Daily Prelims Newsletter(UPSC)|17 April 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

17 April 2021

Table Of Contents

Economy 
  • National Startup Advisory Council (NSAC)
Polity and Governance
  • Overseas Citizens of India (OCI)
Security
  • Assam Rifles 
Indices and Reports
  • World Population Report, 2021
International Relations
  • International Court of Justice (ICJ)

Economy

National Startup Advisory Council (NSAC)

Why in News?

ISRO has signed agreement with French space agency, CNES for cooperation in Gaganyaan Mission. CNES has agreed to provide:
  • fireproof carry bags made in France to shield equipments from shocks and radiation.
  • Training to Indian flight physicians, etc

About Gaganyaan Mission:

  • Gaganyaan is a mission by the ISRO aiming to send a three-member crew to space for a period of five to seven days by 2022 when India completes 75 years of independence.
  • Under the Gaganyaan Mission:
    • Three flights would be sent into orbit.
    • There will be two unmanned flights followed by one human spaceflight.
  • The Gaganyaan’sOrbital Module will have three Indian astronauts, including a woman.
  • It will be designed to circle Earth inlow-earth-orbit i.e., at an altitude of 300-400 km from earth for 5-7 days.

Payloads envisioned for the mission:

  • Crew module –which will carry human beings.
  • Service module – will be powered by two liquid propellant
  • It will also be equipped with emergency escape and emergency mission abort system.

Related Information:

  • It will be launched by GSLV Mk III, also referred as the LVM-3 (Launch Vehicle Mark-3).
  • The prospective cosmonauts studied in detail with the systems of the Soyuz manned spaceship in Russia

Polity and Governance

Overseas Citizens of India (OCI):

Why in News?

Union Home Ministry has clarified that the OCI will not be required to register for a fresh OCI card every time a new passport is issued in their name.

About OCI:

  • Overseas Citizenship of India (OCI) Scheme was started in 2005 by making amendments to Citizenship Act, 1955.
  • In 2015, the Government of India merged PIO (Person Of Indian Origin) card with OCI card.

    Eligibility:

    Exceptions:

    • Person applying for OCI card must hold a valid Passport of another country.
    • Individuals who do not have citizenship of any other country are ineligible to apply for OCI status.
    • Individuals whose parents or grandparents hold/held citizenship of Pakistan and Bangladesh are ineligible to apply for OCI status.

    Benefits for OCI cardholders:

    • Lifelong Visa to visit India multiple times.
    • No need to register with Foreigners Regional Registration Officer (FRRO) or Foreigners Registration Officer (FRO) for any duration of stay.
    • Except for acquisition of agricultural and plantation properties, they have similar facilities which are extended to NRIs in economic, financial and educational fields.
    • Treated at par with NRIs regarding – entry fees for national monuments, practice of professions like nurses, doctors, dentists, advocates, architects, etc.

    Restrictions for OCI Card Holders:

    • Do not have right to vote.
    • Do not have right to any public service/government jobs.
    • Cannot hold offices of – Prime Minister, President, Vice -President, Judge of Supreme Court and High Court, MP or MLA or MLC.
    • Cannot own agricultural property.

Security

Assam Rifles

Why in News?

The Assam Rifles have twin responsibility of checking smuggling and also preventing illegal crossings into Mizoram along with overseeing the ambitious Kaladan Multi-Modal Transit Transport Project.

About Assam rifles:

  • Assam Rifles is a Central Paramilitary Force under the Central Armed Police Forces.
  • It was formed in 1835, as ‘Cachar Levy’, to primarily protect British Tea estates and settlements against tribal raids.
  • It also contributed to the opening of Assam region to administration and commerce during British period.
  • It has served in both the World Wars.
  • Today, the administrative control of Assam Rifles lies with the Ministry of Home Affairs, while the operational control is with the Ministry of Defence (Army).

Related Information:

The other Central Armed Police Forces:

  • Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF):Responsible for Internal Security.
  • Border Security Force: Responsible for guarding India’s land borders with Pakistan and Bangladesh.
  • Central Industrial Security Force (CISF): Provides security cover to space establishments, nuclear installations, seaports, airports, power plants, sensitive Government buildings and even heritage monuments.
  • Indo Tibetan Border Police (ITBP): A specialized mountain force and responsible for guarding Indo-China border.
  • National Security Guard: A counter terrorism unit which was raised in 1984, following Operation Blue Star.
  • Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB): Earlier called as Special Service Bureau was raised in 1960s. Their objective is to achieve ‘Total security preparedness’ in the remote border areas.

Indicesand Reports

World Population Report, 2021

Why in News?

Recently, UN Population Fund (UNFPA) released its’Flagship report“State of World Population Report 2021” which was titled ‘My Body is My Own’ was launched.
  • This is the first time a report published by United Nations body has focusedon bodily autonomy.
  • Bodily autonomy is defined as the power and agency to make choices about your body without the fear of violence or having someone else make such decisions for you.

About United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA):

  • It is the UN’s sexual and reproductive health agency.
  • It was created in 1969.
  • UNFPA’s objective is to deliver a world where every pregnancy is wanted, every childbirth is safe and every young person’s potential is fulfilled.

International Relations

International Court of Justice (ICJ):

Why in News?

The Islamabad High Court has made some statements on implementation of the verdict of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in the Kulbhushan Jadhav case.

About ICJ:

  • Established in 1945 by the United Nations charter.
  • It is the principal judicial organ of the UN, situated in The Hague, Netherlands.
  • It settles legal disputes between States and alsogives advisory opinions in accordance with international law, on the legal questions referred to it by authorized UN organs and specialized agencies.

Structure:

  • The Court is composed of 15 judges, who are elected for terms of office of nine years by the UN General Assembly (UNGA) and the Security Council.
  • Election requiresthat the candidate must receive an absolute majority of the votes in both bodies.
  • One third of the Court is elected every three years and Judges are also eligible for re-election.
  • ICJ’s official languages are English and French.

Jurisdiction and Functioning:

  • ICJ acts as a world court with following jurisdiction:
    • Legal disputes between States submitted to it by them (contentious cases),
    • Requests for advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by UN organs and specialized agencies (advisory proceedings).
  • Who all can be party to contentious cases:
    • Only those States which are members of the UN and have become parties to the Statute of the Court.
    • UN states which have accepted ICJ’s jurisdiction under certain conditions, are parties to contentious cases.
  • The judgment is final and binding on the parties to the case and without appeal (at the most the judgement may be subject to reinterpretation or, upon the discovery of a new fact, revision).

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