Daily Prelims Newsletter(UPSC)|21 JUN 2021 | RaghukulCS

  • Home
  • Daily Prelims Newsletter(UPSC)|21 JUN 2021 | RaghukulCS
Shape Image One
Daily Prelims Newsletter(UPSC)|21 JUN 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

21 June 2021-Monday

Table Of Contents

Environment

  • HtBt cotton
  • Mangroves

Polity and Governance

  • Election Petition
  • Civil Services Board

International Relations

  • World Health Organisation

Environment

HtBt cotton

Why in News?

The illegal cultivation of Herbicide Tolerant (Ht) Bt cotton observed a huge jump as the sale of illegal seed packets has more than doubled from 30 lakh in 2020 to 75 lakh in 2021.

About Bt Cotton:

  • Bt cotton is the only transgenic crop approved by the Centre for commercial cultivation in India.
  • It has been genetically modifiedto produce an insecticide in the palnts to combat the cotton bollworm, a common pest.

About Herbicide Tolerant Bt (HtBt) Cotton:

  • This variant adds another layer of modification, making the plant resistant to the herbicide glyphosate. However, it has not been approved by regulators.
  • Reasons behind not giving approval:
    • Fear thatglyphosate may have a carcinogenic effect,
    • Possibility ofunchecked spread of herbicide resistance to nearby plants through pollination, creating a variety of superweeds.
  • Scientists across the world are in favour of this crop, and even the WHO has stated that it does not cause cancer.

Related Information: Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee

  • GEAC functions under the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC), GoI.
  • Key Responsibilities:
    • Appraisal of activities involving use of hazardous microorganisms and recombinants in research and industrial production.
    • Appraisal of proposals relating to the release of genetically engineered (GE) organisms and products into the environment including for experimental field trials.

Mangroves

Why in News?

The Odisha government recently proposed to raise mangrove plantation in the coastal belt to serve as a natural barrier to cyclonic winds.

About Mangroves:

  • They occur worldwide in the tropics and subtropics, mainly between 30° N and 30° S latitudes. The greatest mangrove area is between 5° latitudes of the equator.
  • It is a shrub or small tree which grows in coastal areas- either saline or brackish water.
  • They are salt-tolerant trees, hence called halophytes, and are adapted to live even in the harsh coastal conditions.
  • They contain complex salt filtration system and complex roots to cope with saltwater immersion and wave action.
  • Their roots help these trees to respire in anaerobic soils.
  • The seeds of Mangrove Forests trees germinate in the trees itself before falling on ground– called Viviparity mode of reproduction.

Importance of Mangroves:

  • Mangrove roots help to impedesalt waterintrusion in the lands, and thereby enhance the deposition of sediment in areas,stabilise the coastal shores and provide a breeding ground for fishes.
  • Prevent coastal soil erosion.
  • Protect coastal lands from tsunami, hurricanes, and floods.
  • Support numerous flora, fauna and wildlife.
  • Provide favourable environment for breeding, spawning, rearing of fishes.


Regions where mangroves are naturally found in India:

Polity and Governance

Election Petition

Why in News?

Recently, the CM of West Bengal has filed an election petition in the Calcutta High Court challenging the Assembly election result of Nandigram constituency.

About Election Petition:

  • The ECI’s role ends with the declaration of results. Post that, an election petition is the only legal remedy available to a voter or a candidate who thinks that there has been malpractice in an election.
  • Such person can challenge the result through an election petition submitted to the High Court of the state in which the constituency is situated in.
  • Such petition must be filed within 45 days from the date of the poll results.
  • The Representative of the People Act (RPA), 1951 suggests that the High Court should try to conclude the said trial within six months. However, it usually drags on for much longer, even years.

Grounds for filing Election Petition:

  • The winning candidate was not qualified to contest on the day of the election.
  • The winning candidate, his poll agent, or any other person with consent of the winning candidate has indulged in a corrupt practice.
  • Malpractices in the counting process
  • Non-compliance with any provision of the Constitution or the RPA or any rules or orders passed under the RPA.

If Verdict is in favour of the Petitioner:

  • The petitioner may seek that the results of all or the winning candidates may be declared void.
  • Also, the petitioner may ask the court to declare the petitioner or any other candidate as the winner or duly elected.
  • So, under the verdict on an election petition, if declared in favour of the petitioner, may result in a fresh election or the court announcing a new winner.

Civil Services Board

Why in News?

An IAS officer of MP cadre recently called for security of tenures for posting by Civil Services Board.

About Civil Services Board:

  • Supreme Court in 2013 directed centre and states to set up Civil Services Board to-
    • Insulate bureaucracy from excessive political interference,
    • Put an end to frequent transfers of bureaucrats by their political bosses.
  • As per subsequent rules, all states were mandated to have a civil services board to decide on transfers and postings of the bureaucrats.

Functions:

  • Decide on the transfer of a civil servant before completion of his or her fixed tenure.
  • TheBoard is mandated to submit an annual report to the GoI about the date of the meetings held by them.

Composition:

  • The board is headed by chief secretary of the state.
  • Other members:
    • Senior most additional chief secretary or chairman, Board of Revenue, Financial Commissioner or an officer of equivalent rank and status as member.
    • Principal Secretary or Secretary, Department of Personnel in the state government as member secretary.

International Relations

World Health Organisation

Why in News?

WHO hasrecently advised countries in the South-East Asian region to scale up public health and social measures and accelerate vaccination for COVID-19, to prevent another surge.

About WHO:

  • World Health Organization (WHO) is the United Nations specialized agencythat looks into matters of public Health.
  • During it’s establishment in 1948, it became the first specialized agency of the UN to which every member subscribed.
  • Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland.
  • It is an inter-governmental organization, presentlyhaving 194 member states.
  • India became a memberof the WHO in 1948.
  • Funding of WHO:
    • WHO depends on donor funds – mainly from rich countries and foundations like the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
    • It does not have secured funding from its member countries.
    • Hence, currently most of WHO’s funding is tied to programs that donors choose, debilitating its ability to take independent actions. This is one of the criticism of WHO.

Sale is Live

New Arrivals Magazines

Buy This Magazine at Just @50 Rs.

Click On Magazine Image  to Buy.

Buy This Magazine at Just @30 Rs.

Click On Magazine Image  to Buy.

Buy This Magazine at Just @30 Rs.

Click On Magazine Image  to Buy.

Share With Your Friends

Share on facebook
Facebook
Share on twitter
Twitter
Share on linkedin
LinkedIn
Share on whatsapp
WhatsApp
Share on print
Print
0 0 vote
Article Rating
Subscribe
Notify of
0 Comments
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments
0
Would love your thoughts, please comment.x
()
x