Daily Prelims Newsletter|01 July 2021|RaghukulCS|UPSC

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

01 July 2021-Thrusday

Table Of Contents

Environment

  • Pyrostria laljii

Governmental Initiatives

  • PM Formalization of Micro Food Processing Enterprises Scheme (PM FME)
  • NATRAX-High Speed Track

International Relations

  • OPEC+

Places in News

  • Andaman And Nicobar Islands

Environment

Pyrostrialaljii

Why in News?

  • Recently, PyrostriaLaljii, a new species belonging to the genus of the coffee family was discovered on the Andaman Islands.

About PyrostriaLaljii:

  • It is a 15metertall tree, belonging to genus Pyrostria. These are generally found in Madagascar but the recently discovered species is new addition to science.
  • Mostly, the genus Pyrostria is not found in India.
  • It was named Pyrostrialaljii after Lal Ji Singh, Joint Director, A&N Regional Centre, Botanical Survey of India.
  • IUCN Red list puts it as ‘Critically Endangered’.

Governmental Initiatives

PM Formalization of Micro Food Processing Enterprises Scheme (PM FME)

Why in News?

The PMFME Scheme, launched under the Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan, has recently completed its one year on 29th June.

About PM FME:

  • It is currently being implemented in 35 States and UTs.
  • Nodal Ministry is Ministry of Food Processing Industries (MoFPI).

One District One Product (ODOP) Approach:

  • States would themselves identify food products for districts keeping in view the existing clusters and availability of raw material locally.
  • Thisproduct can be a perishable produce or cereal or a food item widely produced in an area. E.g. mango, potato, pickle, millet based products, fisheries, poultry, etc.

Financial Support:

  • Credit Linked Subsidy Schemefor upgradation of individual Micro Food Processing Units.
  • Provision of Seed Capital to SHG for working capital or purchase of small tools.
  • It implementation will be over a period of five years from 2020-21 to 2024-25.
  • It is a centrally sponsored scheme.
  • The expenditure sharing:
    • 60:40 ratio between Central and State Governments,
    • 90:10 ratio inNorth Eastern and Himalayan States,
    • 60:40 ratio with UTs with legislature,
    • 100% by Centre for other UTs.

NATRAX-High Speed Track

Why in News?


Recently, the Minister of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises inaugurated NATRAX- the High Speed Track in Pithampur, Indore, MP.

About NATRAX Track:

  • It is state-of-the-art automotive testing and certification centre under NATRIP Project(National Automotive Testing and Research and development Infrastructure Project).
  • NATRIP comprises representatives from the GoI, different State Governments and Indian Automotive Industry.
  • It is a flagship project under the Ministry of Heavy Industries.
  • It aims to create a state-of-the-art testing, validation with R&D infrastructure in the country.
  • It has created a world class 11.3 km High Speed Track, longest in Asia and the fifth-largest in the world.
  • High Speed Track can be used for measuring the maximum speed capacity of high-end cars like BMW, Mercedes etc which cannot be measured on any of the existing Indian test tracks.
  • Foreign OEMs will be looking at NATRAX High Speed Track for the development of their prototype cars for Indian conditions.
  • At present, such foreign OEMs go to their respective high speed track abroad for high speed test requirements.

International Relations

OPEC+

Why in News?

India is trying to persuade oil exporting countries to moderate surging global oil prices and warned that such high prices would push India to tap alternative import sources such as Iran.

About OPEC

  • The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was created afterafter Baghdad Conference, 1960
  • Five founding countries: Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela.
  • It is a permanent intergovernmental organizationto co-ordinate and unify petroleum policies among member nations.
  • Headquarter: Vienna, Austria.
  • OPEC membership is open to any country that is a substantial exporter of oil and shares the ideals of the organization.
  • Currently, OPEC has a total of 14 Member Countries.

OPEC+

  • The non-OPEC countries which export crude oil are includedinOPEC plus
  • Notable OPEC plus countries: Malaysia, Oman, Russia.

NOTE:

  • USA is not part of OPEC+.
  • Oman is not part of OPEC but part of OPEC+.

Places in News

Andaman And Nicobar Islands:

  • A&N Islands are situated in the Bay of Bengal.
  • The main islands under the A&N Islands are:
    • North Andaman
    • Middle Andaman
    • South Andaman
    • Little Andaman
    • Car Nicobar
    • Little Nicobar
    • Great Nicobar
  • Andaman group of Islands are separated from Nicobar group of islands by 10-degree channel (due to presence of 10-degree latitude).
  • South Andaman Island and Little Andaman Island are separated by Duncan Passage.
  • There is The Grand Channel present between the Great Nicobar Islands and the Sumatra islands of Indonesia.
  • The Coco Straitlies between the North Andaman Islands and the Coco Islands of Myanmar.
  • Port Blair, in South Andaman Island is the administrative capital of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
  • The southernmost point of India,‘The Indira Point’, the located on southern tip of the Great Nicobar Islands.
  • Geographically, the A&N Islands are a part of the fold mountains protruding out of the sea.
  • These mountains form a link with ArakanYoma mountains of South east Asia and Sumatra.
  • The highest peak of A&N Islands is Saddle Peak, located in the North Andaman.
  • The Islands are famous for the largest and rarest species of crab, the Giant Robber Crab. It is distinct since it can climb the coconut trees and break the hard shell of the fruit.
  • Barren Island, located in the east of Middle AndamanIsalnd is India’s only active volcano.
  • The Narcondam Island, located in the north-east of North Andaman Isalnd is also geographically a volcanic island.

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