Answer –
In India, the temple architecture vary from region to region and has produced their own
distinct style of temples. However, the basic form of Hindu temple always remain the same.
But due to geopolitics and contemporary history, The elements in the temples were
The basic form of the Hindu temple comprises the following:
• Sanctum (garbhagriha literally ‘womb-house’) – It was a small cubicle with a
single entrance which grew into a larger chamber in time. The garbhagriha is
made to house the main icon.
• Entrance to the temple – It may be a portico or colonnaded hall that incorporates
space for a large number of worshippers and is known as a mandapa.
Freestanding temples tend to have a mountain-like spire
• It can take the shape of a curving shikhar in North India and a pyramidal tower,
called a vimana, in South India.
• The vahan – It was mount or vehicle of the temple’s main deity along with a
standard pillar or dhvaj is placed axially before the sanctum.
• Many Hindu temples, feature mithun (embracing couple) sculptures, considered
auspicious. Usually, they are placed at the entrance of the temple or on an
exterior wall or they may also be placed on the walls between the mandapa and
the main shrine.
Nagara Style
• This style of architecture was popular in northern India.
• These temples were commonly found to be built on a stone platform which was
• Earlier temples had just one tower or shikhara, later ones had several. The
garbhagriha is always located directly under the tallest tower (depending on the
shikhara, these are known by different names region wise. The most common shikhara
is square at the base and whose walls curve or slope inward to a point on top is
known as LATINA, or the REKHAPRASADA type.)
• PHAMSANA is the second type where buildings tend to be broadened and shorter,
where roofs are made up of several slabs. They do not curve inwards)
• VALABHI are rectangular buildings with roof rising into a vaulted chamber. Triratha,
Pancharatha, Saptaratha and even Navrath which are division of walls into vertical
planes called rathas are found. All the shikara in Nagara style ends in a horizontal
fluted disc called an amalak topped with a kalash or vase. For example, Vishwanath
temple, Khajuraho, Lingaraj temple, Odisha, sun temple, Modhera.
The Nagara school further developed sub-schools:
• Odisha school – exterior walls lavishly decorated, interiors walls plain, no use of
• Khajuraho school/ Chandel school – Developed by Chandel rulers in which both
interiors and exterior walls were decorated don’t have boundary walls.
• Solanki school – popular in Gujarat by Solanki rulers stepped tank, on steps, there
are small temples.
Dravidian Style
Temple architecture of South India which reached perfection under the Cholas. It is the
oldest style of architecture. Big temple complexes under compound walls were made which
also became the administrative centres for the adjoining areas.
• Gopuram or huge gateway was also a part of the structure. The main temple tower
called VIMANA is like a stepped pyramid which rises up geometrically rather than
curving. The word Shikhara is used only for the crowning element at the top of the
temple called STUPIKA or an octagonal cupola.
Dvarapala/doorkeepers were found guarding the temple. Large water reservoirs or
temple tanks are common.
• Subsidiary shrines are either incorporated within or located as distinct inside the
main temple, for example, Gangaikondacholapuram temple, Brihadeshwara temple,
Deccan Styles
Inspired both by north and South Indian styles were used and were known as VESARA. It
consists of two important components – Vimana and Mandapa joined by Antarala.
• This style did not have a covered ambulatory around the sanctum. The pillars, door
frames and ceilings are intricately carved. For example, Lad khan temple at Aihole.
Thus it can be ascertained that temple architecture was influenced by geographical, ethnic,
racial, historical and linguistic diversities of Indian sub-continent.

Answer –
When nationalist leader were leading the national movement, the scholars through their art
literature played an important role in India’s Freedom struggle. Both art and literature
acted as a tool in India’s freedom struggle against colonialism .
With flourishment of Indian art and literature, it became the source of national pride
which helped to reach the consciousness of many to awaken Indian masses during freedom
struggle. For example, painting of BHARAT MATA by ABindra Nath Tagore, Gandhis
Harizan newspaper etc.
role of Art and literature. India’s freedom struggle.
• Evoking emotions it helped to increase the sensitivity among elite and bourgeoisies
class towards the suffering of common man by depicting their poor living
conditions and atrocities.
• Raising nationalist sentiment. For example the vandemataram song during swadesi
movement increased and spread National sentiment. Apart from songs, portraits
and bhajans, battle scenes, fiction and poetry used for patriotic purpose to create a
nationalist discourse.
• Creating awareness among people. Writers and poets, such as Rabindranath Tagore
Bankim, Chandra Chatterjee, Kazi Nazrul Islam through their speech and literacy
were creating Awareness against atrocities by British on Indians.
• Overcoming linguistic barriers. Indian art helped in overcoming linguistic differences
across the country in the form of visual and performing art. As it was the local
language that helped many people To take part in India’s freedom struggle.
• Women participation women leader like Begum Ruqaiya and Sarojini Naidu
promoted the emancipation of Indian womens to encourage their participation in
the national politics. For example, Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay’s Devi
Choudhurani became an inspiration to the women to take up the cause of
• Revival of cultural identities. For example, during swadesi movement, Indian artist
attempted to revive their cultural identities which were suppressed by British, for
example – creation of Bengali School of Art.
• A tool to propaganda. Literature played an important role and were used as a tool
of propaganda, newspaper like Bande Mataram, Jugantor Patrika made Indian
citizen not only socially and politically aware, but also United them for one common
• Spread patriotic feelings and expose exploratory rule of British. For example,
Anandmath novel and Kesari Maratha newspaper by Lokmanya Tilak was spreading
nationalist and patriotic feeling.
Hence art and literature played an important role in India’s freedom struggle. It gave birth
to many nationalist artist who tried to influence Indian masses and united masses for
colonial struggle.

