Daily Prelims Newsletter(UPSC)|31 Mar 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

31 March 2021

Table Of Contents

Environment
  • Seaweeds
Polity and Governance 
  • Concurrent List
Governmental Initiatives
  • Unique Land Parcel Identification Number (ULPIN) scheme 
International Relations
  • UN Peacekeeping Force
Places in News
  • Andaman And Nicobar Islands
  • Cape of Good Hope

Environment

Seaweeds

Why in News?

Recently, two new red algal seaweed species Hypnea indica, and Hypnea bullata were discovered along India’s long coastline.

About Seaweeds:

  • These are the primitive, marine non-flowering algae without root, stem and leaves.
  • They play a major role in marine ecosystems.
  • Large seaweeds are known to form dense underwater forests called as kelp forests.
    • The kelp forests act as underwater nurseries for fish, snails and sea urchins.
  • Seaweeds, are mostly found in:
    • in the intertidal zone,
    • in the shallow and deep waters of the sea
    • in estuaries and backwaters.
  • In Indian Ocean, Gulf of Mannar have rich populations of several seaweed species.

Ecological Importance of Seaweeds:

  • Seaweeds absorb the excess nutrients and balance out the ecosystem, when waste from agriculture, industries, aquaculture and households cause nutrient imbalance leading to algal blooming in the ocean.
  • Seaweeds trap and remove excess amount of iron and other metals including heavy metals in the ocean water.
  • The seaweeds derive nutrition through photosynthesis of sunlight and nutrients present in seawater. They are known to release oxygen through every part of their bodies.
  • They also supply organic nutrients to other marine life forms in the ecosystem.
  • Ocean afforestation: Seaweed has a significant role in mitigating climate change. It can sequester much Carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Hence, there is a proposal referred as ‘Ocean afforestation’ for farming seaweed to remove carbon.

Other uses:

  • They can be used as fertilizers.
  • When livestock is fed with seaweed, methane emission from cattle is known to be reduced substantially.
  • They can also be buried in beach dunes to combat beach erosion.
  • It is actively used as an ingredient in preparing toothpaste, cosmetics, and paints.

Polity and Governance

Concurrent List

Why in News?

15thFinance Commission Chairman N.K. Singh stated that “health” should be shifted to the Concurrent list from the State list under the Constitution.

About Concurrent List

  • The distribution of legislative power is mentioned in the three lists under Seventh Schedule of the Constitution:
    • List-I- Union List
    • List-II- State List
    • List-III- Concurrent List
  • Both, the Parliament and state legislature is competent to make laws with respect to subjects enumerated in the Concurrent List.
  • The concurrent list includes matters on which uniformity of legislation throughout the country is desirable but not essential.
  • The State legislation operates to the extent that it is not in conflict with the Central legislation.
  • Concurrent list has present 52 subjects (originally 47) likemarriage and divorce,labour welfare,criminal law and procedure,population control and family planning, economic and social planning, etc.
  • By the 42nd Amendment Act, 1976 five subjects were transferred to Concurrent List from State List:
    • education,
    • forests,
    • weights and measures,
    • protection of wild animals and birds, and
    • administration of justice including constitution and organisation of all courts except the Supreme Court and the High Courts.

Governmental Initiatives

Unique Land Parcel Identification Number (ULPIN) scheme

Why in News?

ULPIN Scheme was launched in 10 States this year and will be released across the country by March 2022.

About ULPIN Scheme:

  • This plan is a part of the Digital India Land Records Modernisation Programme (DILRMP) which began in 2008.
  • Under the scheme, a 14-digit identification number is provided to every plot of land in the country.
  • It is being hailed as “the Aadhaar for land” i.e., a number which would uniquely identify every surveyed parcel of land thereby preventing land fraud.
  • It will be particularly helpful in rural India, where land records are mostly outdated and disputed.
  • The identification is done on the basis of longitude and latitude of the land parcel and along with detailed surveys.

International Relations

UN Peacekeeping Force:

Why in News?

India delivered on its promise of 2,00,000 doses of COVID-19 vaccines for the United Nations Peacekeeping Force (UNPKF) worldwide, sending a shipment bound for Copenhagen.

About UN Peacekeeping Force:

  • UN Peacekeeping Force helps countries totransit on the difficult path from conflict to peace.
  • It deploys troops and police from around the world and integrate them with civilian peacekeepers to address a range of mandates as set by the UN Security Council and the General Assembly.
  • Currently, there are more than 6 thousand troops and police forces from India deployed in UN peacekeeping missions.
  • India has also been hailed for its long tradition of sending women on UN peacekeeping missions.
  • For example, in 2007, India became the first country to deploy an all-women contingent to a UN peacekeeping mission.
  • Finances are Collective responsibility of UN Member States.
  • According to UN Charter every Member State is legally obligated to pay their respective share for peacekeeping.
  • Peacekeeping forces are contributed by the member states on a voluntary basis.
  • Civilian staff of peace operations are international civil servants, recruited and deployed by the UN Secretariat.
  • UN Peacekeeping is guided by three basic principles:
    • Consent of the parties.
    • Impartiality
    • Non-use of force except in self-defence and in defence of the mandate.

Places in News

Andaman And Nicobar Islands:

Why in News?

Japan has finalised granting loans for several key infrastructure projects in India, including many projects in the Andaman and Nicobar islands.

About A&N Islands:

  • A&N Islands are situated in the Bay of Bengal.
  • The main islands under the A&N Islands are:
    • North Andaman
    • Middle Andaman
    • South Andaman
    • Little Andaman
    • Car Nicobar
    • Little Nicobar
    • Great Nicobar
  • Andaman group of Islands are separated from Nicobar group of islands by 10-degree channel ( due to presence of 10-degree latitude).
  • South Andaman Island and Little Andaman Island are separated by Duncan Passage.
  • There is The Grand Channel present between the Great Nicobar Islands and the Sumatra islands of Indonesia.
  • The Coco Straitlies between the North Andaman Islands and the Coco Islands of Myanmar.
  • Port Blair, in South Andaman Island is the administrative capital of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
  • The southernmost point of India,‘The Indira Point’, the located on southern tip of the Great Nicobar Islands.
  • Geographically, the A&N Islands are a part of the fold mountains protruding out of the sea.
  • These mountains form a link with Arakan Yoma mountains of South east Asia and Sumatra.
  • The highest peak of A&N Islands is Saddle Peak, located in the North Andaman.
  • The Islands are famous for the largest and rarest species of crab, the Giant Robber Crab. It is distinct since it can climb the coconut trees and break the hard shell of the fruit.
  • Barren Island, located in the east of Middle Andaman Isalnd is India’s only active volcano.
  • The Narcondam Island, located in the north-east of North Andaman Isalnd is also geographically a volcanic island

Cape of Good Hope

Why in News?

Due to recent blockage of the Suez Canal, the option of re-routing ships via the Cape of Good Hope was being explored.

About Cape of Good Hope:

  • It is a headland on the Atlantic coast of the South African Cape Peninsula.
    • A narrow piece of land sticking out from the coast into the sea is called a Headland.
  • The Cape of Good Hope historically joined Eastern Asia and Europe.
  • NOTE:Cape Agulhasis the southernmost tip of Africa, notCape of Good Hope.However, post opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 provided a shorter route from the Mediterranean Sea to the Indian Ocean.
  • The Cape of Good Hope route can take additional two weeks.

Started From 14 Mar 2021

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