Daily Prelims Newsletter|03 July 2021|RaghukulCS|UPSC

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

03 July 2021-Saturday

Table Of Contents

Science and Technology

  • Herd Immunity

Economy

  • Core Sector

Polity and Governance

  • Central Vigilance Commission

Art and Culture

  • Kalbeliya Dance Form

International Relations

  • International Monetary Fund

Science and Technology

Black Carbon

Why in News?

A team of researchers found Black Carbon to have a significant adverse impact on human health and can even lead to a premature death.

Important findings in the report:

  • The Indo-Gangetic plain is more exposed to Black Carbon and has serious implications on regional climate and human health.
  • Mortality rises linearly with the increase in air pollutants level and shows extreme adverse impact at higher levels.

About Black Carbon (BC):

  • It is a short-lived pollutant that is the second-largest contributor to warming of the Earth after carbon dioxide (CO2).
  • Unlike the other greenhouse gas emissions, BC can be quickly washed out and thus be eliminated from the atmosphere if emissions stop.
  • BC generally is a localised source of warming with greater local impact.
  • BC is formed through the incomplete combustion of
    • fossil fuels,
    • biofuel,
    • biomass, etc.,

and, it is emitted in both anthropogenic and naturally occurring soot.

Sources of black carbon in HKHK regions:

  • Industry- primarily brick kilns, and
  • Residential burning of solid fuel,
  • On-road diesel fuels,

  • Open burning in the region.

Science and Technology

Gaganyaan Mission

Why in News?

ISROis planning to launch the first uncrewed mission in December,2021 as part of the human spaceflight programme ‘Gaganyaan’. However, it is facing challenges due to the adverse impact of the COVIDinduced lockdowns which has disrupted hardware delivery schedules.

About Gaganyaan Mission:

  • Gaganyaan is a mission by the ISRO aiming to send a three-member crew to space for a period of five to seven days by 2022 when India completes 75 years of independence.
  • Under the GaganyaanMission:
    • Three flights would be sent into orbit.
    • There will be two unmanned flights followed by one human spaceflight.
  • The Gaganyaan’sOrbital Module will have three Indian astronauts, including a woman.
  • It will be designed to circle Earth inlow-earth-orbit i.e., at an altitude of 300-400 km from earth for 5-7 days.

Payloads envisioned for the mission:

  • Crew module –which will carry human beings.
  • Service module – will be powered by two liquid propellant
  • It will also be equipped with emergency escape and emergency mission abort system.

Related Information:

  • It will be launched by GSLV Mk III, also referred as the LVM-3 (Launch Vehicle Mark-3).
  • The prospective cosmonauts studied in detail with the systems of the Soyuz manned spaceship in Russia

International Relations

UN Peacekeeping Force:

Why in News?

The 193 member states of the UN have so far failed to agree on a peacekeeping budget for the year beginning July 1, which has a possibility to lead to a freeze on all missions if a deal does not materialise soon.

About UN Peacekeeping Force:

  • UN Peacekeeping Force helps countries totransit on the difficult path from conflict to peace.
  • It deploys troops and police from around the world and integrate them with civilian peacekeepers to address a range of mandates as set by the UN Security Counciland the General Assembly.
  • Currently, there are more than 6 thousand troops and police forces from India deployed in UN peacekeeping missions.
  • India has also been hailed for its long tradition of sending women on UN peacekeeping missions.
  • For example, in 2007, India became the first country to deploy an all-women contingent to a UN peacekeeping mission.
  • Finances areCollective responsibility of UN Member States.
  • According to UN Charter every Member State is legally obligated to pay their respective share for peacekeeping.
  • Peacekeeping forces are contributed by the member states on a voluntary basis.
  • Civilian staff of peace operations are international civil servants, recruited and deployed by the UN Secretariat.
  • UN Peacekeeping is guided by three basic principles:
    • Consent of the parties.
    • Impartiality
    • Non-use of force except in self-defence and in defence of the mandate.

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

Why in News?

Finance Ministry recently stated that India will join the G20-OECD inclusive framework deal which seeks to reform international tax rules and ensure that multinational firms pay their fair share of taxes wherever they operate.

OECD:

  • It is an inter-governmental economic organisation, founded with objective to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
  • Most OECD members are high-income economies with a very high Human Development Index (HDI) and are thus regarded as developed countries.
  • It was founded in 1961.
  • It is headquartered at Paris, France.
  • India is not a member, but India is a key economic partner.
  • Reports and Indices released by OECD:
    • Government at a Glance 2017 report.
    • International Migration Outlook.

    • OECD Better Life Index.

International Court of Justice (ICJ):

Why in News?

The Myanmar military recentlyrestructured thepanel to defend Rohingya Genocide Case at ICJ.

About ICJ:

  • Established in 1945 by the United Nations charter.
  • It is the principal judicial organ of the UN, situated in The Hague, Netherlands.
  • It settles legal disputes between States and also gives advisory opinions in accordance with international law, on the legal questions referred to it by authorized UN organs and specialized agencies.

Structure:

  • The Court is composed of 15 judges, who are elected for terms of office of nine years by the UN General Assembly (UNGA) and the Security Council.
  • Election requires that the candidate must receive an absolute majority of the votes in both bodies.
  • One third of the Court is elected every three years and Judges are also eligible for re-election.
  • ICJ’s official languages are English and French.

Jurisdiction and Functioning:

  • ICJ acts as a world court with following jurisdiction:
    • Legal disputes between States submitted to it by them (contentious cases),
    • Requests for advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by UN organs and specialized agencies (advisory proceedings).
  • Who all can be party to contentious cases:
    • Only those States which are members of the UN and have become parties to the Statute of the Court.
    • UN states which have accepted ICJ’s jurisdiction under certain conditions, are parties to contentious cases.
  • The judgment is final and binding on the parties to the case and without appeal (at the most the judgement may be subject to reinterpretation or, upon the discovery of a new fact, revision).

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