Daily Prelims Newsletter(UPSC)|11 May 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

11 May 2021

Table Of Contents

Science and Technology 
  • Black fungus Disease
Polity and Governance
  • National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC) 
History 
  • Maharana Pratap
  • Gopal Krishna Gokhale
International Relations 
  • Financial Action Task Force 

Science and Technology

Black fungus Disease

Why in News?

Recently, the doctors have witnessed increased cases of Black Fungus Disease among Covid-19 patients.

The reduced immunity of Covid-19 patients is said to be the reason why theybecome more susceptible to this fungal infection.

About the Disease:

  • It is also called as Mucormycosis or Zygomycosis.
  • It is a seriousbut rare fungal infection.
  • It is caused by a group of molds called mucormycetesnaturally present in the environment.
  • The disease mostly manifests in the skin but can also affect the lungs and the brain.

Vulnerable Section:

  • It mainly affects people on medication for some health problems which reduces their ability to fight such environmental pathogens.

Symptoms:

  • Sinuses or lungs of affected individuals get affected when they inhale fungal spores present in the air.
  • Initial signs include pain and redness around the eyes or nose, fever,coughing, headache, shortness of breath, and even altered mental status in some cases.

Treatment:

  • Treat with Antifungals.
  • It may later require surgery.

Polity and Governance

National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC)

Why in News?

Recently,NCBC was in news due to Supreme Court’s obersvation that 102ndConstitutional amendment,took away states’ power to identify socially and educationally backward classes under their territory for grant of quota in jobs and admissions.

About National Commission for Backward Classes

  • Initially, under National Commission for Backward Classes Act, 1993; NCBC was established as astatutory body under the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment.
  • 102nd Constitution Amendment Act, 2018 provides constitutional status to the NCBC.
  • It examines complaints and welfare measures regarding socially and educationally backward classes.
  • Supreme Court had directed the government in Indra Sawhney case of 1992, to create a permanent body to entertain, examine and recommend the inclusion and exclusion of various Backward Classes for the purpose of benefits and protection.
  • Composition of NCBC:five members which include:
    • Chairperson,
    • Vice- Chairperson and
    • three other members
  • They are appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal.
  • The conditions of service and tenure of office of the members are determined by President.

Functions of NCBC:

  • Monitoring how safeguards provided to the backward classes under the Constitution and other laws for their protection are being implemented,
  • Inquiring into complaints regarding violation of rights, and
  • Recommending on socio-economic development of such classes.

Key Takeaways:

  • Both the central and state governments are required to consult the NCBC on all major policy matters affecting the socially and educationally backward classes.
  • NCBC presents annual reports (and at such other times as the Commission may deem fit) to the President, about working of the safeguards.
  • The President laysthese reports before each House of Parliament.
  • NCBC has powers of a civil court.

History

Maharana Pratap

Why in News?

Recently, May 9 was observed asbirth anniversary of Maharana Pratap.

About Maharana Pratap:

  • Rana Pratap Singh also called as Maharana Pratap was born in 1540 in Kumbhalgarh, Rajasthan.
  • He was the eldest son of Udai Singh II.
  • Maharana Udai Singh II was the ruler of Mewar, with his capital at Chittor.
  • Maharaja Udai Singh II is also remembered as the founder of city of Udaipur (Rajasthan).

Related Information: Battle of Haldighati

  • It was fought in the year1576 between Maharana Pratap of Mewar and Raja Man Singh of Amber (general of the Mughal emperor Akbar).
  • Maharana Pratap fought a brave war, but was defeated by Mughal forces.
  • It is said that Maharana Pratap’s loyal horse named Chetak, gave up his life and saved him from capture by Mughals.

Reconquest:

  • After 1579, Pratap recovered Western Mewar including areas like Kumbhalgarh, Udaipur and Gogunda, due to relaxed Mughal pressure over the region.
  • In this period, he also built a new capital, Chavand, near modern Dungarpur.

    Gopal Krishna Gokhale

    Why in News?

    The PM paid tribute to Gopal Krishna Gokhale on his birth anniversary on May 9.

    About GK Gokhale:

    • Gopal Krishna Gokhale was a great social reformer and educationist who provided exemplary leadership to India’s freedom movement.
    • He was born in 1866 in Kotluk village in present-day Maharashtra (then part of the Bombay Presidency).
    • He worked towardsexpansion of education, social empowerment, struggle for freedom in India for three decades.
    • He rejected the use of reactionary or revolutionary ways.

    His Role in INC:

    • He was associated with Moderate Group of Indian National Congress.
    • He was also the president of INC in 1905 in Banaras session.

    Other Contributions:

    • He established the Servants of India Society in 1905 aiming for the expansion of Indian education.
    • He was also associated with the Sarvajanik Sabha journal started by MG Ranade.
    • In 1908, Gokhale founded the Ranade Institute of Economics.
    • Later, he started English weekly newspaper, “The Hitavada”.
    • He is regarded as political guru of Mahatma Gandhi.

      International Relations

      Financial Action Task Force

      Why in News?

      Pakistan, keen to exit from the grey list of the FATF, is going to introduce new rules relating to anti-money laundering cases and change the prosecution process to meet its remaining tough conditions.

      About FATF:

      • It is an inter-governmental body established in 1989 on the initiative of the G7
      • Headquarter: Paris, France (in OECD Headquarter)
      • India became member of FATF in 2010.
      • Key functions:
        • Combat Money Laundering
        • Combat terrorist financing
        • Combat threats to the integrity of international financial system.
      • The FATF Plenary is the highest decision-making body of the FATF. It meets three times per year.

      Blacklist and Grey list:

      • Blacklist: Also knowns as Non-Cooperative Countries or Territories (NCCTs).
        • These countries were found to support terror funding and money laundering activities.
        • Blacklist is revised regularly, adding, or deleting entries.
      • Grey List: Thesecountries were found to be safe haven for supporting terror funding and money laundering activities.
        • The inclusion here serves as a warning to the country that it may enter the blacklist.
      • Countries in the grey list may face:
        • Economic sanctions from IMF, World Bank, etc.
        • Problem in getting loans from IMF, World Bank, and other countries.
        • Reduction in international trade, etc.

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