Daily Prelims Newsletter(UPSC)|06 May 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

06 May 2021

Table Of Contents

Environment
  • Biofuels 
  • Asiatic Lions 
Science and Technology 
  • 5G Technology 
Polity and Governance 
  • Contempt of court 
News in Short 
  • Moorhen Yoga Mat 

Environment

Biofuels

Why in News?

Union Minister of Petroleum & Natural Gas flagged off the first supply of Used Cooking Oil based Biodiesel blended Diesel.

About Biofuels:

  • Any hydrocarbon fuel produced from an organic matter (living or once living) in a short period (days, weeks, or even months) is referred as a biofuel.
  • They may be solid, liquid or gaseous in nature:
    • Solid: Wood, dried plant material, manure, etc.
    • Liquid: Bioethanol, Biodiesel
    • Gaseous: Biogas.
  • Usage:
    • Can replace or be used in addition to diesel, petrol or other fossil fuels for transport, and other applications.
    • Can also be used to generate heat and electricity.
  • Reasons in favour of use:
    • the rising prices of oil,
    • High emission of the greenhouse gases from fossil fuels,
    • Augment farmer’s income, by obtaining fuel from agricultural crops.

Categories of Biofuels

  1. First generation biofuels:
  • Made from food sources like sugar, starch, vegetable oil, or animal fats using conventional technology.
  • Examples: Bioalcohols, Biodiesel, Bioethers, Biogas, etc.
  1. Second generation biofuels:
  • Produced from non-food crops or non-edible and crop wastes, e.g. stems, husks, wood chips, and fruit skins, etc.
  • Converted to bio-fuels by thermochemical reactions or biochemical conversion.
  • Examples: cellulose ethanol, biodiesel, etc.
  • These biofuels emit less greenhouse gases as compared to first generation biofuels.
  1. Third generation biofuels:
  • Produced from micro-organisms like algae.
  • Example: Butanol
  • Micro-organisms like algae can be grown on land and water unsuitable for normal food production.
  • However, fertilizers used in the production of such organisms lead to environment pollution.
  1. Fourth Generation Biofuels:
  • Genetically engineered crops which take in high amounts of carbon are used and harvested as biomass.
  • These crops are further converted into fuel using second generation techniques.
  • Some of such fuels are considered as carbon negative since their production pulls out carbon from environment.

Asiatic Lions

Why in News?

Recently, eight Asiatic lions at Nehru Zoological Park, Hyderabad were tested positive for the coronavirus.

About Asiatic Virus:

  • The Asiatic Lion is a member of the Panthera Leo, subspecies which is restricted to India.
  • Previously it was also found inWest Asia and the Middle East butgot extinct in these regions.
  • Asiatic lions are slightly smaller in size than African lions.
  • The most important morphological character, seen in Asiatic lions, and rarely in African lions, is a longitudinal fold of skin running along its belly.

Distribution in India:

  • Asiatic lions were once foundin West Bengal and Rewa in Madhya Pradesh.
  • Protection Status:Presently,Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary is the only abode of the Asiatic lion.
    • IUCN Red List: Endangered
    • CITES: Appendix I
    • Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972: Schedule I

      Science and Technology

      5G Technology

      Why in News?

      The Department of Telecommunications, GoI hasgiven permissions to Telecom Service Providers (TSPs) for conducting trials for use and applications of 5G technology.

      About 5GTechnology:

      • Millimeter wave spectrum: It will operate in the millimeter wave spectrum (30-300 GHz) having advantage of sending large amounts of data at very high speeds.
        • Due to high frequency, it experiences little interference from surrounding signals.
      • Internet speed: In 5G devices tested speeds were as high as 20 Gbps (gigabits per second) as compared to the maximum internet data speed in 4G recorded at 1 Gbps.
      • Bands in 5G: It will work in 3 bands, namely low, mid and high frequency spectrum, each having their own usage and limitations.
      • Utility of 5G: Can be combined with IoT, cloud, big data, AI, edge computing, to be critical enabler of the fourth industrial revolution.

      Polity and Governance

      Contempt of court

      Why in News?

      The Supreme Court has agreed to hear a plea of the Centre against Delhi High Court’s order issuing contempt notice against its officials for non-compliance of the direction on supply of oxygen to treat COVID-19 patients in the New Delhi.

      About Contempt of Court:

      • The Contempt of Courts Act 1971 has defined the civil and criminal contempt.
      • It also lays down the powers and procedures with which courts can penalise contempt, and also the penalties that can be given for the offence of contempt.

      Contempt of court is described to be of two kinds:

      • Civil Contempt: Willful disobedience of a court order/judgment or willful breach of an undertaking submitted to the court.
      • Criminal Contempt: It includes any written or spoken word or any act
        • that scandalises the court, or
        • lowers its authority or prejudices, or
        • interferes with the due course of a judicial proceedings, or
        • interferes in the administration of justice.

      Related provisions:

      • Article 129 and 215 empowers the Supreme Court and High Court respectively to punish people for their respective contempt.
      • The Contempt of Courts Act, 1971defines the power of the High Court to punish contempts of its subordinate courts.
      • Contempt of Court is also included as a reasonable restriction to the freedom of speech and expression under Article 19.

      Role of Attorney general (AG) in contempt cases:

      Consent of AG:

      • The AG’s consent is mandatory if a private citizen wants to initiate a case of contempt of court against any other person.
      • However, if the court itself initiates a contempt case the AG’s consent is not mandatory. It is so because the court is exercising its inherent powers under the Article 129/215 to punish for contempt.

      If AG denies Consent:

      • If the AG denies consent, the matter ends.
      • The complainant can still separately bring the issue to the notice of court urging the court to take suo motu

      NOTE: The reason behind requiring the consent of the AG before taking cognizance of any complaint is to save the time of the court.

      News in Short

      Moorhen Yoga Mat

      • It is abiodegradable and compostable yoga mat recently developed from water hyacinthby the fishing community in Assam.
      • The product design was supported by an initiative ofNorth East Centre for Technology Application and Reach (NECTAR), to involve the women community led by the 6 girls to create wealth from water hyacinth plants.
        • NECTAR is an autonomous body under Department of Science & Technology, GoI
      • Water hyacinth is generally considered a nuisance as it does not benefit the fishing community and harms their occupation.

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