Mentorship – Modern India

Answer –
The activities of revolutionaries Horizon started as a by-product of militant nationalism. The first
phase was more active until 1917, then second phase post non cooperation Movement and was A
fall out of Swadeshi and boycott movement.
Revolutionary activities spread across different part of India and abroad before and during the First
World War.
In India
• The revolutionary activities in Bengal was the outcome of the failure of constitutional
agitation to prevent the partition of Bengal. For example, Anushilan Samiti which was
established by Pramod Mittal and including Jatindranath Banerjee , Birendra Kumar Ghosh,
Its activities were limited to giving physical and moral training to the member and remained
significance till 1907 to 1908.
➢ The secret society by Ras Bihari Bose and Sachin Nath Sanyal convering for flung
areas of Punjab, Delhi, United Provinces.
➢ Attack on British officials in 1908. Praful Chandra Chaki and Khudiram Bose
attacked Kings food. And bomb attack on Harding by Ras Behari Bose and Sachin
Nath Sanyal in 1912.
➢ Alipur conspiracy. It is also called Monik Kotla bomb conspiracy, where Anusheel
Samiti members were trial.
➢ Jigantar party during First World War arranged to import German arms and
ammunition through sympathizers and revolutionaries abroad.
In Maharashtra
• Ramoshi Peasants force by vasudev balwant phadke raided british by instigating an armed
reward in 1879.
• Hindu Dharmam Sanrakshan Sabha by Chapekar brothers who killed WC Rand and
Lieutenant iyrest.
• Mitra Mela and Abhinav Bharat organisation by Savarkar Brothers in 1899. their disciple
Anant Killed British collector of Nashik. In 1909
In Punjab.
• The Punjab extremism was a result of issues like famine ,rise In land Revenue, And irrigation
tax. The leaders like Lala Lajpat Rai through Punjabi Journal and Ajit Singh through Anjumani- watan, organization carried out extremist activities.
The revival of revolutionary nationalism.
• In post non cooperation movement, young revolutionaries through Hindustan Republican
Association carried out kakori Treasury loot And Raided British post.
• Later HRA was reorganised as Hindustan Socialist Republican Association. By bhagat singh
Chandrashekhar Azad And led revolutionary activities.
Revolutionaries activities in abroad.
• The need for shelter and The possibility of bringing out revolutionaries literature that would
be immune for press act and quest for arms took Indian revolutionaries abroad.
• India Home Rule Society or India House by Shyamji Verma started in London in 1905 and
served as a centre for Indian student. Scholarship scheme to Bring radical youth from India
and Shelter For revolutionaries like Savkar and Hardayal. It brought out journal the Indian
sociologists to spread revolutionary ideas.
• Killing of Lord Curzon on 1909 by Madan lal Dhingra.
• Madam Bhikaji cama , a parsi revolutionaries developed contact with French and brought
out Bande Mataram Patrika and Veerendranath Chattopadhyaya acted from Berlin.
• The Gadar movement Was headquartered at San Francisco and branches along US Coast ,
In the Far East. The leader, including Lala, Hardayal Ram, Chandra Bhagwan Singh. Etc. led
this movement and the Kamagatamaru incident further resulted into increase in
revolutionaries ideas.
• The revolutionary activities in Europe. The Berlin Committee for Indian Independence,
established in 1915, Virendranath Chattopadhyay and others with the help of German
under Jimmetman plan to mobile Indian settlers abroad to send a volunteer and arms, To
India to Insight Rebellion among Indian troops.
Hence, this revolution is activities were not only there in India but also abroad and was significant
by means of.
• Nationalism and patriotic feelings were incited among young population of India to liberate
• Self sacrifice was considered as a highest virtue, as many young leaders sacrificed their lives
in this struggle.
• Awakening masses to fight for independence and end exploratory Imperial British rule.
• Growth in nationalist revolutionaries literature where young leaders motivated and awakened
about. Swaraj liberation sentiment among youth.
• Not easy to rule. It was the impression left on British as they were Terrorised on any
exploratory measure.
• Laid foundation for Indian independence. As people were availed with both means of
But it declined because of.
• Release of prisoners held under Defence of India Rules cool down the passion a bit.
• Leadership failure to tap revolutionaries energy in more coordinated and planned approach.
For example, gadar movement failure.
• There was an atmosphere of conciliation after. Montague’s statement in 1917.
• Talk of constitutional reforms during 1919.
• Coming of Gandhi and his non violent methods.
Hence the revolutionary movement give a new direction to India’s independence movement and
made Supreme Sacrifices , were very successful in awakening the Indian Youth but failed in tapping
the energy and leadership failure and rise of Gandhi led to revival of other means of struggle –
Ahima led.

