DAILY PRELIMS NEWSLETTER (UPSC) |20 Feb 2021| RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

20 FEB 2021

Table Of Contents


Science and Technology……………………………………………..1

  • National Hydrogen Mission………………………………..1

Places in News……………………………………………………………2

  • Arunachal Pradesh………………………………………………2
  • Mizoram…………………………………………………………………2.

Science and Technology

National Hydrogen Mission

Why in News?

The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) is preparing draft regulations for NHM announced by Finance Minister during budget 2020-21.

Related Information:

  • Hydrogen fuel is a zero-emission fuel burned when with pure oxygen.
  • Uses of Hydrogen fuel
    • Fuel cells: Generate electricity.
    • Internal combustion engines like in vehicles.
    • Spacecraft propulsion

Properties of Hydrogen:

  • Hydrogen is the first element on the periodic table. It is also the lightest element.
  • Hydrogen is less dense than air, hence it rises in the atmosphere, because of which it is rarely found in its pure form, H2.
  • At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a nontoxic, non-metallic, odourless, colourless, and highly combustible gas.
  • It is the most abundant element in the universe.

Key Takeaways:

  • Molecular hydrogen is not available on Earth in convenient natural reservoirs.

Most hydrogen on Earth is bonded to oxygen in water and to carbon in live or dead and/or fossilized biomass.

  • Water is the most abundant compound of hydrogen found on earth.
  • Storage of hydrogen as a liquid requires cryogenic temperatures because the boiling point of hydrogen at one atmosphere pressure is −252.8°C.
  • Storage of hydrogen as a gas typically requires high-pressure tanks.
  • Hydrogen can also be stored on the surfaces of solids (by adsorption) or within solids (by absorption).

Benefits of hydrogen as a fuel:

  • No harmful emissions.
  • Non-toxic substance.
  • Hydrogen is three times as powerful as gasoline and other fossil fuels. It means that it can accomplish more with less.
  • It is fuel efficient. Compared to diesel or gas, it is much more fuel efficient as it can produce more energy per pound of fuel.
  • It is renewable. It can be produced again and again, unlike other non-renewable sources of energy.
  • Abundantly available.

Limitations in usage of Hydrogen Fuel:

  • Hydrogen does not occur in deposits or reserves abundantly like fossil fuel.
  • Hydrogen is far more expensive to produce using renewables.
  • Hydrogen-fuelled vehicles aremore expensive.
  • It is highly flammable, thus difficult to store.

Places in News

Arunachal Pradesh

Why in News?

Today is the statehood day of Arunachal Pradesh.   By 55th amendment to the Indian Constitution in 1986, Arunachal Pradesh became the 24th state of the Indian Union on Feb 20, 1987.

Key points about the state:

  • From the period of British Colonial Rule, till 1972, the state was referred as the North-East Frontier Agency (NEFA).
  • In 1972, it became a UT and was named Arunachal Pradesh.
  • In 1987, the region got statehood.
  • Nearby states: Nagaland, Assam
  • Note: Arunachal Pradesh shares its boundary with three countries: Bhutan, China and Myanmar (indicated below)
  • Also locate McMahon line in above image
  • The McMahon Line is a demarcation line between Tibet and Arunachal Pradeshsigned in the 1914 bySimla Convention between British and Tibetan representatives.
  • The capital of Arunachal Pradesh is Itanagar.
  • About 65% of the population of the Arunachal Pradesharetribals.
  • Most of the population depends on Agriculture, mainly Jhum cultivation (slash and burn cultivation).
  • State Animal: Mithun (also known as Gayal)
  • State Bird: Hornbill
  • Biosphere Reserve: DihangDibang Biosphere Reserve.
  • Other Protected Areas:
    • Namdapha National Park
    • Mouling National Park
    • Sessa Orchid Sanctuary
    • Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary
    • Pakke Tiger Reserve
  • Important tribals of Arunachal Pradesh:Monpas, Nyishis, Apatanis, Noctes and Sherdukpens.

Mizoram

Why in News?

Today is the statehood day of Mizoram. Mizoram became the 23rd state of India Union, with the 53rd Amendment of the Indian Constitution, 1986.

Key Points about Mizoram:

  • Initially after independence , in 1954 this region was named as the Mizo Hills District of Assam.
  • Mizoram became a UT in 1972 after signing an accord with the moderates of the Mizo National Front (MNF).
  • The Union Territory of Mizoram was conferred full statehood in 1986 after signing of a memorandum of settlement (Mizoram Peace Accord) between the Central government and the MNF.
  • International Border: Myanmar and Bangladesh
    State Border: Tripura,Assamand Manipur.
  • According to India State of Forest Report (ISFR), 2019 Mizoram has the maximum forest
  • Important Dance Form: The most colourful and distinctive dance of the Mizo is called Cheraw. Long bamboo staves are used for this dance;therefore
    cover as a percentage of their own geographical area at (85.4%).
  • Protected Areas:
    • Dampa Tiger Reserve
    • Murlen National Park
    • Phawngpui National Park
    • Ngengpui Wildlife Sanctuary
    • Tawi Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Miroam has the highest concentration (percentage) of tribal population among all states of India.
  • Major tribesLushei, Ralte, Hmar, Paihte and Pawi.
  • Festivals: Two main festivals-
    • MimKut
    • many people call it ‘Bamboo Dance’.

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