According to the report, sugarcane was purchased off-the-books by the sugar mills, and sugar sold off-the-books.
  • The report also noticed market manipulation and hoarding resulting in increased sugar prices within Pakistan.
  • In short, the subsidies, cheap bank loans, a few administrative decisions, manipulation, and greed, especially by the sugar mill owners, mean high costs paid by the consumers.
  • As a result, importing sugar from India would be cheaper for the consumer market in Pakistan.
  • Clearly, the crises in the cotton and sugar industries played a role in the ECC’s decision to import cotton, yarn, and sugar from India.
  • It would not only be cheaper but also help Pakistan’s exports. This is also imperative for Pakistan to earn foreign exchange.

Political challenges: –

  • The second takeaway from the two U-turns — is the supremacy of politics over trade and economy, even if the latter is beneficial to the importing country.
  • For the cabinet, the interests of its own business community and its export potential have become secondary.
  • However, Pakistan need not be singled out; this is a curse in South Asia, where politics play a supreme over trade and economy.
  • The meager percentage of intra-South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) trade and the success (or the failure) of SAARC engaging in bilateral or regional trade would underline the above.
  • Trade is unlikely to triumph over politics in South Asia; especially in India-Pakistan relations.

The Kashmir link

  • The third takeaway is the emphasis on Jammu and Kashmir by Pakistan to make any meaningful start in bilateral relations.
  • This goes against what it has been telling the rest of the world that India should begin a dialogue with Pakistan.
  • Recently, both Pakistan’s Prime Minister and the Chief of Army Staff, Qamar Javed Bajwa, were on record stating the need to build peace in the region.
  • There were also reports that Pakistan agreeing to re-establish the ceasefire along the Line of Control (LoC) was a part of this new strategy.
  • Pakistan has been saying that the onus is on India to normalize the process.
  • Perhaps, it is New Delhi’s turn to tell Islamabad that it is willing, but without any preconditions, and start with trade.
  • It may even allow New Delhi to inform Pakistan’s stakeholders about who is willing to trade and who is reluctant.

Question: –

Discuss the changing landscape of India- Pakistan relations.

Developing a counterinsurgency strategy that actually works

Why in News: –

In the backdrop of the recent killing of 22 security personnel by Maoists, Author discusses the counterinsurgency framework that is to be adopted.

Syllabus: – GS 1, 2: Social Justice, Women Issues

Background: –

  • According to the Min of Home Affairs, in India, 90 districts across 11 states are affected by LWE.
  • But the geographical spread of LWE violence has also shrunk considerably to 60 dist in 2018
  • At the same time, the arc of violence has been restricted to just 30 districts accounting for 89% of LWE violence.
  • Where the majority of incidents are hovering around Gadchirowli, Dantewada, Bastar, Sukma & Bijapur dists.
  • In the last decades number of persons has been killed more than 1500 but there has been a gradual decrease in intensity of deaths.

What is Left wing extremism: –

  • Left-wing extremism is a form of armed insurgency against the state motivated by leftist ideologies.
  • They reject parliamentary democracy and aim at waging a war against the government.
  • Maoists, one of the extremist groups derive their ideology from Maoism, a form of communism backed by Mao Zedong of China.
  • In the past few years, Maoist violence is decreasing owing to the factors like an increase in arrests and surrenders.
  • However, the drop in violence can be attributed to tactical withdrawal by Maoists and the recent attack stands as a wake-up call.

Strategy: –

  • One school of thought believes that the people-centric approach is to be adopted by winning the hearts and minds thus avoiding coercive action.
  • Another school of thought believes that enemy centric approach needs to be adopted and the success of erstwhile Andhra Pradesh can be attributed to the enemy-centric approach.
  • States need to rise tactical forces like Greyhounds to counter the attacks being made by the maoists.
  • States must also coordinate with each other since better coordination acts as a deterrent for the Maoists to move from one state to another during attacks.

SAMADHAN stands for-

S- Smart Leadership,

A- Aggressive Strategy,

M- Motivation and Training,

A- Actionable Intelligence,

D- Dashboard Based KPIs (Key Performance Indicators)

H- Harnessing Technology,

A- Action plan for each Theatre,

N- No access to Financing.

Other steps taken

  • Special Central Assistance for improving the public infrastructure.
  • Road Connectivity Project for better access to town centers and improving livelihood opportunities.
  • Educational initiatives like Eklavya model schools for the development of tribal areas.

Reasons behind increasing LWE:

  • Economic development under the fiver plan led to the formation of the growth poles restricted only to some urban areas that led to unequal development.
  • Alienation of Forest Land because the failure of land reforms and harassment of govt servants.
  • Agrarian development policies focused on improving output without reducing economic and social disparity.
  • Industrial development policies helped the capitalists to exploit tribal of their rights & resources.
  • Lack of basic infrastructure required for the developments to connect these remote areas with dist headquarters, helped extremisms to thrive.
  • The skilled human resource deficit such as doctors, teachers, etc led to further deprivation of these areas.
  • Inaccessibility of government schemes & the presence of parallel governments in the remote region hindered state led development.

Government Measures:

Security Led Measures:

  • Specialized anti-Naxal forces like a Black panther, Greyhounds, etc have been established with multi-disciplinary groups of officers from various agencies.
  • Central govt under Security Related Expenditure(SRE) scheme, reimburses security-related expenditure relating to various state requirements.
  • To LWE affected states center is providing CAPFs, UAVs, funds for modernization of state police forces, intelligence sharing, etc

Development Related Measures:

  • Implementation of Infrastructural Development schemes such a Road Connectivity Project, Universal Service Obligation Fund(USOF) to provide connectivity & mobile services in LWE affected areas.
  • Skill development measures such as ROSHINI under DDU Grameen Kaushal Yojana for training & placement of rural poor youth.
  • Increasing thrust for financial inclusion & opening up of Livelihood centers in the region

Confidence Building Measures:

  • Since 2011 to bridge gaps between security forces & local people Civil Action Program has been implemented.
  • Surrender & rehabilitation policies such as imparting vocational training to eligible surrenderers.

Way forward:

  • A consensus-based approach needs to arrive that can serve as a force-multiplier for the security forces. With the effective implementation of the SAMADHAN approach, left-wing extremism will contend.
  • A consensus-based approach needed to pursue against extremists.
  • A permanent institutional mechanism in the form of a coordination center can be established to even out the differences between center & state.
  • Augmenting the capacities of the police force against Maoist violence will be key to neutralize.
  • Govt needs to focus on developing tools that redistribute the resources without disparity.
  • Development must operate in tandem with the security forces. Such as resumption of administrative activity should immediately follow the clearing of an area by the forces.
  • Holding elections for institutions of local self-government in the affected areas followed by the strengthening of these institutions with additional financial and decision-making powers is a necessity.
  • The success of security force operations needs to be based on the concept of just war that strives to do the maximum to avoid collateral damage.
  • The government needs to stay away from propagandist claims about winning the war in a quick time.

Question: –

To prevent the spread of Naxalism, the best strategic response would be to work with civil society actors to counter the Naxal narrative & ideology, which requires re-conceptualization of the counter-strategy. Discuss.

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