Answer –
All India Home Rule League was a national political organization founded in 1916 and organised on
the liner of Irish Home Rule League to lead the national demand of self government. Home rule was
to obtain the status of a Dominion with British Imperial Empire As – inside by Australia, Canada,
South Africa etc.
Home Rule League.
• It represented the emergence of new trend of aggressive politics.
• Anni Basant & lokmanya Tilak, were pioneer of the movement and included other members
like GS khaparde, Subramanyam Ayer, Joseph Baptiste. MA jinnah etc.
• The Home Rule League of Tilak was established in 1916 in Pune and that of Anny Basant
at Madras in September 1916.
Significance factor leading to the moment.
The leagues organised demonstrations and agitations.
• There were public meetings in which the leaders gave fiery speeches.
• They were able to create a stir within the country and alarm the British to such an
extent that Annie Besant was arrested in June 1917. This move by the British
created a nation-wide protest and now even moderate leaders joined the league.
Besant was released in September 1917.
• The Home Rule League functioned throughout the year as opposed to the Congress
Party whose activities were confined to once a year.
• The movement was able to garner huge support from a lot of educated Indians. In
1917, the two leagues combined had around 40,000 members.
• Many members of the Congress and the Muslim League joined the league. Many
prominent leaders like Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Joseph Baptista, G S Kharpade and Sir
S Subramanya Iyer were among its members.
• The moderates, extremists and the Muslim League were briefly united through this
• The movement was able to spread political consciousness to more regions in the
• This movement led to the Montague Declaration of 1917 in which it was declared
that there would be more Indians in the government leading to the development of
self-governing institutions ultimately realising responsible governments in India.
This Declaration, also known as August Declaration, implied that the demand for home rule
would no longer be considered seditious. This was the biggest significance of the
Reasons for movement to fade out:
The movement was not a mass movement. It was restricted to educated people and college
• The leagues did not find a lot of support among Muslims, Anglo-Indians and nonBrahmins from Southern India as they thought home rule would mean a rule of the
upper caste Hindu majority.
• Many of the moderates were satisfied with the government’s assurance of reforms
(as preluded in the Montague Declaration). They did not take the movement further.
• Annie Besant kept oscillating between being satisfied with the government talk of
reforms and pushing the home rule movement forward. She was not able to provide
firm leadership to her followers. Although ultimately she did call the reforms
‘unworthy of Indian acceptance’.
• In September 1918, Tilak went to England to pursue a libel case against Sir Ignatius
Valentine Chirol, British journalist and author of the book ‘Indian Unrest’. The book
contained deprecatory comments and had called Tilak the ‘Father of Indian Unrest.’
• The Government made use of Defence of India Act, 1915 to curb the activities of the
• Students were prohibited from attending Home Rule meetings.
• Tilak was prosecuted and his entry in Punjab and Delhi was banned.
• Indian Press Act of 1910 was imposed on the press and restrictions were enforced.
• Tilak’s absence and Besant’s inability to lead the people led to the movement’s
fizzing out.
• The movement was left leaderless with Tilak going abroad and Besant unable to give
a positive lead.
After the war, Mahatma Gandhi gained prominence as a leader of the masses and the Home
Rule Leagues merged with the Congress Party in 1920.
The home rule movement lent a new dimension and a sense of urgency to the national
movement. Although its role in the Indian independence movement had bee n modest, it did
succeed in helping to sustain the movement’s impetus during the war years—as manifested
in the signing of the Lucknow Pact in December 1916.

Modern India ( mentorship )

Answer –
The Indian renaissance , guided by modern and lighted vision, was driven by sociocultural
reform movement. These movement left both positive and negative impact on Indian
Society, which can be felt even today.
The background of socio-religious and cultural reform in India
• Impact of British. The introduction of modern ideas and rational thinking awakened
the middle class, who then led various movements like Brahmo Samaj by Raja Ram,
Mohan Roy, Satyashodhak Samaj by Mahatma Phule etc.
• As society was in a clutch of Orthodox , socio – religious practices and social evils
like sati, female infanticide, untouchability and caste discrimination, Seeded the
wave of change. For example Doctor BR Ambedkar in 20th century worked restlessly
for upliftment of depressed class.
Hence, humanistic ideals of social equality and the equal worth of all individual inspired
the newly advocated middle class to bring socio religious and cultural reform through
behavioural change.
Significance of socio religious reforms.
The Socio religious reform though intended for a good cause with moral intent created
both positive and negative impact on Indian society.
The positive impact of socio-religious reforms –
• As Socio – religious movements sought to brought changes in the Society, Orthodox
action stood in a position, but these movements managed to contribute towards
the liberation of individual from the conformity born out of fear, and from uncritical
submission to Exploitation by priest and other classes.
• Individuals right to interpret the scriptures was recognised and many religious text
were translated into Vernacular languages.
• Simplification of rituals made worship a personal experience and right to Equality
• The movement enhance human intellect capacity to think and reason and hence
rational thinking started.
• To eliminate orthodoxy with respect to one’s religion and society, these moments
guided their followers to treat everyone equal and left no scope for superior inferior
• Realization of special needs of modern societies. It laid the foundation of modern.
Secular and Scientific outlook society.
• Socially, the concept of pollution and purity was attacked and modern ideas and
culture integrated into Indian culture stream, so for possible. For example, widow
remarriages and women’s right to Education, untouchables entry into temple.
• It increased social climate for modernisation.
• It ended India’s alienation from the world with respect to its cultural and intellect.
Hence, finally, these positive aspects of movement help to arise national consciousness.
Negative impact of reforms.
• It had a narrow social base as educated and urban middle classes participated but
needs Of vast mass of peasantry and urban poor were ignored.
• It indirectly encouraged mysticism as they relied on scriptural authority and
developed pseudoscientific thinking. For example, go back to Vedas slogan by
Swami Dayananda Saraswati.
• It put over emphasis on religious philosophical aspect of culture while
Underemphasised secular and moral aspects.
• A nation of two separate people, for example Hindu and Muslim created as they
praise their individual Religious text Hence led to increase in communal
• Historical process of evolution of composite culture arrested to some extent.
Hence the social, religious and cultural movement attempted to end the darkness of social
evils and show the sunlight of equality and humanity to then downtrodden and oppressed
section of society, who later shape the future of country.

