DAILY PRELIMS NEWSLETTER (UPSC) |15 Feb 2021| RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

15 FEB 2021

Table of Contents

  1. Economy……………………………………………………………………………………….1
  2. Index of Industrial Production (IIP)……………………………………………1
  3. Polity and Governance………………………………………………………………..1
  4. Central Administrative Tribunal (CAT) …………………………………….1
  5. History…………………………………………………………………………………………..2
  6. Dickinsonia fossil discovered in Bhimbetka …………………………….2
  7. Art and Culture…………………………………………………………………………….3
  8. Jagannath Temple………………………………………………………………………..3
  9. Security ………………………………………………………………………………………..3
  10. Arjun Main Battle Tank MK-1A …………………………………………………3
  11. Government’s Initiatives:…………………………………………………………….4
  12. Digilocker: ……………………………………………………………………………………4
  13. News in Short………………………………………………………………………………4
  14. ‘Losar’ Festival……………………………………………………………………………..4

Economy

Index of Industrial Production (IIP)
Why in News?

IIP turned positive again for December after contracting by 1.9 per cent in November.

About IIP:

• IIP is an index that tracks manufacturing activity in different sectors of an economy.

• Calculated and published by the Central Statistical Organisation (CSO) under MoSPI every month.

• The industry groups that it measures are classified under the following:
       o Broad sectors like manufacturing, mining, and electricity.
       o Use-based sectors like capital goods, basic goods, intermediate                  goods, infrastructure goods, consumer durables, and consumer                    non-  durables

• Manufacturing, Mining and Electricity are the three broad constituents of HP, with weightage of 77.63 percent, 14.37 percent and 7.99 per cent respectively.

• The eight core industries of India represent about 40% of the weight of
items that are included in the IIP.

• IIP Base Year is 2011-2012

• Eight core industries (in decreasing order of their weightage) are:
          o Petroleum and Refinery Products
          o Electricity
          o Steel
          o Coal
          o Crude Oil
          o Natural Gas
          o Cement
          o Fertilizers.

Polity and Governance

Central Administrative Tribunal (CAT)

Why in News?

The Central Administrative Tribunal (CAT) has granted relief to some reserved category nursing officers, who were denied their choice of branch posting in AIIMS.

About CAT:
• It is a statutory body established under Administrative Tribunals Act, 1985 deriving powers from Article 323A of constitution. Tribunals under Article 323A can be formed only through the Parliament and not the State Legislatures.

• The mandate of the CAT is to adjudicate matters related to the recruitment and conditions of service of personnel engaged in public service in the country. Central Administrative Tribunal Jurisdiction:
The CAT exercises original jurisdiction over all service matters concerned with:

• Members of the all-India services.

• Persons appointed to any civil service of the Union or civil post under the Union.

• Civilians appointed to any defence services or posts related to defence.

• Employees of PSUs or public sector organizations were notified by the
government. Members of the defence forces, officers, Supreme Court staff, the Parliament’s secretarial staff are not covered under the CAT.

Key Points:

• The Tribunal has been conferred the power to exercise the same jurisdiction and authority regarding contempt of itself as a High Court.

• Appeals against the orders of a tribunal could be made in the High Court (and not the SC directly).

• The CAT Principal Bench deals with matters of the Government of the NCT of Delhi.

• In deciding cases, the Tribunal is guided by the principles of natural justice. It is not bound by the Civil Procedure Code. The central government decides the salaries, emoluments, and conditions of service of the Tribunal’s employees.

History

Dickinsonia fossil discovered in Bhimbetka

Why in News?

Researchers havediscovered three fossils ofthe earliest known livinganimal — the 550 millionyearold ‘Dickinsonia’ — onthe roof of the BhimbetkaRock Shelters.

About Dickinsonia:

  • Dickinsonia is an extinct genus of basal animal that lived during the late Ediacaran period in what is now Australia, Russia and Ukraine.
  • Its affinities are presently unknown; its mode of growth is consistent with a stem-group bilaterian affinity, though some have suggested that it belongs to the fungi or even an “extinct kingdom”.
  • The discovery of cholesterol molecules in fossils of Dickinsonia lends support to the idea that Dickinsonia was an animal.
  • The individual Dickinsonia typically resembles a bilaterally symmetrical ribbed oval.

