Daily Prelims Newsletter(UPSC)|15 April 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

15 April 2021

Table Of Contents

Environment
  • Indian Rhino Vision 2020 
History 
  • Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
International Relations
  • World Trade Organisation
  • World Health Organisation 
News in Short
  • e-SANTA 
  • India Energy Dashboards Version 2.0 

Environment

Indian Rhino Vision 2020

Why in News?

Two adult one-horned rhinos were recently translocated from Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary to Manas National Park in Assam, under the aegis of the Indian Rhino Vision (IRV) 2020.
About the Indian Rhino Vision (IRV) 2020:
  • It was launched in 2005.
  • IRV 2020 is a joint initiative by:
    • Forest Department, Government of Assam,
    • WWF India,
    • International Rhino Foundation, and several other organizations.
  • The objective of IRV2020 was to increase the rhino population in Assam to 3,000 by establishing populations in new areas.
  • Hence, Rhinos are now found in four Protected Areas in Assam:
    • Pabitora Wildlife Reserve,
    • Rajiv Gandhi Orang National Park,
    • Kaziranga National Park, and
    • Manas National Park.

About One- horned rhinos:

  • Only the Great One-Horned Rhino is found in India.
  • It is also known as Indian rhino.
  • It is the largest of the rhino species.
  • They are herbivores, having a diet consisting almost entirely of grasses as well as leaves, branches of shrubs and trees, fruit, and aquatic plants.

Protection Status:

  • IUCN Red List: Vulnerable.
  • CITES: Appendix I
  • Wildlife Protection Act, 1972: Schedule I.

History

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre

Why in News?

The Prime Minister commemorated 102 years of the Jallianwala Bagh tragedy.

About Jallianwala Bagh massacre:

  • The event took place on 13th April 1919 in Amritsar, Punjab.
  • This tragedy exposed the inhuman approach of the British when the British troops under General Reginald Edward Dyer opened fire into an unarmed crowd including women and children.

Events prior to the Massacre:

  • During World War I (1914–18) the British India enacted a series of repressive emergency powers that to combat subversive activities.
  • The Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act of 1919 popularly known as Rowlatt Actthat was passed on 10th March, 1919, authorized the government to imprison or confine, even without a trial, any person allegedly associated with seditious activities. It led to nationwide unrest.
  • Saifuddin Kitchlew and Dr. Satyapal.were arrested while staging a protestagainst this law.
  • On 13th April 1919, a crowd of at least 10,000 men, women and children gathered in Jallianwala Bagh to celebrate Baishakhi festival and some had gathered to request release of their fellow leaders.
  • Brigadier-General Dyer considered the meeting as flouting of rules and his authority. He thus deployed his troops and ordered them to open fire on the crowd.Events following the Massacre:
  • Martial law was imposed in Punjab and there were incidences of public floggings and other humiliations on Indians.
  • Indian outrage grew as news of the shooting and subsequent British actions spread throughout the country.
  • The Bengali poet and Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore renounced the knighthood that he had received in 1915.
  • Mahatma Gandhi also surrendered the title of Kaiser-i-Hind, bestowed by the British for his work during the Boer War in South Africa.
  • On October, 1919, the Disorders Inquiry Committee (Hunter Commission) was formed to inquire about the massacre. It also included Indian members.
  • The Indian National Congress appointed its own non-official committee which included Motilal Nehru, Abbas Tyabji, C.R. Das,M.R. Jayakar, and Gandhi to look into the shootings.

International Relations

World Trade Organisation

Why in News?

India and South Africa have called for the WTO to suspend IPR related to COVID-19 for a limited period of time.

Key Points about WTO:

  • The WTO is the successor organisation to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).
  • The Uruguay Round (1986-94) of the GATT formed basis for WTO’s creation.
  • WTO began its operations on 1st January 1995.
  • WTO was established by ‘Marrakesh Agreement’ signed in Marrakesh, Morocco in 1994.
  • Key difference between GATT and WTO:
    • GATT mostly dealt with trade in goods, while the WTO cover trade in goods, services, and other intellectual properties.
  • India is a founder member of both GATT and its successor, the WTO.

Governing Structure of WTO:

  • Ministerial Conference is the highest decision making authority of the WTO.
    • It is composed of representatives of all WTO members.
  • General Council is also composed of all WTO members
    • It reports to the Ministerial Conference.
  • The Dispute Settlement Body of WTO is a part of the General Council and is responsible for settling trade disputes between member states.

NOTE: WTO has no criteria to define developing or developed countries. Its members currently self-designate as developing countries to receive ‘special and differential treatment’.

World Health Organisation

Why in News?

WHO and other organisations have called for an urgent halt of the sale of live wild mammals in food markets to prevent the emergence of new diseases like COVID-19.

About WHO:

  • World Health Organization (WHO) is the United Nations specialized agencythat looks into matters of public Health.
  • During it’s establishment in 1948, it became the first specialized agency of the UN to which every member subscribed.
  • Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland.
  • It is an inter-governmental organization, presentlyhaving 194 member states.
  • India became a memberof the WHO in 1948.
  • Funding of WHO:
    • WHO depends on donor funds – mainly from rich countries and foundations like the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
    • It does not have secured funding from its member countries.
  • Hence, currently most of WHO’s funding is tied to programs that donors choose, debilitating its ability to take independent actions. This is one of the criticism of WHO.

News in Short

e-SANTA

Why in news?

Recently, the Union minister of Commerce and Industry inaugurated an electronic platform named e-SANTA, to connect aqua farmers and the buyers.

About e-SANTA:

  • It is a digital brid ge aimed to end the market divide and to act as an alternative marketing tool for farmers & buyers by eliminating the middlemen involved.
  • The farmers can list their produce quoting the price while the buyers and exporters have the freedom to list their requirements choose the products accordingly.
  • The Platform is available in many Indian languages, to help the local population.
  • e-SANTA also has the potential to become a tool to advertise collectively the kind of products the buyers, fishermen & fish producing organisations are harvesting.

India Energy Dashboards Version 2.0

  • Recently, NITI Aayog launched India Energy Dashboards (IED) Version 2.0.
  • Version 1.0 was launched by NITI Aayog in May 2017.
  • India Energy Dashboards (IED) is an endeavour to provide single-window access to the energy data for the country.
  • It is an initial step towards building a comprehensive, open, and freely accessible energy data portal for India.
  • Energy data as provided by organisations like is compiled by:
    • Central Electricity Authority,
    • Coal Controller’s Organisation, and
    • Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas
  • IED has alsoincorporated data from Saubhagya, UJALA, PRAAPTI, and Vidyut PRAVAH schemes of GoI.

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