Answer –
The rise and growth of Indian nationalism has often seen, in context of India’s struggle
against British Raj. But it was not the result of India’s reaction to the colonial policies but a
mix of various factors.
These factors can be analysed as –
• Western education – Macaulay had instituted a western educational system in India
with the sole aim of creating a class of educated Indians who could serve their
colonial masters in the administration of the ‘natives’. This idea sort of backfired
because it created a class of Indians who became exposed to the liberal and radical
thoughts of European writers who expounded liberty, equality, democracy and
rationality. Also, the English language united Indians from various regions and
• Vernacular languages – The 19th century also saw the revival of vernacular
languages. This helped the propagation of the ideas of liberty and rational thought
to the masses.
• End of the old social order – British imperialism put an end to the old social order
of the country. This was resented by many Indians.
• Socio-religious reform movements – Socio-religious reform movements of the 19th
century helped a great deal in the rise of nationalism in India. These movements
sought to remove superstition and societal evils prevalent then, and spread the
word of unity, rational and scientific thought, women empowerment and patriotism
among the people. Notable reformers were Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra
Vidyasagar, Jyotiba Phule and so on.
• Economic policies of the British – The oppressive economic policies of the British
led to widespread poverty and indebtedness among the Indians especially farmers.
Famines which led to the deaths of lakhs were a regular occurrence. This led to a
bitter sense of suppression and sowed the seeds of a yearning for liberty from
foreign rule.
• Political unity – Under the British, most parts of India were put under a single
political set-up. The system of administration was consolidated and unified
throughout all regions. This factor led to the feeling of ‘oneness’ and nationhood
among Indians.
• Communications network – The British built a network of roads, railways, post and
telegraph systems in the country. This led to increased movements of people from
one part of the country to another and increased the flow of information. All this
accelerated the rise of a national movement in India.
• Growth of the modern press – This period also saw the rise of the Indian press, both
in English and in the regional languages. This also was an important factor that
helped in the dissemination of information.
• Lord Lytton’s policies – Lord Lytton was the Viceroy of India from 1876 to 1880. In
1876, there was a famine in south Indian which saw the deaths of almost 10 million
people. His trading policies were criticised for having aggravated the famine. Also,
he conducted the grand Delhi Durbar in 1877 spending huge amount of money at
a time when people were dying of hunger.
➢ Lytton also passed the Vernacular Press Act 1878 which authorised the
government to confiscate newspapers that printed ‘seditious material’. He
also passed the Arms Act 1878 which prohibited Indians from carrying
weapons of any kind without licenses. The act excluded Englishmen.
• Legacy of the Revolt of 1857 – After the Revolt of 1857 and its bitter crushing by
the British, there was deep racial tension between the British and the Indians.
• Ilbert Bill controversy – In 1883, the Ilbert Bill was introduced which gave Indian
judges the power to hear cases against European, by the then Viceroy Lord Ripon
and Sir Courtenay Ilbert, the legal advisor to the Council of India. But there was a
huge outcry against this bill from Britishers in India and in Britain. Arguments made
against this bill displayed the deep racial prejudice the English had for Indians. This
also exposed the true nature of British colonialism to the educated Indians.
• National movements outside the country – There were many national movements
outside the country that inspired the Indian nationalists like the French Revolution,
the American War of Independence and so on.
Thus , this gradual process of awakening of Indian masses grew in its strength and got
shaped by various factors and this culmination of all events created a favourable
environment for nationalist movement to lead India to achieve its independence later.

Modern India ( Mentorship)

Answer –
The nationalist leadership by means of Indian national Congress, 1885, provincial
conferences, associations, newspaper, and literature carried out various nationalist
activities. This was aimed at drawing Indian masses to the nationalist movement. In this
Advent , the campaign for the general administrative reform was significant to one. But it
failed to gain the exact and expected attention from the Indian Mass.
The early phase of nationalist movement, It was aimed at awakening the masses and
various efforts were undertaken by nationalist leaders such as –
• Economic critic of British imperialism by leaders like Dadabhai, Naoroji, Ramesh
Chandra Dutta, Dhinsa Wacha, etc. But educationally backward large section of
masses remained ignorant of this intellectual feed.
• Constitutional reform and propaganda in legislator. Through this nationalist leader
were able to enhance their political stature and build a national movement and
generating anti imperialistic sentiment but failed to widen the Democratic base of
movement by exclusion of Indian masses Specially women.
Apart from these methods, the campaign for the general administrative reform was
significant. Moderates campaigned on following Grounds.
• Indianisation of government services. As British civil servant were paid huge
emolument, were remitted it to back at home, leading to drain of wealth and
inclusion of Indians would be economical for British.
➢ on political ground less representation of Indian into administration. And on
moral ground inferior treatment to the Indian as they kept away from the
high post of trust and responsibility . Hence Indianisation of government
services was vouched.
• Call for separation of judiciary from executive to insure, imparting justice to Indians.
• Criticism of an oppressive and tyrannical bureaucracy as it was expensive & time
Consuming .
• Criticism of British aggressive foreign policy which resulted into an inclusion of
Burma, Attack on Afghanistan and separation of tribal into the northwest, all
costing heavily for Indian Treasury.
• Call for increase in expenditure on welfare. For example, health and sanitation
education, especially elementary and technical education works and improvement in
agriculture. Agricultural banks for cultivators, etc.
• Demand for better treatment of Indian Labour abroad in other British colonies
Where they faced oppression and racial discrimination.
Hence, this campaign was to ensure the better socio political and economical welfare of
Indian masses by means of political struggle and but its outreach to Indian masses was
limited because –
• Nationalist leadership represented to the most progressive forces of the time.
• Even though they were successful in awakening the masses for nationalist
movement, it acted as a close system, as they were represented in less number.
Some section recipient, inferior treatment over differences with respect to caste,
religion and ethnic origin.
• They establish the basic political truth that India should be ruled in the interest of
Indians which was not favoured by some leaders who want no rule of British.
• The underline British rule moral foundation and exposed its economical exploitation
character, which was less understood by masses over their ignorance.
• They created a narrow social base as their scope of demand was limited one.
• They fail to reach various section like Tribes, whose aspiration and demands left
Thus, despite their eminent leadership and effort, Their outreach to Indian masses was
limited one, but as it created a social base for struggle, the nationalist movement of
struggle for independence got strengthen gradually.

