Daily Prelims Newsletter|24 Jun 2021|RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

24 June 2021-Thrusday

Table Of Contents

Environment

  • United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)

Science and Technology

  • Nipah Virus

Economy

  • National Food Security Act (NFSA), 2013.

International Relations

  • UN Human Rights Council (UNHRC) 

Environment

United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)

Why in News?

Shyam Sundar Jyani, a Rajasthan-based climate activist, has won the United Nations’ Land for Life Award (under UNCCD) for his environment conservation concept, ‘Familial Forestry’.

AboutFamilial Forestry:

  • Familial Forestry refers to transferring the care of trees and environment in the family so that a tree becomes a part of the family’s larger consciousness.

About UNCCD:

  • It was established in 1994.
  • It is the sole legally binding international agreement linking environment and development with the sustainable land management.
  • It was an organisation setup by recommendation of the Rio Conference’s Agenda 21.
  • Focus areas: It addresses specifically the arid, semiarid and dry sub-humid areas, called as the drylands, where some of the most vulnerable ecosystems and population is found.
  • Aim: To implement the Convention and achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with the end goal to protect land from over-use and drought, so that it can continue to provide food, water, energy, and other necessities.
  • The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, GoI is the nodal Ministry for this Convention.

Science and Technology

Nipah Virus

Why in News?

A recent research has shown possibly of antibodies against Nipah virus in bats from Mahabaleshwar cave.

About Nipah Virus:

  • It is a zoonotic virus i.e., meaning that it can spread between animals and humans.
  • The organism which causes Nipah Virus encephalitis is an RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) virus.
  • Fruit bats, also called flying foxes, are believed to be the animal reservoir ofthis virus in nature.
  • Symptoms: Encephalitis (swelling of the brain) and can also cause mild to severe illness and sometimes death.

Economy

National Food Security Act (NFSA), 2013

Why in News?

GoIrecently amended Food Security rules under NFSA to prevent ration leakage and corruption.

About NFSA:

  • It aims to provide food and nutritional security by ensuring access to adequate quantities of quality food at affordable prices to people.
  • Coverage:
    • 75% of the rural population
    • Upto 50% of the urban population

for receiving subsidized foodgrains under Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS).

  • Overall, NFSA caters to 67% of the total population of India.
  • Eligibility:
  • Priority Households to be covered under TPDS, according to State government’s guidelines.
  • Households that are covered under existing Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY).
  • It includes provisions for
    • existing AAY households,

    • pregnant women and lactating mothers
    • children upto 14 years of age, etc

International Relations

UN Human Rights Council (UNHRC)

Why in News?

More than 40 countries led by Canada have voiced concerns at the UNHRC about China’s actions in Xinjiang province.

About UNHRC:

  • The UNHRC is a United Nations body with mission of promoting and protecting human rights around the world.
  • It was reconstituted from its predecessor organisation, the UN Commission on Human Rights.
  • Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland.
  • The UNHRC passes non-binding resolutions on human rights issues through a periodic review of all 193 UN member states called Universal Periodic Review (UPR).
  • It also oversees expert investigation of violations of human rights in specific countries.

Composition of UNHRC:

  • It has 47 members elected for three-year terms on a regional group basis from 5 groups.
  • To become a member, a country must receive absolute majority, i.e. the votes of at least 97 of the 193 states of the UN General Assembly.
  • Member Countries are allowed only two consecutive terms.

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