Daily Prelims Newsletter(UPSC)|31 May 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

31 May 2021

Table Of Contents

Environment

  • Jayanti Species of Cricket 

Science and Technology

  • Yellow Fungus

Governmental Initiatives 

  • Mid-Day Meal Scheme 
  • Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) 

International Relations

  • International Criminal Court (ICC) 

Environment

Jayanti Species of Cricket

Why in News?

Recently, a new species of Cricket was named ‘Indimimusjayanti’ after being found in the Kurra caves of Chhattisgarh.

Key Feature of the New Spider Cricket:

  • Males of the new Jayanti subgenus cannot produce sound and their females don’t have ears.

About Crickets:

  • Crickets are species of leaping insects that are worldwide in distribution and are known for the musical chirping of the male.
  • They have cylindrical bodies, round heads, and long antennae andbehind the head is a smooth, robust pronotum.
  • Crickets are noticeable for their loud calls, especially at night. Male crickets are known to produce this sound by rubbing their wings against each other to attract females.
  • The females then listen to these calls using ears located on their legs and then approach the males for mating and reproduction.

Science and Technology

Yellow Fungus

Why in News?

After black and white fungus, the recent cases of yellow fungus has become a cause for concern.

About Yellow Fungus:

  • Yellow fungus, (also called mucor septic), initially develops by the presence of moulds (a type of fungi) in the environment.
  • Key symptoms include unnecessary fatigue, rashes, burning sensation on skin etc.
  • Humidity levels below 30-40% are known as apt condition for growth of fungus.
  • It may not start by infecting the lungs, but it invades internal organs of the body and affects the entire functioning.
  • Potential Causes:
    • Prolonged use of steroids,
    • Contaminated environment,
    • Uncontrolled diabetes,
    • Unhygienic habits,
    • Lesser immunity,
    • Comorbidities, etc
  • The treatment for Covid-19 done with steroids and immunosuppressants leave the body with weak immunity.
  • Symptoms:
    • Weight loss, reduced appetite, lethargy, etc.
  • If not detected in time, symptoms can turn more severe including pus leakage, sunken eyes, organ failure, slow healing of wounds etc.
  • Treatment:
  • Till date, the only known treatment for yellow fungus is Amphotericin-B injection, an antifungal drug also being used to treat black fungus.
  • Prevention:
    • Maintaining hygiene, not consuming stale food, keeping the humidity in the room in check, etc.

Governmental Initiatives

Mid-Day Meal Scheme

Why in News?

GoI has recently decided to give ₹100 each to children studying in Class 1 to 8 in the government schools, who are beneficiaries of the Mid-Day Meal scheme.

About the Mid-Day meal scheme:

  • MDM Scheme guarantees one meal to all the children in government and other aided schools and madarsas supported under Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan.
  • These students are guaranteed one nutritional cooked meal at least 200 days in a year.
  • It is under the Ministry of Education.
  • It was launched in the 1995 as the National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education, a centrally sponsored scheme.
  • In 2004, the scheme was relaunched as the MDM Scheme.
  • The Scheme is also covered under the National Food Security Act, 2013.
  • Objective:
    • Address hunger and malnutrition,
    • increase enrolment and attendance in school,
    • improve socialisation among castes,
    • provide employment at grassroot level especially to women.
  • The MDM rules 2015, states that the place of serving meals to the children shall be school only.
  • Nutritional norms:

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS)

Why in News?

Voices are being raised in Karnataka to restart MGNREGS work which was stopped during this lockdown period.

About MGNREGS

  • It was launched in 2006.
  • It is acclaimed as one of the largest work guarantee programmes in the world.
  • Objective:Guarantee 100 days of employment in every financial year to adult members of any rural household willing to do public work-related unskilled manual work.
  • Legal Right to Work: It aimsto addressing the causes of chronic poverty through a rights-based framework.
  • At least one-third of beneficiaries must be women.
  • Wages are to be paid according to the statutory minimum wages specified for agricultural labourers in the state under the Minimum Wages Act, 1948.
  • Demand-Driven Scheme: The most iconic part of MGNREGA’s design is its legally backed guarantee for any rural adult to get work within 15 days of demanding it, failing which there is a provision of ‘unemployment allowance’ to the job seeker.
  • Decentralised planning: Significant role of Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) in planning and implementing these works.
  • The act mandates Gram sabhas to recommend the works that are to be undertaken and at least 50% of the works must be executed by the Gram Sabha itself.

International Relations

International Criminal Court (ICC)

Why in News?

Judges at ICC have given green light to its proceedings concerning war crimes committed by Israel in Palestine.

About ICC:

  • It is located in Hague, Netherlands.
  • It acts as the court of last resort for prosecution of genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity.
  • It is the first permanent, treaty based, international criminal court.
  • It is governed bythe Rome Statutewhich entered into force on July 1, 2002.
  • Funding: Primarily funded by State Parties, it also receives voluntary contributions from governments, international organisations, individuals, corporations and other entities.

Note: India has not signed the Rome Statute, and hence, is not a member of ICC citing following reasons:

  • State sovereignty
  • National interests
  • Difficulty in collection of evidences.
  • Problem to find impartial prosecutors.
  • Crime definition under the act.

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