Answer –
After 1905, the extremist influence and their take over on nationalist movement, gave a
new thrust to Indian national struggle. The leadership of Bal Gangadhar Tilak Lala Lajpat
Rai Bipin Chandrapal was prominent one.
Extremist leadership 1905 – 1920
In 1905 the extremist acquired a dominant influence over the Swadesi movement in
Bengal due to following reasons –
• Failure of moderate leadership to yield result.
• The decisive tactics of government on both Bengal had Embittered nationalist.
• The suppressive measures by British government, like atrocities on students,
restriction on public meeting, ban on public singing of Vande Mataram, suppression
of freedom of press and imprisonment of swadesi workers.
Failure of moderates.
• The moderates failed to broaden its social base like including educated masses and
lower middle class.
• Extremist disapproved the providential mission theory of moderates, and so as
Indian masses.
• Professed loyalty to the British Crown was disliked by many section of people.
• Failed to get the political demand like more political representation and welfare
measures for Indian approved from government.
• They were reluctant from deviating the constitutional method, which were failed to
convince British to take reform measures , reduce oppression and impart rights to
Hence, this appeasement led to emergence of extremist or militant nationalist leadership
during Swadeshi movement who gave an idea of India’s independence, the central place of
India’s politics unlike moderates & launched a new form of struggle, Which impacted In
following ways.
• Boycott of foreign goods to kneel down British commercial motives and this protest
achieved great success at a practical and popular level.
• Corporation of Volunteers or samiti’s. Unlike moderates where there Was limited
role of volunteer, extremist give a platform To them, for example, Swadesh
Bandhav samiti by Ashwini Kumar Datta in Bengal emerged as a powerful and
popular means of mobilization.
• Imaginative use of traditional popular festival and Mela like Ganesh Festival and
Shivaji Festival by Bal Gangadhar Tilak widened the Social Democratic base of
movement and seeded the mass with unity and patriotism.
• Emphasis given to the self sacrifice. The self Reliance or Atma Shakti was
encouraged. It included social reform and campaign against caste oppression, early
marriages, dowry system and consumption of alcohol etc.
• Program of Swadesi or national education was remarkable in its spirit and success
too, As it set up education like literary, Scientific and technical on national lines and
under national control. This give scope for wide section of masses to get educated.
For example on 15 August 1906 National Council of Education was set up.
• Indigenous enterprises or swadeshi factories by means of textile Mills, soap and
match factories, banks, insurance companies, shops were based on patriotic zeal
than on business acumen. For example Swadesi Steam navigation company At
Tuticorin gave a challenge to British India Steam navigation company.
• Impact on cultural, cultural sphere. Many patriotic songs were composed who
spread nationalism and Patriotic message, for example, Amar Sonar Bangla, written
by Rabindranath Tagore.Swadesh Geetham by subramanyam. In painting, Avanindra
Nath Tagore broke that domination of British art , in Science JC Bose and Praful
Chandra Roy and other pioneered Oriental research.
Thus, extremist program of nationalist movement and moderates way of struggle both
created environment of nationalism and patriotism among masses which then Droved the
Nation towards a common goal of independence


Answer –
The medieval towns were places , characterised by the social order, but with advent of
British and with political & commercial Realignment , old towns declined and new towns
The process of urbanization under British.
• The settlement and process of urbanization in colonial India, where the company
established trading and administrative offices, were initially Madras, Bombay and
• By middle of 19th century, these settlements have become the big cities from where
British control the country.
• Institutions were set up to regulate economic activity and demonstrate authority of
• The town planning and architecture of building were new and bore the marks of
their colonial origin.
But this process of urbanization was stagnant until first 2 decades of 20th century.
The town planning in 19th
century , There are several factors that shaped the town
planning in 19 century. Some of them are.
• Ports Forts and centre of services. By 18th century Madras, Calcutta and Bombay
became the important port And center of economic activities.
➢ 2 main concern were influenced the town planning in 19 century were
defence and health.
➢ In many towns, British built Fort to protect their factories around the Fort &
a vast Open Space was left called Maidaan. It was done so that there would
be no obstruction to a straight line of fire from the fort against the
advancing Troops.
• Health economy and Sanitation. It was another factor that influence the town
planning , As attempt were made to improve the sanitation and cleanliness by
creating open spaces in the city.
• Other purpose like Bazaar Market , Ghats and burial grounds. The places where
were made available.
• The separation of British locality (White town) from that of Indian black Town was
another characteristic factor. That’s why each big city in India holds Police Line.
• Emergence of new places seen as need of city like garden, public parks, cinema
halls, Theatre.
This in large extent influence the society and transformed the social relation in terms of –
• There was weak contrast between extreme wealth and poverty in the new City’s.
The new means of transport facilities such as horse drawn carriage, Buses made
traveling from home to work an Interesting experience.
• Creation of public places like Theatre, public parks, cinema halls, provided new form
of entertainment and social interaction.
• New social groups were formed. People of all classes started to migrate to the cities
with increase in time and demand of Lawyers, engineers, the middle class increased.
• Debate and discussion became the popular and stable list. Social norms and
practice work question.
• Cities also offered new opportunities for women. They chose new professions in the
city as factory worker teacher, Artisans etc. for a long time, they remained object of
social change, Censure.
Thus, these urban centres become important centre for socio economic activities and later
the places of national activities for struggle like For independence, like conducting Indian
National Congress sessions after 1885.

Answer –
In 1930, Congress had accepted that Hindustani, to be the national language. Mahatma
Gandhi, like other leaders to felt that everyone should speak in a language that common
people could easily understand And it was Hindustani.
There are several reasons that indicate The Gandhis mood for Hindustani language As a
national language.
• In his view, it was a common people language and could be understood easily by
everyone as it was a blend of Hindi and Urdu.
• Due to its popularity among large section of population would be accepted by
many others also.
• Being composite language, it was enriched by the interaction of diverse culture,
thus composite one.
• Words and terms from many different languages got incorporated into this
language over the years. And it made this language easy to read & understandable
by people from various regions also.
• As per Gandhi, Hindustani would be the ideal language for communication between
• He also thought that this language could act as a bridge For the unity of Hindu and
Muslims and for the people from North and South.
• Language came to be associated with the politics of religious identities from the
end of 19th century, but Mahatma Gandhi retained his faith in the composite
character of Hindustani.
But this separated a debate over language before constituent assembly. Few points of that
debate are –
• India is a very big country and has many different regions and different varieties of
people live here and spoke many languages. So for a New Nation like India, it wos
necessary to give a proper attention to the Intricacies of different languages.
• Hindustani – It was a choice for Mahatma Gandhi and Congress, and had already
decided to adopt it as a national language of country and argued in favour of it
• Hindi – RV Dhulekar pleaded in favour of Hindi for adopting as a national language
and language of constituents in making and opposed Hindustani language being
national language.
• Reports of language committee. The Language Committee was constituted by
Constituent Assembly suggested. Compromise formula as –
➢ It suggested Hindi in Devanagari script should be official language of a
country. Tried to resolve the issue. But it also suggests transition from
English to Hindi should be gradual.
➢ First 15 year after independence, English to serve as official purpose.
➢ Thus, Committee decided Hindi as official language, not a national language
Hence, Constituent assembly reaching to the compromise try to maintain a balance
situation on perceived people from the South threat of Hindi to other provincial languages.
The leaders like Sankar Rao from Bombay, T Ramalingam Chettiar and Mrs G Durga Bai
from Madras too suggested for handling the national language issue with care and
efficiency. Hindi suits not be thrust upon the people of South India or other Area of India.

