DAILY PRELIMS NEWSLETTER(UPSC)|22 Mar 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

22 March 2021

Table Of Contents

Environment……………………………………………………….. 1
  • Ranthambore Tiger Sanctuary …………………………… 1
Science and Technology ……………………………………….. 1
  • NSIL (New Space India Limited) …………………………. 1
Polity and Governance …………………………………………. 2
  • Supplementary Demand for Grants ……………………. 2
Economy …………………………………………………………….. 2
  • Open Market Operations ………………………………….. 2
Society ……………………………………………………………….. 3
  • World Happiness Report 2021 …………………………… 3
Art and Culture ……………………………………………………. 4
  • Odissi Dance Form …………………………………………… 4
Places in News …………………………………………………….. 4
  • Malaysia …………………………………………………………. 4

Environment

Ranthambore Tiger Sanctuary

Why in News?

Six tigers are reported to be missing from Ranthambore Tiger Sanctuary in Rajasthan.

About Ranthambore Tiger Sanctuary:

  • Ranthambore Tiger Sanctuary lies at the junction of the Aravali and Vindhya hill ranges.
  • It comprises of
    • Ranthambore National Park
    • Sawai Mansingh Sanctuary
    • Kailadevi Sanctuaries.
  • The associated Ranthambore fort, is strategically located on a 700 feet tall hill within the park and is believed to be built in 944 AD by a Chauhan ruler.
  • The region represents the north-western limit of the Bengal tiger’s distribution range.
  • Associated Waterbody: Chambal and its tributaries.

Vegetation:

  • Grasslands, and dense forests along the seasonal streams.
  • Mainly tropical dry deciduous forest with dhak tree, capable of withstanding long periods of drought, being the most common.
Wildlife:
  • Tigers are at the apex of the food chain in mammals.
  • Other animals include leopards, striped hyenas, common or hanuman langurs, rhesus macaques, jackals, jungle cats, caracals, blackbuck, and chinkara, etc.
  • The park is also rich in birds.

Science and Technology

NSIL (New Space India Limited)

Why in News?

As a part of space reforms, the New Space India Limited will now own and operate space assets of ISRO.

About NSIL:

  • NSIL is a Central Public Sector Enterprise and commercial arm of ISRO.
  • It was established in 2019 under the administrative control of Department of Space (DOS).
    • The Department of Space (DoS) is a department under GoI responsible for administration of the Indian space program. It is directly under PMO.
  • Key Functions:
    • Mass-produce the SSLV and the PSLV in partnership with the private sector in India through technology transfers.
    • Use R&D carried out by ISRO for commercial purposes through Indian industry partners.
    • Marketing of technologies, products and services, both in India and abroad

Polity and Governance

Supplementary Demand for Grants

Why in News?

The Lok Sabha has recently passed the supplementary demand for grants.

About Supplementary Demand for Grant:

  • It is required when the amount authorised by the Parliament through the concerned Appropriation act for a particular service for the current financial year is found to be insufficient for that particular year.
  • This grant is presented and passed by the Parliament before the end of that financial year.
  • Article 115 pertains to supplementary, additional, or excess grants.

Related Information:

Additional Grant: It is granted when a need has arisen during the present financial year for some additional expenditure upon some new service not contemplated in the budget for that year.

Excess Grant: It is granted when money has been spent on any service in excess of the amount granted for that service in the budget for that financial year.

  • It is voted by the Lok Sabha after that financial year.
  • Before the demands for excess grants are submitted to the Lok Sabha for voting, they must be approved by the Public Accounts Committee of Parliament.

Vote of Credit:  

It is granted for meeting an unexpected demand upon the resources of India, when there is indefinite character of the service and the demand cannot be stated with the details as ordinarily given in the budget.

  • Thus, it is similar to a blank cheque given to the Executive by the Lok Sabha.

Exceptional Grant: It is granted for any special purpose and it doesn’t form part of the current service of any financial year.

