DAILY PRELIMS NEWSLETTER (UPSC) |27 Feb 2021| RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

27 FEB 2021

Table Of Contents

Science and Technology…………………………………………………………….1

  • Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services …..1
  • Tuberculosis (TB)…………………………………………………………………..1

Medieval History ……………………………………………………………………….2

  • Krishnadevaraya…………………………………………………………………….2

Modern History…………………………………………………………………………..2

  • Mannathu Padmanabhan ……………………………………………………..2

Places in News…………………………………………………………………………..3

  • Line of Control (LoC) …………………………………………3
  • Andaman And Nicobar Islands:………………………..3

Science and Technology

Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services

Why in News?

INCOIS is planning to develop better picture of ocean floor around Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep Islands by bathymetric studies.

About INCOIS:

  • It is an autonomous organization under the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES).
  • Located in
  • It was established in 1999.
  • It is a unit of the Earth System Science Organization (ESSO) based in New Delhi.
  • The ESSO acts as an executive arm of the MoES for its policies and programmes.
  • Key function of INCOIS:
    • To provide the best possible ocean information and advisory services to society, industry, and government agencies.

Related Information:

  • Bathymetry is the study of underwater depth of ocean, river, or lake floors.

Tuberculosis (TB)

Why in News?

Ministry of health and family welfare is set to launch a Jan-Andolan against TB Involving advocacy, communication and social mobilization of people.

About TB:

  • TB is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that most often affect the lungs.
  • TB is spread from person to person through the air via cough, sneeze, or spit, as these propel the TB germs into the air.
  • Symptoms: Cough with sputum and blood at times, chest pains, weakness, weight loss, fever and night sweats.
  • TB is a treatable and curable disease.
  • Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a form of TB caused by bacteria that do not respond to first-line TB drugs isoniazid and rifampicin. It is treatable and curable by using second-line
  • Drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) is a more serious form of MDR-TB caused by bacteria that do not even respond to the most effective second-line anti-TB drugs. This is often untreatable.

Initiatives by India on this front

  • The Nikshay Portal: It is a national TB information system to manage information of patients, and treatment.
  • Nikshay Poshan Yojana (NPY): Aims to provide financial support to TB patients for their nutrition.
  • TB Harega Desh Jeetega Campaign: Launched in 2019 it showcases the highest level of commitment to eliminate TB.

The Saksham Project by the Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS)- provides psycho-social counselling to DR-TB patients.

Medieval History

Krishnadevaraya

Why in News?

Recently, an inscription written in Kannada related to the date of death of the Vijayanagar king Krishnadevaraya was discovered at Honnenahalli in Karnataka.

About Krishnadevaraya:

  • He was the ruler of the Tuluva dynasty of Vijayanagar empire.
  • His reign was from 1509 to 1529 AD.
  • He also founded a suburban township near Vijayanagar called Nagalapuram named after his mother.
  • He composed a work on statecraft in Telugu language known as the Amuktamalyada.
  • The South Indian mathematician Nilakantha Somayaji lived in his empire.
  • Portuguese travellers Domingo Paes and Fernao Nuniz visited the Vijayanagara Empire during his reign.
  • Babar in his autobiography “Tujuk-i-Babari” has mentioned Krishnadeva Raya as the most powerful ruler of India.

About Vijaynagar Empire:

  • Vijayanagara empirewas founded in the fourteenth century (1336 AD) by Harihara and Bukka of Sangama dynasty.
  • Capital City: Hampi
  • The empire stretched from the river Krishna in the north to the extreme south of the Indian peninsula.
  • Four important dynasties of Vijayanagara empire:
    • Sangama
    • Saluva
    • Tuluva

Modern History

Mannathu Padmanabhan

Why in News?

Recently, his death anniversary was observed.

About Mannathu Padmanabhan:

  • He was an Indian social reformer and freedom fighter from the Kottayam district state of Kerala.
  • He was referred to as Madan Mohan Malaviya of Kerala.
  • He took an active part in the Vaikom (1924)and Guruvayoor (1931) temple-entry Satyagrahas.
  • He was also part of mant the anti-untouchability agitations.
  • He is considered as the reformer of the members of Nair community. He inspired the Nair community members to end practicing regressive orthodox customs.
  • He established the Nair Service Society in 1914.
  • Post-independence, he was instrumental in the formation of Kerala Congress, the first regional party in India (1964).

Related Information:

  • Vaikom Satyagraha, 1924 was a movement for temple entry of the depressed classesin Travancore.
    • It was organised near the Shiva Temple at Vaikom, Kottayam district, Kerala.

Guruvayur Satyagraha was a non-violent protest to allow the entry of untouchables into the Guruvayur Temple in present Thrissur district, Kerala.

Places in News

Line of Control (LoC)

Why in News?

Recently, India and Pakistan have agreed to observe cease fire along the Line of Control(LoC).

About LoC:

  • Originally referred to as the Cease-fire Line, LoC was redesignated as the “Line of Control” following the Shimla Agreement, 1972.
  • It demarcates a kind of boundary separating parts of Indian UT i.e., Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh; controlled by India and parts which are illegally occupied by Pakistan.

    Line of Control (LoC)

    • A&N Islands are situated in the Bay of Bengal.
    • The main islands under the A&N Islands are:
      • North Andaman
      • Middle Andaman
      • South Andaman
      • Little Andaman
      • Car Nicobar
      • Little Nicobar
      • Great Nicobar
    • Andaman group of Islands are separated from Nicobar group of islands by 10-degree channel( due to presence of 10-degree latitude).
    • South Andaman Island and Little Andaman Island are separated by Duncan Passage.
    • There is The Grand Channel present between the Great Nicobar Islands and the Sumatra islands of Indonesia.
    • The Coco Straitlies between the North Andaman Islands and the Coco Islands of Myanmar.
    • Port Blair, in South Andaman Island is the administrative capital of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
    • The southernmost point of India,‘The Indira Point’, the located on southern tip of the Great Nicobar Islands.
    • Geographically, the A&N Islands are a part of the fold mountains protruding out of the sea.
    • These mountains form a link with ArakanYoma mountains of South east Asia and Sumatra.
    • The highest peak of A&N Islands is Saddle Peak, located in the North Andaman.
    • The Islands are famous for the largest and rarest species of crab, the Giant Robber Crab. It is distinct since it can climb the coconut trees and break the hard shell of the fruit.
    • Barren Island, located in the east of Middle AndamanIsalnd is India’s only active volcano.
    • The Narcondam Island, located in the north-east of North AndamanIsalnd is also geographically a volcanic island.
    • Narcondam Hornbill, an ‘endangered’ species under IUCN red list is endemic to the Narcondam Island in Andamans.

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