Mentorship- History

Answer –
India in 19th century witnessed a series of reform movement or as said by scholars Indian
Enlightenment era in various parts of country. It was oriented towards a restructuring of
Indian society along modern ideas, not that of westernised one.
Indian socio religious reform movement.
Basically there were 2 kind of reform movement in 19th century India.
• Reformist – these movements responded with the time and scientific temper of
modern era. For example, Brahma Samaj 1828, Satyashodhak Samaj 1873, and
Ramkrishna Mission by Swami Vivekananda in 1892.
• Revivalist. These movements started reviving ancient Indian tradition and thoughts
and believe that the Western thinking round Indian culture. For example, Arya
Samaj in 1875 at Bombay by Swami Dayanada Saraswati , Theosophical Society in
1875 by Madam Blovtski, olcart & Ani sent.
This various reformer like Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra, Vidyasagar , Swami
Dayananda Saraswati persuaded people to give up dead old tradition like Sati , child
marriage, Polygamy, killing of female Infants.
They were keen to spread knowledge of modernization in the country and bring about
great freedom and equality for women. And lower caste people.
However, it can be concluded that it is stressed more on modernization and not on
Westernization through.
• The aim of these reformers was never to replace the local culture of India with
Western culture. Rather they simply assimilated some Western values which were
desirable for development of society’s scientific temper and human values.
As concept of westernization means – Imitation of culture and values of
Western countries by non Western countries can’t be seen in this case. Where as
modernization has a wider connotations. It means adopting modern style of –
scientific ways and ideas of thinking – leaving this is evident through their
• There was emphasize more on the interpretation of scriptures and simplification of
rituals rather than out rightly mitigating Westernization.
• Swami Vivekananda sought to bring reform through the interpretations of Vedas in
context of changing world. He stressed on idea of social service and selfless action.
• Similarly, Raja Ram Mohan Roy had great belief in Western thoughts, yet he did give
importance to Vedas and Upanishads.
• Mahatma Phule and his wife Savitribai Phule both worked for upliftment of
untouchables and women education which was in Derogatory state.
• Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar and Mahadev Ranade as effort to lead women reform
like Widow remarries act by British in 1856 by Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar effort
and social awakening through organizations like widow Remarries Association By
MG ranade.
• In India, social reform did not occur on similar lines of Western societies as it took
years of effort to plant the seeds of equality, new moral thinking’s, ethical ideas,
and this moment carried forward In 20th century 2.
The socio religious movement to a large extent was successful in penetrating modern ideas
among Indian society, which leads to social reform in society. At a large extent it removed
superstitions, Orthodox customs and rituals and this resulted into laying foundation for
freedom struggle later.

Answer –
Dadabhai Naoroji “the great old Man of India” in his Drain of wealth theory, earmarked
that the main focus of British was to maximization of drain through revenue and Other
means. So as to make a constant flow of national wealth from India to England, The British
Land revenue Policy was one of such gateway.
British Land revenue policy.
Before British, tax on land was a major source of revenue for the Kings and emperors from
ancient time in India and over The years pattern of ownership changed.
• For example, during kingship, the King gave jagir to Jagirdar and Jagirdar
reallocated it to Jamidar, and then it passed to the Peasants who are actual
But during British the 3 major system of land revenue were introduced with sole purpose
of maximising revenue only.
• Zamindari system it was introduced by Cornwallis in 1793 through Permanent
settlement Act.
➢ Introduced in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa Varanasi, Zamindars recognized as
owner of land and the amount divided into 11 parts and 1/ 11 Part of
Zamindar and 10/11 to the British East India Company.
• Royatwari system. It was introduced by Thomas Munro in 1820 in major areas of
Madras, Bombay, parts of Assam, Kurg Province of British India.
➢ Here ownership was given to the Peasants and government collected the tax
directly from peasants.

