Daily Prelims Newsletter(UPSC)|27 May 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

27 May 2021

Table Of Contents

Polity and Governance
  • Electoral Bonds
  • Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)
International Relations 
  • UN Human Rights Council
Places in News
  • Israel
  • Quadrilateral Dialogue (QUAD) 

Polity and Governance

Electoral Bonds

Why in News?

The State Bank of India has reported sale of electoral bonds worth ₹695.34 crore from April 1 to 10, when the recent assemblyelections were in full swing.

About Electoral bonds:

  • Electoral Bond is a financial instrument to make donations to political parties.
  • The bonds are issued in denominations of Rs. 1,000, Rs. 10,000, Rs. 1 lakh, Rs. 10 lakh and Rs. 1 crore and has no maximum limit.
  • SBI is authorised to issueand alsoencash these bonds.
  • The bonds are valid for fifteen days from the date of its issuance.
  • These bonds are redeemable only in the designated account of a registered political party.
  • Every registered party under RPA, 1951 which has secured at least 1% of the votes polled in the most recent Lok Sabha or State election are allotted a verified account by the Election Commission of India for the purpose of Electoral bond transactions.
  • The bonds can be purchased by any person-who is a citizen of India or incorporated or established in India.
  • The bonds are available for purchase for a period of ten days each in the months of January, April, July and October and as may be specified by the GoI.
  • A person can buy bonds, either singly or jointly with other individuals.
  • Donor’s name is not mentioned or indicated on the bond.

Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)

Why in News?

Recently, 1985 batch IPS Officer was appointed as CBI Director.

About CBI:

  • Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is the premier investigating police agency in India and functions under the administrative superintendence of the of Personnel, Ministry of Personnel, Pension & Public Grievances.
  • This ministry is directly under PMO.
  • For investigations of offences under the Prevention of Corruption Act, its superintendence vests with the Central Vigilance Commission.
  • It is the nodal police agency in India to coordinate the investigation on behalf of Interpol Member countries.
  • It is a non-statutory body deriving its power from Delhi Special Police Establishment (DSPE) Act, 1946.
  • Types of Cases Handled by the CBI:
    • Anti-Corruption Crimes – Under the Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA)
    • Economic Crimes – for investigation of major financial scams and serious economic frauds.
    • Special Crimes – for investigation of serious and organized crime under the Indian Penal Code and other laws on the requests of State Governments or on the orders of the Supreme Court and High Courts.
    • Suo Moto Casesonly in the Union Territories.

Other Takeaways:

  • The GoI can authorize CBI to investigate a crime in anystate only with the consent of the concerned State Government.
  • The Supreme Court and High Courts can order CBI investigation in a crime anywhere in the countryeven without the consent of the State.
  • The establishment of the CBI was recommended by the Santhanam Committee on Prevention of Corruption (1962–1964).

Director of CBI:

  • Till 2014, the Director of CBI was appointed on the basis of the DSPE Act, 1946.
  • The Lokpal Act, 2014 provided a committee for appointment of CBI Director:
    • Headed by Prime Minister
    • Leader of Opposition/ Leader of the single largest opposition party,
    • Chief Justice of India/ a Supreme Court Judge.
  • Director of CBI is provided security of two-year tenure, under the CVC Act, 2003.

International Relations

UN Human Rights Council:

Why in News?

The UN Human Rights Council (UNHRC) will soon hold a special session to discuss the “grave human rights situation” in occupied Palestinian territories.

About UNHRC:

  • The UNHRC is a United Nations body with mission of promoting and protecting human rights around the world.
  • It was reconstituted from its predecessor organisation, the UN Commission on Human Rights.
  • Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland.
  • The UNHRC passes non-binding resolutions on human rights issues through a periodic review of all 193 UN member states called Universal Periodic Review (UPR).
  • It also oversees expert investigation of violations of human rights in specific countries.

Composition of UNHRC:

  • It has 47 members elected for three-year terms on a regional group basis from 5 groups.
  • To become a member, a country must receiveabsolute majority, i.e. the votes of at least 97 of the 193 states of the UN General Assembly.
  • Member Countries are allowed onlytwo consecutive terms.

Places in News

Israel

Why in News?

Israel continues to remain in news after the end of recent Israel-Palestine conflict.

About Israel:

  • Neighbouring Countries: Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Egypt.
  • Neighbouring oceans: Mediterranean Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba.

Related Information:

Key Defence technologies imported by India from Israel are:

  • BARAK missile: The surface-to-air missile is a low-range air defence interceptor. Indian version of BARAK is called BARAK-8.
  • Phalcon Sensors: This airborne warning and control system (AWACS), is hailed as Indian Airforce Force’s “eyes in the skies”.It performs surveillance and intelligence gathering beyond visual range to warn against the incoming missiles or aircrafts in the airspace.

Quadrilateral Dialogue (QUAD)

Why in News?

China’s Consul General has described Quad as an attempt to contain China.

About Quad:

  • The QUAD Group is an informal strategic dialogue mechanism with four members:
    • India,
    • Japan,
    • Australia,
    • USA
  • The shared objective is to ensure and sustain a free, open and prosperous Indo-Pacific region.
  • The idea for the QUAD Group is attributed to former Japanese PM Shinzo Abe who, formally, mooted it in 2007.
  • However, it was in 2017, that the first official talks under the QUAD took place, in Manila, the Philippines.

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