Daily Prelims Newsletter(UPSC)|19 JUN 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

19 June 2021-Saturday

Table Of Contents

Environment

  • Similipal Biosphere Reserve

Science and Technology

  • Nutrinos

Economy 

  • Hallmarking of Gold
  • Banks Board Bureau (BBB)

Governmental Initiatives 

  • Namami Gange Programme 

International Relations 

  • Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) 

Environment

Similipal Biosphere Reserve

Why in News?

Recently, a massive forest fire broke out in Similipal Biosphere Reserve in Odisha.

About Similipal BR:

  • Similipal derives its name from ‘Simul’ (silk cotton) tree prevalent in the region.
  • It was brought under Project Tiger in the year 1973.
  • It is a part of the UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves since 2009.
  • Associated Protected Areas:
    • Mayurbhanj Elephant Reserve,
    • Similipal Tiger Reserve,
    • Hadagarh Wildlife sanctuary and
    • Kuldiha wildlife sanctuary.
  • It is situated in Mayurbhanj District of Odisha, i.e.., on the eastern end of the Eastern Ghat.
  • Vegetation:
    • tropical semi-evergreen forests,
    • tropical moist deciduous forests,
    • dry deciduous hill forests,
    • high level sal forests and
    • sprawling meadows.
  • Tribes
    • The ErengaKharias,
    • The Mankirdias,

  • They inhabit the reserve’s forests and practise traditional agricultural practices.

Science and Technology

Nutrinos

Why in News?

Scientists have shown that the geometry of space-time can cause neutrinos to oscillate.

About Neutrinos:

  • The neutrino is also a tiny elementary particle, like protons and electrons, but arenot part of the atom. Such particles also exist in nature.
  • It has a very tiny mass and no charge.
  • It interacts extremely weakly with other matter particles. Hence, every second trillion of neutrinos falling on us pass unnoticed.
  • Source of Nutrinos:
    • Sun- Solar neutrinos
    • Stars:Stellar neutrinos,
    • Cosmic rays coming from beyond the solar system,
    • From the Big Bang from which our Universe originated.
    • They can also be produced in the lab.
  • The INO will study atmospheric neutrinos only. Solar neutrinos have much lower energy than the detector can detect.
  • Applications of Neutrino Science:
    • Properties of the sun
    • Constituents of the Universe
    • Probing early Universe
    • Medical Imaging, etc

Economy

Hallmarking of Gold

Why in News?

The government has recently announced the implementation of mandatory hallmarking of gold jewellery.

About Hallmarking of Gold:

  • It is the accurate determination and official recording of the content of precious metal in precious metal articles.
  • So, it is a guarantee of purity of precious metal articles.
  • BIS(Bureau of Indian Standard) operates gold and silver hallmarking scheme in India.
  • Metals covered under the hallmarking:
    • Gold jewellery and gold artefacts.
    • Silver jewellery and silver artefacts.
  • Even though India is the biggest consumer of gold, the level of hallmarked jewellery is very low in the country- hardly 30% of Indian gold jewellery is hallmarked.

Banks Board Bureau (BBB):

Why in News?

The Banks Board Bureau is seeking applications for PNB MD and CEO.

About BBB:

  • It was set up in 2016 as an autonomous body on the recommendations of the RBI-appointed PJNayak Committee.
  • Composition:
  • Chairman,
  • Three ex-officio members including the Deputy Governor of RBI
  • Five expert members, two of which are from the private sector.

Key Functions of BBB:

  • Recommends appointment of whole-time directors and non-executive chairpersons of Public Sector Banks (PSBs) and other state-owned financial institutions.
  • Recommends personnel for appointment as directors in government-owned insurance
  • Engages with the board of directors of PSBs to formulate appropriate growth strategies.
  • Also tasked with improving corporate governance at PSBs etc.

NOTE:  The Ministry of Finance takes the final decision on the appointments in consultation with the PMO.

Governmental Initiatives

Namami Gange Programme

Why in News?

Recently, an agreement was signed for Development a Sewage Treatment Plant in Maheshtala (situated on the east bank of River Ganga), West Bengal under NamamiGange Programme.

About NamamiGange Programme:

  • NamamiGange Programme is a Flagship ProgrammeofGoIlaunched in June 2014 to accomplish the twin objectives of
    • effective abatement of pollution and conservation,
    • Rejuvenation of National River Ganga.
  • It is being under the Department of Water Resources, Ministry of Jal Shakti, GoI.
  • The programme is being implemented underNational Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG).
  • NMCG is the implementation wing of National Ganga Council set in 2016.

The main pillars of the programme are:

  • Sewage Treatment Infrastructure
  • River-Front Development
  • River-Surface Cleaning
  • Biodiversity
  • Afforestation
  • Public Awareness

  • Industrial Effluent Monitoring

International Relations

Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI)

Why in news?

GAVI is seeking resume of vaccine supplies from India from July, 2021. It was temporarily suspended due to 2nd COVID wave.

About GAVI:

  • Gavi is an international organisation – a global Vaccine Alliance, with bothpublic and private sectors as partners.
  • It aimsto create equal access to new and underused vaccines for children living in the world’s most poor countries.

  • Members:
  • It alsocontribute to achieving the Millennium Development Goals throughout the world by focusing on performance, outcomes and results.
  • Its partners alsoprovide funding for the vaccines and intellectual resources for care advancement.
  • They also contribute, to strengthening of the capacity of the health care system in the poor countries.

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