Landlord – Zamindari system
Individual – Royatwari system
Village – Mahalwari system
• Mahalwari system. It was introduced in 1833 by William Bentick and Holt McKenzie
In Central Province, North West Frontier Province, Agra, Punjab and Gangetic Valley.
➢ It had many provisions similar to the Royatwari and zamindari system . But
here land was divided into Mahals , and ownership was given to peasants.
Each Mahal consisted of one or more villages.
Major factors behind British Land revenue policies in India
• Economic factor the land reform was seen as a gateway to fix and stable income for
the state. It also saved the government expenses that had to spend in making
collection. British needed land revenue to pay for purpose of raw material, meet the
cost of conquest of whole India, And pay for employment of thousands of
• To create a class of loyal Zamindars. – Through the major is Zamindari system, who
would be Prepared to defend the company at all cost.
• Agriculture based India society as then Indian society was predominately
agricultural and the revenue In form of rent tax was major resource. The other
sector, such as industries, were not fully developed and therefore maximising profit
through agriculture land.
• India as a market – For its finished goods and a source of raw material, this was
fulfilled by zero import duty And more export duty and gathered heavy revenues.
• Burden of war and administration. The expenses out of it was met by exploiting the
Indian masses by means of excessive revenues.
Thus, these British Land revenue policies led to exploitation distress in Indian society and
its impact is evident from –
• Pauperisation of the rural economy: The rural economy as a whole was affected. All
the classes from Zamindars to peasants were affected. Many lost their livelihoods
due to loss of land and right to cultivate.
• Shifting from food crops to cash crops: In order to meet the high revenue demand
the farmers had to shift from food to cash corps like indigo, cotton, which led them
to buy food grains at higher prices and sell the cash crops at low prices.
• Food scarcity and famines: The shifting to cash crops and decreasing productivity of
land badly affected the society in the form of famines. This led to many famines in
India, causing death of millions.
• Increase in money-lending: The land settlements introduced a market economy with
cash payments of revenue. This led to an increase in money-lending activities, which
put Indian peasants under debt, which were exploited by money lenders.
• Led to inequalities: The Land tenure system led to increase in social inequalities.
While rich defended their properties, the poor didn’t have any resources to do so.
Further due to illiteracy they were exploited by money lenders for interests.
• Handicrafts and industries affected: It impacted circular economy. The peasants and
Zamindars earlier had purchasing power to buy handicrafts. Loss of income of
peasants affected the handicrafts industry too. Handicrafts men resorted to
agriculture that further put pressure on land. The industries were affected due to
lack of raw materials.
• Impact on local administration: It deprived village panchayats of their two main
functions: land settlements and judicial and executive functions. Thus the old
politico-economic-social framework of village communities broke down.
The overall impact of the all this was stagnation and deterioration of agriculture. It led to
series of famines in 19th century. The unsustainable system led to series of peasant
revolts. The miseries of the peasant was one of the important cause for the revolt.

Mentorship – Geography

Answer –
According to the , Composite Water Management Index by NITI Aayog – 21, major cities of
India are moving towards zero groundwater level by 2020. And the decrease in use
traditional system of water conservation, Rapid urbanization, depleting water resources
and climate change is one of the way out.
India’s history of traditional system of water conservation.
India has wide temporal and spatial variation in the rainfall and because of this variation
different parts of Country have developed different traditional methods such as.
• Tanks in Karnataka. These are artificial reservoir to store water, taking advantage of
• Stepwells these are found in Gujarat and Rajasthan area provides water for
drinking, washing, bathing and irrigation of crops.
• Tanka system. It is used in Rajasthan, which is cylindrical ground pit which receives
rainwater from nearby catchment area.
• Bamboo drip irrigation. This technique is used in North Eastern Hill region and it is
suitable for irrigation.
• kuls. It has been used around centuries in Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and
Kashmir. These are division channels that carry water from glaciers to village.
The use of traditional water conservation techniques would be helpful in the time of
depleting water resource by means of.
• Sustainable and cost effective as they are small in size and easy to maintain.
• Protects the environment. Unlike modern method of conservation, like dams which
harms environment, these methods are environmentally suitable and sustainable.
• Community participation, for example rainwater harvesting, where whole community
needs it to work, and thereby every house have a system installed.
• Suitable to local masses – as local people familiar with these methods, it becomes
easier for them to adopt these methods.
But, in making use of these systems , its disadvantages shall be kept in mind such as –
• Low efficiency – due to this reason they are not suitable for large urban area.
• Not suitable for urban masses – due to unavailability of land & lack of traditional
• Lack of leadership – to make traditional system successful, there need to have
community participation & absence of strong leadership would fail it.
Thus , traditional system are ecological safe , viable & cost effective alternate to rejuvenate
India’s depleted water resources . combing these techniques with modern techniques could
be an answer to growing water crisis issues.
Looming water crisis in India due to –
• Industrial demand – Increasing industrialisation will increase from 20 bn cube
meter in 2000, to 161 bn meter cube 2050.
• Rising consumption – while consumption of water in India will increase by over
50%, the supply will increase by 5 – 10 % during next 12 – 15 years.
• Freshwater deficit – India’s water needs are dependent mainly on monsoon.
Environment changes & increasing population would put a stress over freshwater
• Insafe & poor quality – poor quality of water is reason for over 21% of countries
• Groundwater stress – 29% of groundwater blocks are critical or overexploited &
growing population is further increasing use of it.
How Atal Bhujal Yojana would help in preventing water crisis –

the government of India planned to introduced “Atal Bhujal Yojna with an aim to address
the problem of depleting ground water resources.
• Recharges of Groundwater Resources – Since groundwater contribute to 65% pf
India’s total irrigated area, with Atal Bhujal Yojna government seeks to promote
ground water management with primary focus om demand side management.
• Behavioural changes – The schemes seeks to strengthen the institutional
framework & bring about behavioural changes at community level for sustainable
groundwater resources management.
• Community participation – scheme envisages community led water security plans &
their active participation.
• Institutional strengthening & capacity building – for sustainable ground-water
management in states.
• Co-operative federalism – incentive would be given to the states for achievements
in improved groundwater management practices.
Way forward –
• Rain catchment area programmes – must be framed and put in place because most
of the water is displaced or dried up instead of use.
• Drip irrigation – should be incorporated more aggressively in policy as it reduces
water wastage and also ensures food security.
• There should be a long term planning for uses of water as government should put
limit on extraction of water and water should be metered and priced.
• The more efforts, like. Paani Foundation by Aamir Khan. To create awareness on
water shortage should be done and share traditional knowledge of water storage.
and role of civil society and organization is needed aggressively.
Hence we need to promote a decentralised approach with a key focus on water
conservation, resources, stability, storage and reuse wherever it possible.

