Daily Prelims Newsletter(UPSC)|02 JUN 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

02 June 2021-Wednesday

Table Of Contents

Science and Technology 

  • Disinfection System Vajra Kavach 
  • Supermoon and Total Lunar Eclipse 
  • Tuberculosis (TB) 

Polity and Governance 

  • Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act (FCRA) 

International Relations 

  • G-7 or ‘Group of Seven’ 

Science and Technology

Disinfection System Vajra Kavach

Why in News?

Vajra Kavach is a simple disinfection process to enable Corona Warriors to reuse their masks and PPE Kits.The technology has been developed under the NIDHI-PRAYAS programof Department of Science and Technology (DST).

About Vajra Kavach:

  • It is a UV (UltraViolet) based disinfection system to remove any possible traces of the disease-causing COVID-19 virus from PPE Kits, N95 masks, coats, gloves and gowns.
  • It thus enables reuse of PPEs and other materials used by healthcare workers.
  • It also protects our environment, by reducing thebiomedical waste generation. It will also make personal protective equipment more available, affordable, and accessible.

About NIDHI-PRAYAS Initiative:

  • Itstands for“National Initiative for Developing and Harnessing Innovation Promoting and Accelerating Young and aspiring Innovators &Start-ups”.
  • The initiative aims for setting up of incubators, seed fund, accelerators and ‘Proof of concept’ grants for innovators and entrepreneurs.

SupermoonandTotal Lunar Eclipse

Why in News?

On May 26, 2021, two celestial events – Supermoon and Total Lunar Eclipse coincided.

About Supermoon:

  • A supermoon is said to occur when Moon’s orbit is closest to the Earth on a full moon night.
  • In course of moon orbiting the Earth, there is a point when the distance between the two is the least (called perigee) and a point when the distance is the most (called apogee).
  • When a full Moon appears at the point of least distance(perigee) from earth, it appears to be brighter and larger than a regular full moon.
  • In a typical year, there may be two to four full supermoons and two to four new supermoons.

About Lunar Eclipse:

  • Lunar eclipse takes place when Moon moves into the Earth’s shadow zone. The Earth must be directly between the Sun and the Moon.
  • A lunar eclipse can only take place during a full Moon.
  • In course of its movement, the Moon firstmoves into the penumbra – the part of the Earth’s shadow zone where all of the light from the Sun is not blocked out. Here,part of the Moon’s disc will look dimmer than a regular full Moon.
  • Further, the Moon moves into the Earth’s umbra, where direct light from the Sun is completely blocked out by the Earth. Thus, the only light reflecting off the Moon’s disc is the one refracted, or bent, by the Earth’s atmosphere.

Total Lunar Eclipse:

  • During this, the whole of the lunar disc enters the Earth’s umbra, so the Moon appears reddish (Blood Moon)in the moment.
  • After about 14 minutes, the Moon moves out of Earth’s umbra and back into its penumbra. Further, the lunar eclipse will last for a few hours.
  • Since, red light has a longer wavelength than blue light, it gives the lunar eclipse its characteristic red colour.

    Tuberculosis (TB)

    Why in News?

    Annually, 1,000- 1,500 TB cases are reported in Goa with 12-17% of them being MDR (Multi-drug resistant) in which recovery rate is less than 50%.

    About TB:

    • TB is abacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that most often affect the lungs.
    • TB is spread from person to person through the air via cough, sneeze, or spit, as these propel the TB germs into the air.
    • Symptoms: Cough with sputum and blood at times, chest pains, weakness, weight loss, fever and night sweats.
    • TB is a treatable and curable disease.
    • Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a form of TB caused by bacteria that do not respond to first-line TB drugs isoniazid and rifampicin. It is treatable and curable by using second-line
    • Drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) is a more serious form of MDR-TB caused by bacteria that do not even respond to the most effective second-line anti-TB drugs. This is often untreatable.

    Initiatives by India on this front

    • The Nikshay Portal: It is a national TB information system to manage information of patients, and treatment.
    • NikshayPoshan Yojana (NPY): Aims to provide financial support to TB patients for their nutrition.
    • TB Harega Desh Jeetega Campaign: Launched in 2019 it showcases the highest level of commitment to eliminate TB.
    • The Saksham Project by the Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS)- provides psycho-social counselling to DR-TB patients.

    Polity and Governance

    Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act (FCRA)

    Why in News?

    Ministry of Home has extended the validity of registration certificates for NGOs under FCRA till September 30.

    About FCRA, 2010

    • Foreign funding of persons and organisations in India is regulated under the FCRA Act.
    • It is implemented by Ministry of Home Affairs.
    • As per the act, individuals can accept foreign contributions without permission from MHA, subject to maximum limit of ₹ 25,000.
    • The Act also seek to ensure that the recipients of such foreign contributions adhere to the stated purpose for which the said contribution was obtained.
    • Organisations are required to (re)register themselves every five years.

    Key Provisions of Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Amendment Act, 2020

    • Prohibition to accept foreign contribution: It bars public servants from receiving foreign contributions.
      • Public servant includes a person in service or pay of the government or remunerated by the government for the performance of any public duty.
    • Transfer of foreign contributions: It prohibits the transfer of foreign contribution to any other person who is not registered to accept foreign contributions.
    • Aadhaar for registration: It makes Aadhaar mandatory for all key functionaries of organisation or individual receiving foreign contribution, as an identification document.
    • FCRA account: Foreign contribution must be received only in an account as designated by the bank as FCRA account in State Bank of India, New Delhi branch.
    • Reduction in use of foreign contribution for administrative purposes: It proposes that not more than 20% of the total foreign funds received could be used for administrative expenses.
    • Surrender of certificate: The Act allows the GoI to permit a person to surrender their registration certificate.

    International Relations

    G-7 or ‘Group of Seven’

    Why in News?

    Boris Johnson in an interview hasurged the G7 Summit to have agreement over Covid “Vaccine Passports”.

    About G7:

    • It is an intergovernmental organisation formed in 1975.
    • It meets annually to discuss issues of common interest like global economic governance, international security and energy policy.
    • The group doesn’t have a formal constitution or a fixed headquarters.
    • The decisions taken by the leaders during annual summits are non-binding on the member countries.
    • Members: G7 is a bloc of industrialized democracies i.e.France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, Japan, the United States, and Canada.
    • In 1997, G7 was joined by Russia and it was renamed as G8.
    • However, the group came to be recalled G7, since Russia was expelled as a member in 2014 following Russia’s annexation of the Crimea region of Ukraine.

    Apart from leaders of member countries, important international organizations like European Union, IMF, World Bank and the United Nations are also invited to its summits.

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