Daily Prelims Newsletter(UPSC)|13 April 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

13 April 2021

Table Of Contents

Environment
  • Dolphin Number increase in Chilka Lake
  • Navegaon-Nagzira Tiger Reserve 
Science and Technology
  • Lithium-ion Batteries
History
  • Jyotirao Phule
Places in News
  • Umngot River 
News in Short 
  • Drug Controller General of India 

Environment

Dolphin Number increase in Chilka Lake:

Why in News?

According to recently released Dolphin census data by Odisha,544 Irrawaddy, bottlenose and humpback dolphins were sighted this year, compared with 233 last year.

About Irrawaddy dolphins

  • Habitat:
    • Coastal areas in South and Southeast Asia,
    • Rivers like the Irrawaddy (Myanmar), the Mahakam (Indonesian Borneo) and the Mekong (China).
  • IUCN Red List status: Endangered

About Indo- Pacific Bottlenose dolphins

  • Habitat: in the waters around India, northern Australia, South China, the Red Sea, and the eastern coast of Africa.
  • IUCN Red List status: Near Threatened

About Indian Ocean Humpback dolphins:

  • Habitat: Indian Ocean from South Africa to India.
  • IUCN status: Endangered

Navegaon-Nagzira Tiger Reserve:

Why in News?

The forest fire at Navegaon-Nagzira Tiger Reserve (NNTR) in Maharashtra has caused death of labourers who were trying to douse it.

About NNTR:

  • It was notified as the 46th Tiger Reserve of India in December 2013.
  • NNTR comprises of:
    • Nawegaon National Park,
    • Nagzira Wildlife Sanctuary,
    • Koka Wildlife Sanctuary.
  • Flora:
    • Mostly Southern Tropical Dry Deciduous Forest.
    • Few thorny plants are also found.
    • Bamboo also occurs in abundance.
  • Fauna:
    • Carnivores- Tigers, leopards, wild dogs, sloth bears, etc.
    • Herbivores- Cheetal, Sambar, Nilgai, Barking deer, Indian gaur, Mouse deer.

Science and Technology

Lithium-ion Batteries:

Why in News?

Researchers from IIT Guwahati have developed a technology to enhance the performance of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

About Li-ion Batteries:

  • It is a type of rechargeable battery.
  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2019 was jointly awarded to Stanley Whittingham, John Goodenough and Akira Yoshino for their work which led to the development of lithium-ion

Lithium-ion Battery Applications:

  • Electronic gadgets, Tele-communication, Aerospace, and also Industrial applications.
  • Also used in electric and hybrid electric vehicles.

Disadvantages of Li-ion Batteries:

  • Long charging times.
  • Expensive to manufacture and Lithium is a finite resource.
  • Li-ion batteries are said to be susceptible to overheating and prone to damage at high voltages since they are made with flammable and combustible materials.
  • Over time Li-ion batteries start losing their capacity.

History

Jyotirao Phule:

Why in News?

Jyotirao Phule’s Birth anniversary was observed on April 11.

About Jyotirao Phule:

  • He hailed from Satara district of Maharashtra and was born in 1827.
  • A Maharashtrian social activist V.K. Vandekar, gavePhule the title of Mahatma in 1888.

Contributions:

  • Eradication of untouchability and caste system,
  • emancipation and empowerment of women,
  • reform of Hindu family life.
  • He, along with his wife, Savitribai Phule, is regarded as pioneers of women’s education in India.
  • They were the first native Indians to open an indigenously run school for girls in India in 1848 at Pune, Maharashtra.
  • Later, they started schools for children from the then untouchable castes.
  • Further, in 1863, he opened a home for pregnant Brahmin widows to give safe birth in a secure place.
  • His famous works:He also opened an orphanagestop infanticide. In this regard, he is believed to be the first Hindu to start an orphanage for the unfortunate children.
  • Later,heconstructed a common bathing tank outside his house to exhibit his embracing attitude towards all human beings.
  • In 1873, Phule founded the Satyashodhak Samaj, or the Society of Seekers of Truth, to work for the rights of depressed classes, to denounce the caste system and to spread rational thinking.
  • Tritiya Ratna
  • Gulamgiri
  • Shetkarayacha Aasud, or Cultivator’s Whipcord (1881).

    Places in News

    Umngot River

    • It is a river in Meghalaya.
    • Umngot River is considered to be India’s clearest river.
    • The river acts as the natural boundary between Ri Pnar (of Jaintia Hills) with Hima Khyrim (of Khasi Hills) later flowing into Bangladesh.

    News in Short

    Drug Controller General of India

    • DCGII is the head of department of the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO) of the GoI.
    • The CDSCO is the Central Drug Authority for discharging functions assigned under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act.

    Functions:

    • Regulatory control over the import of drugs,
    • Approval of new drugs and clinical trials.
    • Approval of licences of specified categories of drugs such as blood and blood products,vaccines, IV fluids, and sera in India.
    • Sets standards for manufacturing,import, sales, and distribution of drugs in India.
    • It comes under the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.

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