Economy

Open Market Operations

Why in News?

RBI has decided to conduct a simultaneous purchase and sale of G-Sec under Open Market Operations (OMOs) for an amount of Rs. 10,000 crore each.

About the process:

  • Simultaneous purchase and sale of G-Secs under OMOs, involves purchasing G-Sec of longer maturities and selling equal amounts of G-Sec of shorter maturities.

About Open Market Operations:

  • OMO refers to buying and selling of bonds issued by the Government in the open market.
  • It is one of the quantitative tools that RBI uses to smoothen the liquidity conditions.

Impact on Money Supply:

  • When RBI buys a G-Sec in the open market, it pays for it thereby increasing the money supply in the economy.
  • Types of OMOs: Selling of a G-Sec by RBI (to private individuals or institutions) leads to reduction the money supply.
    1. Outright OMOs: These are permanent in nature i.e. ,if RBI buys or sells these securities, it is without any promise to sell or buy them back at a later date.
    2. Repo: Under these operations when RBI buys or sells the security, the agreement also has specification about date and price of resale or repurchase of this security. This is called are purchase agreement or repo.
      • The interest rate at which the money is lent in such a way is called the repo rate.

    Society

    World Happiness Report 2021

    Why in News?

    Recently, the Sustainable Development Solutions Network released the World Happiness Report 2021.

    About WHR, 2021:

    • The report ranked 149 countries by how happy their citizens perceive themselves to be.
    • It is a perception-based ranking based on six indicators:
      • GDP Per Capita (Purchasing Power Parity).
      • Social Support.
      • Healthy life expectancy at birth.
      • Freedom to make life choices.
      • Perceptions of corruption.
    • Finland has been ranked as the happiest country for the fourth consecutive year.
    • Afghanistan (149) was ranked as the most unhappy country.

    Other rankings as indicated in the report:

    • Pakistan-105.
    • Bangladesh-101.
    • China-84.
    • India has been ranked 139, out of 149 countries.

    About Sustainable Development Network Solution:

    • The SDSN, mobilizes global scientific and technological expertise to promote solutions for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Paris Climate Agreement.
    • It was established in 2012 under the United Nations Secretary-General.

    Art and Culture

    Odissi Dance Form

    Why in News?

    Noted Odissi dancer Laxmipriya Mohapatra, passed away recently.

    About Odissi:

    • Odissi dance is one among the eight classical dances of India.
    • It is associated with Odisha and some other parts of eastern India.
    • The dance form has its origin in the temples.
    • The carvings found at the Udayagiri and Khandgiri Monasteries denote that Odissi was patronised as early as the 2nd Century BCE.
    • The steps appear like the waves of ocean, hence symbolises the aspect of water.
    • The classical music and dance form of Odisha was named Odissi by Odia poet Kabichandra Kalicharan Pattanayak,
      • He was the centre of the cultural revival of Odisha in post-independence India.

    Dance Techniques

    • Odissi dance form comprises of:
      • The movement of the head, bust and torso.
      • The accompanying gestures and expressions.
    • The two basic postures of Odissi are:
      • Chowk: a position imitating a square – a very masculine stance with the weight of the body equally balanced.
      • Tribhanga: The tribhanga is a very feminine stance where the body is deflected at the neck, torso and the knees.
    • Odissi dance theme generally deals with love of Radha and Krishna.
    • Odissi dance form also finds mention in the Sanskrit Text – Natya Shastra as Audramagdhi.

    Places in News

    Malaysia

    Why in News?

    Due to severed ties, Malaysia has expelled North Korean Diplomats.

    About Malaysia:

    • It is a country in Southeast Asia.
    • It is separated by the South China Sea into two regions:
      • Peninsular Malaysia
      • Borneo’s East Malaysia.
    • Land Neighbours of Malaysia: Thailand, Brunei and Indonesia
    • Maritime Neighbours: Philippines, Vietnam, Singapore, Vietnam, and Indonesia

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