About Bhimbetka:

  • Time Period:Spans the prehistoric Paleolithic and Mesolithic periods, as well as the historic period.
  • Location:
  • It exhibits the earliest traces of human life in India and evidence of Stone Age.
  • It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site that consists of seven hills and over 750 rock shelters distributed over 10 km.
  • At least some of the shelters were inhabited more than 100,000 years ago.
  • Some of the Bhimbetka rock shelters feature prehistoric cave paintings and the earliest are about 10,000 years old (c. 8,000 BCE), corresponding to the Indian Mesolithic.
  • These cave paintings show themes such as animals, early evidence of dance and hunting.
  • The Bhimbetka rock shelters were found by V S Wakankar.

Art and Culture

Jagannath Temple

Why in News?

The Centre has withdrawn the draft heritage bylaws issued by the National Monuments Authority (NMA) for Shree Jagannath Temple in Puri, Odisha.

About Jagannath Temple, Puri:

  • Construction by King Anatavarman Chodaganga Deva of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty in 12th Century AD.
  • Mythology:Jagannath Puri temple is called ‘Yamanika Tirtha’ where, according to the Hindu beliefs, the power of ‘Yama’, the god of death, has been nullified due to the presence of Lord Jagannath.
  • Architecture:This temple was called the “White Pagoda” and is a part of Char Dham pilgrimages (Badrinath, Dwaraka, Puri, Rameswaram). It is made in Kalinga style of architecture.
  • The idol of Jagannatha is made of wood which is ceremoniously replaced in every twelve or nineteen years by using sacred trees.
  • Three principal deities: Jagannath, Balabhadra and Subhadra
  • Festival: Annual Ratha Yatra

Odisha/ Kalinga Architecture:

  • This style broadly comes under the Nagara style.
  • In Kalinga Architecture, a temple is made in two parts, a tower and a hall. The tower is called deul and the hall is called jagmohan.
  • The walls of both the deul and the jagmohan are lavishly sculpted with architectural motifs and a profusion of figures.
  • The most repeated form is the horseshoe shape, which has come from the earliest times, starting with the large windows of the chaitya-grihas.
  • Kalinga Style also known as style Utkal Styleof Architecture

Security

Arjun Main Battle Tank MK-1A

Why in News?

Prime Minister recently handed over the indigenously developed Arjun Main Battle Tank (MK-1A) to the Indian Army.

About Arjun Main Battle Tank MK-1A

  • The Arjun Main Battle Tank project was initiated by DRDO in 1972 with the Combat Vehicles Research and Development Establishment (CVRDE) as its lead laboratory.
  • Its mass production began in 1996 at the Indian Ordnance Factory’s production facility in Avadi, Tamil Nadu.

Salient Features:

  • Fin Stabilised Armour Piercing Discarding Sabot (FSAPDS)’ ammunition.
  • 120-mm calibre rifled gun.
  • It hasmissile firing capability as per the design, but this feature would be added later.
  • It has 54.3 per cent indigenous content against the 41 per cent in the earlier model.

Government’s Initiatives:

Digilocker:

Why in News?

IRDAI has advised all Insurance companies for issuance of Digital Insurance Policies via DigiLocker.

About Digilocker:

  • DigiLocker is a flagship initiative of Ministry of Electronics & IT (MeitY) under Digital India programme.
  • This is government’s effort to create an electronic version of documents, which can be easily verified and stored in printable format.
  • The users can store their documents such as insurance, medical reports, PAN card, passport, marriage certificate, school certificate and other documents in the digital format.
  • DigiLocker aims at ‘Digital Empowerment’ of citizen by providing access to authentic digital documents tocitizen’s digital document wallet.
  • Through DigiLocker citizens can access their digital documents anytime, anywhere, legally at par with originals.
  • The locker can be accessed by individuals, using their mobile number.
  • Technology companies such as Google and Dropbox offer storage space for users to store documents.
  • Apart from e-documents, DigiLocker can store a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) link of e-documents issued by various issuer departments.

News in Short

‘Losar’ Festival

  • The Tibetan New Year is referred to as Losar.
  • The Tibetan Calendar is based on the lunar calendar and consists of twelve (or thirteen) months.
  • Losar starts on the first day of the first month of the Tibetan calendar when the new moon is sighted.
  • Given its Tibetan population, this festival is also celebrated in Ladakh.

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