Daily Prelims Newsletter(UPSC)|23 April 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

23 April 2021

Table Of Contents

Polity and Governance
  • Civil Services Day 
  • National Human Rights Commission 
Economy 
  • M Narasimham Committee
Society
  • Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act 2016 
Indices and Reports 
  • International Religious Freedom Report 2021 

Polity and Governance

Civil Services Day

Why in News?

On 21stApril, Civil Services Day was observed by the Government of India.

About Civil Services Day:

  • It is celebrated as an occasion for the civil servants to rededicate themselves to the causes of citizens and renew their commitments to public service.
  • The day commemorateswhen the first Home Minister, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel addressed the probationers of Administrative Services Officers in 1947 at Metcalfe House, Delhi.
  • In this speech, he referred the civil servants as the ‘Steel Frame of India’.

About Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel

  • He was born on 31st October 1875 in Nadiad, Gujarat.
  • National Unity Day is celebrated every year to commemorate his birth anniversary.
  • He was India’s first Home Minister and Deputy Prime Minister.
  • He is known for his important role in the integration of many Indian princely states to make an Indian federation.
  • The womenfolk of Bardoli bestowed the title ‘Sardar’ on Vallabhbhai Patel, meaning ‘a Chief or a Leader’.

  • The Statue of Unity at Kevadiya in Gujarat was built in his honour.

National Human Rights Commission

Why in News?

NHRC has recommended to the Centre to set up an interstate migration council to coordinate between the union and state governments.

About NHRC:

  • Members:
    • Chairman (Retd. Supreme Court Chief Justice or Judge), and
    • Seven other members (of which three are ex-officio members)
  • Appointed by: President, on recommendation of high-powered committee headed by Prime Minister.
  • Selection Committee Members:
    • The Prime Minister (chairperson)
    • The Home Minister
    • The Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha
    • The Leader of the Opposition in the Rajya Sabha
    • The Speaker of the Lok Sabha
    • The Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha
  • Tenure of Service: The Chairperson and the members are appointed for 3 years or till the age of 70 years, whichever is earlier.
  • They are eligible for re-appointment in NHRC, but not under any other central or state government.

Key Takeaways:

  • NHRC caninvestigate grievances pertaining to the violation of human rights either suo moto or after receiving a petition.
  • It has the power to interfere in any judicial proceedings involving allegation of violation of human rights.
  • It can visit any jail or any other institution under the control of government to see the living conditions of the inmates and to make recommendations.
  • It can review the safeguards provided under the constitution or any statute for the protection of the human rights and can recommend appropriate measures.
  • It has the powers of a civil court.
  • It can recommend to both the central and state governments to take suitable steps to prevent the violation of Human Rights in the country.
  • It submits its annual report to the President who causes it to be laid before each House of Parliament.

Economy

M Narasimham Committee:

Why in News?

Ex RBI Governor M Narasimham recently passed away.

Recommendations of M Narasimham Committee, 1991:

  • Recommended creation of a four-tier banking structure with large international banks at the top.
  • Also introduced the concept of rural-focused banks likelocal area banks.
  • Proposed phased reduction in banks’ mandatory bond investment and cash reserve limits (CRR) so that banks can lend money for other productive needs in the economy.
  • Introduced the concept of capital adequacy ratio (CAR)– the ratio of bank’s capital to its risk.
  • Recommended non-performing assets (NPA) classification and full disclosure of accounts of banks.
  • Proposed to deregulate interest rates, thereby bringing in greater competition among banks.
  • Also recommended to setupAsset reconstruction fund to take over bad debts.

Narasimham Committee- II, 1998:

  • Also called as ‘Banking Sector Committee’.
  • It was mandated to review the banking sector reforms’ progress.
  • Also mandated to design a programme for further strengthening the financial system of India.
  • The committee recommended on various areas such as capital adequacy, bank mergers, bank legislation, etc.

Society

Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act 2016

Why in News?

The Delhi High Court recently asked the Centre whether allocation of petrol pumps to disabled persons was being done in accordance with the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016.

About the Act:

  • Disability has been defined based on an evolving and dynamic concept. The types of disabilities have been increased from 7 to 21.
  • Benchmark disability refers to having at least 40% disability of any type recognized under the Act.
  • Acid Attack victims are also included under the definition.
  • The Government has been authorized to notify any other category of specified disability.
  • Reservation:It increased the quantum of reservation for people suffering from disabilities from 3% to 4% in government jobs and from 3% to 5% in higher education institutes.
  • The Chief Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities and the State Commissioners will act as regulatory bodies and Grievance Redressal agencies, monitoring implementation of the Act.
  • A separate National and State Fund be created to provide financial support to the persons with disabilities.

Indices and Reports

International Religious Freedom Report 2021

Why in News?

The US Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF) has recently recommended to put India on the list (‘Countries of Particular Concern’ or CPCs) for the worst violations of religious freedoms in 2020.

About the Report:

The Reportprimarily focusses on two groups of countries:

  • Country of Particular Concern (CPC)as designated by the US Secretary of State to a nation engaged in severe violations of religious freedom under International Religious Freedom Act, 1998 (IFRA).
  • Special Watch List country is one that does not to meet all of the CPC criteria but is known to engage in or tolerate severe violations of religious freedom.

The Report also includes USCIRF’s recommendations of violent nonstate actors as “entities of particular concern,” or EPCs, under IRFA.

About the USCIRF:

  • It is an independent, bipartisan US federal government commission, dedicated to defend the universal right to freedom of religion abroad.
  • It is also an advisory body to the US Congress.
  • It is Headquartered at Washington DC.

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