Daily Prelims Newsletter(UPSC)|10 May 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

10 May 2021

Table Of Contents

Science and Technology 
  • Zolgensma Gene Therepy
  • Tuberculosis (TB) 
Polity and Governance
  • The Chief Minister
  • Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act (FCRA), 2010 
  • Election Commission of India 

Science and Technology

ZolgensmaGene Therepy

Why in News?

Recently, world’s most expensive drug Zolgensma was administered to a child in India by crowdfunding ₹16 crore to treate Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

About Spinal Muscular Atrophy

  • It is a rare genetic disease.
  • The person suffering from this disease cannotcontrol the movement of their muscles.
  • It is caused by the loss of nerve cells which carries the electrical signals from the brain to the muscles.
    • The protein needed for this signalling is coded by a particular gene. Everyone has two copies of this gene- one each from mother and father. A child develops this disorder only when both the copies are faulty.
  • Vulnerable Group: The disease mostly affects babies and children. With time, it progresses and makes it extremely difficult for the babies to carry out basic activities like sitting up, lifting their head, or swallowing milk.

About Zolgensma Gene therapy

  • Gene therapy treatment named Zolgensma replaces the faulty gene.
  • Zolgensma supplies a healthy copy of the faulty gene. It allows nerve cells to then start producing the needed protein.

Tuberculosis (TB)

Why in News?

With more beds being reserved for COVID-19, the regular Tb patients are facing difficulty.

About TB:

  • TB is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that most often affect the lungs.
  • TB is spread from person to person through the air via cough, sneeze, or spit, as these propel the TB germs into the air.
  • Symptoms: Cough with sputum and blood at times, chest pains, weakness, weight loss, fever and night sweats.
  • TB is a treatable and curable disease.
  • Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a form of TB caused by bacteria that do not respond to first-line TB drugs isoniazid and rifampicin. It is treatable and curable by using second-line
  • Drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) is a more serious form of MDR-TB caused by bacteria that do not even respond to the most effective second-line anti-TB drugs. This is often untreatable.

Initiatives by India on this front

  • The Nikshay Portal: It is a national TB information system to manage information of patients, and treatment.
  • Nikshay Poshan Yojana (NPY): Aims to provide financial support to TB patients for their nutrition.
  • TB Harega Desh Jeetega Campaign: Launched in 2019 it showcases the highest level of commitment to eliminate TB.
  • The Saksham Project by the Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS)- provides psycho-social counselling to DR-TB patients.

Polity and Governance

The Chief Minister:

Why in News?

Post assembly elections, CMs of different states are taking oath.

About the office of CM:

  • The CM is appointed by the governor.
  • According to Constituional Provisions, the Chief Minister holds office during the pleasure of the Governor. However, in practice CM remains in office as long as he continues to be the leader of the majority in the State Legislative Assembly.
  • The Governor can dismiss him, if he loses his majority support in the house.
  • The State Legislative Assembly can also remove him by passing a motion of no-confidence against him.

Functions and Powers of the Chief Minister:

  • To Aid and Advice the Governor.
  • He is the Head of the Council of Ministers in the state.
  • He is the Leader of the House.
  • He has to communicate to Governor, all the decisions of the CoM pertaining to the administration of the state.
  • He can recommend dissolution of legislative assembly to the Governor.
  • He also advises the Governor regarding the summoning and proroguing the sessions of State Legislative Assembly.

Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act (FCRA)

Why in News?

FCRA rules are said to have hit overseas COVID aid to hospitals and NGOs, since FCRA approvals take a lot of time.

About FCRA, 2010

  • Foreign funding of persons and organisations in India is regulated under the FCRA Act.
  • It is implemented by Ministry of Home Affairs.
  • As per the act, individuals can accept foreign contributions without permission from MHA, subject to maximum limit of ₹ 25,000.
  • The Act also seek to ensure that the recipients of such foreign contributions adhere to the stated purpose for which the said contribution was obtained.
  • Organisations are required to (re)register themselves every five years.

Key Provisions of Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Amendment Act, 2020

  • Prohibition to accept foreign contribution: It bars public servants from receiving foreign contributions.
    • Public servant includes a person in service or pay of the government or remunerated by the government for the performance of any public duty.
  • Transfer of foreign contributions: It prohibits the transfer of foreign contribution to any other person who is not registered to accept foreign contributions.
  • Aadhaar for registration: It makes Aadhaar mandatory for all key functionaries of organisation or individual receiving foreign contribution, as an identification document.
  • FCRA account: Foreign contribution must be received only in an account as designated by the bank as FCRA account in State Bank of India, New Delhi branch.
  • Reduction in use of foreign contribution for administrative purposes: It proposes that not more than 20% of the total foreign funds received could be used for administrative expenses.
  • Surrender of certificate: The Act allows the GoI to permit a person to surrender their registration certificate.

Election Commission of India

Why in News?

ECI is in news following the remarks of Madras High Court that ECI is responsible for present pandemic situation in India.

About the Election Commission of India

  • The ECI is an autonomous constitutional authority responsible to administer Union and State election processes in India.
  • The body administers elections to:
    • Lok Sabha,
    • Rajya Sabha,
    • State Legislative Assemblies in states of India,
    • Offices of the President and Vice President in the country.
  • Elections to panchayats and municipalities in the states are conducted by another constitutional body i.e., State Election Commission. Hence such elections are not responsibility of SEC.

Composition of ECI:

  • Initially, ECI had only one election commissioner but post the Election Commissioner Amendment Act 1989, it has been made a multi-member body.
  • The ECI consists of the Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) and such number of other election commissioners, as the President may from time to time fix.
  • Presently, ECI consists of the CEC and two other Election Commissioners.
  • At the state level, Chief Electoral Officer assists ECI. (Not to be confused with State Election Commissioners who conduct panchayat and municipal elections)

Appointment & Tenure of Commissioners:

  • The President appoints the CEC and other Election Commissioners.
  • They have a fixed tenure of six years, or up to the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier.
  • They enjoy the same status and receive salary and perks as given to theJudges of the Supreme Court (SC) of India.

Removal:

  • They can resign anytime by writing to the President of India or can also be removed before the expiry of their term.
  • As per Constitution, the CEC can only be removed from office only through a process of removal similar to that of a SC judge by the Parliament.

Procedure of Removal

  • He may be removed from office through a motion adopted by Parliament on grounds of proved misbehaviour or incapacity.
  • Removal requires a special majority of 2/3rd members present and voting with support by more than 50% of the total strength of the house.

NOTE:

  • The Constitution has not prescribed any qualifications for the members of the Election Commission.
  • It also has not specified the term of the members of the Election Commission.

The Constitution has also not debarred the retiring election commissioners from any further appointment by the

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