Answer –
Indian drainage system consist of a large number of small and big rivers. . It is outcome of
evolutionary process of The 3 major physiographic units and nature and characteristics of
Classification on the basis of discharge of water. The Indian. Drainage system can be
classified into 2 parts on the basis of discharge of water.
• Arabian Sea drainage
• Bay of Bengal drainage.
They are separated from each other by Delhi ridge the aravallis and sahyadris.
• Nearly 77% of drainage area consisting of the Ganga, Brahmaputra, Mahanadi,
Krishna is oriented towards Bay of Bengal & 23% comprising Indus, Narmada, Tapi,
Mahi, Periyar etc. system discharge their in Arabian sea.
• Rivers of the inland drainage basin – ( endorheic basin) when river doesn’t reach
upto sea disappear into sand – such a region is called an area of inland drainage.
They are ephemeral streams example Ghaggar in Haryana , Luni river in Rajasthan,
Aksai chin region in ladakh.
• On the basis of the watershed –
➢ Major river Basin – with more than 20000 catchment area as Ganga,
Krishna etc.
➢ Medium river basin – between 2000 – 20000 catchment area as
Periyar, Kalindi etc.
➢ Minor river basin – its catchment area is less than 200p
• on basis of mode of origin, nature & characteristics –
➢ the Himalayan drainage
➢ the peninsular drainage
there is no clear cut demarcation between two drainage as many of peninsular rivers like
chambal, betwa , son are much older in age & origin than Himalayan river.

The comparison between Himalayan & Peninsular river drainage –

Himalayan river. Peninsular
These rivets originate from
the lofty Himalayan ranges
and are named as the
Himalayan rivers.
These rivers originate in the
Peninsular Plateau and are
named as Peninsular rivers.
Catchment area
These rivers
have large basins and
catchment areas. The total
basin area of the Indus, the
Ganga and the Brahmaputra
is 11.78, 8.61 and 5.8 lakh
square kilometres
These rivers have small basins
and catchment areas. The
Godavari has the largest basin
area of 3.12 lakh square
kilometres only which is less than
one-third the basin area of the
The Himalayan rivers flow
through deep V – shaped
valleys called gorges. These
gorges have been carved
out by down cutting carried
on side by side with the
uplift of the Himalayas.
The Peninsular rivers flow in
comparatively shallow valleys.
These are more or less
completely graded valleys. The
rivers have little erosional activity
to perform.
Drainage Type
These are examples
of antecedent drainage.
These are examples
of consequent drainage.
Water Flow
The Himalayan rivers
are perennial in nature, i.e.,
water flows throughout the
year in these rivers. These
rivers receive water both
from the monsoons and
snow-melt. The perennial
nature of these rivers makes
them useful for irrigation.
The Peninsular rivers receive
water only from rainfall and water
flows in these rivers in rainy
season only. Therefore, these
rivers are seasonal or nonperennial. As such these rivers
are much less useful for
These rivers flow across the
young fold mountains and
are still in a youthful stage.
These rivers have been flowing in
one of the oldest plateaus of the
world and have reached maturity.
The upper reaches of the
Himalayan rivers are highly
tortuous. When they enter
the plains, there is a sudden
reduction in the speed of
flow of water. Under these
circumstances these
rivers form meanders and
often shift their beds.
The hard rock surface and nonalluvial character of the plateau
permits little scope for the
formation of meanders. As such,
the rivers of the Peninsular
Plateau follow more or
less straight courses.
Deltas and Estuaries
The Himalayan rivers
form big deltas at their
mouths. The GangaBrahmaputra delta is the
largest in the world.
Some of the Peninsular rivers,
such as the Narmada and
the Tapi form estuaries.
Other rivers such as the
Mahanadi, the Godavari, the
Krishna and the Cauvery
form deltas.
Several small streams originating
from the Western Ghats and
flowing towards the west enter
the Arabian Sea without forming
any delta.
The Indian drainage system , which drains out the maximum part into seas should be
utilised in such manner that it shouldn’t harm the ecology and biodiversity but maximum
water should be used for development purpose. The water recycling should also be
included as it is very important for sustainable use of water.

Mentorship – Geography

Answer –
Indian Ocean dipole is an atmosphere – Ocean coupled phenomena in the Indian Ocean,
characterised by a difference in the sea surface temperature and it also hold long lasting
impacts on Indian monsoon.
• Indian Ocean dipole is the difference between the temperature of Eastern Indian
ocean (Bay of Bengal ) and western Indian Ocean – Arabian Sea. Indian monsoon
depends on not only El- Nino, La Nina but also IOD and other such ocean
phenomena’s also impacts.
The Characteristics of Indian Ocean dipole are as follows –
• Temperature difference. Indian Ocean dipole occurs because of temperature
difference. This temperature difference results into pressure difference which results
into the flowing of winds between Eastern and western parts of Indian Ocean.
• Development. It develops in the Equatorial region of Indian Ocean from April to me
and peaking in October.
• Phases it has 3 phases, neutral positive and negative phase of.
➢ Neutral phase. In this phase, water flows from Pacific between Indonesian
island keeping sea worm To the northwest of Australia. The air rises above
the area and fall across the western half of Indian Ocean basin blowing
westerly wind along the equator.
➢ Positive phase of IOD – During this phase the westerly winds weakend along
the equator, allowing warm water to move to Africa. A temperature
difference is created across the tropical Indian Ocean with Cooler than
normal water in the East and warmer than normal water in the West. This
event is beneficial for Indian monsoon.
➢ Negative phase of Indian Ocean dipole. During this phase , westerlies
intensify along the equator, allowing the concentration of warm water near
Australia. This creates a temperature difference across tropical Indian Ocean
with warmer than normal water in East and cooler than normal water in
West. This event obstructs the progression of Indian monsoon.
The impact of Indian Ocean dipole on Indian monsoon can be analysed as.
• Increased rainfall due to positive IOD: There is no established correlation between
Indian summer monsoon rainfall and IOD. But, studies have shown that a positive
IOD year sees more than normal rainfall over central India. It was demonstrated that
a positive IOD index often negated the effect of El Nino Southern Oscillation
(ENSO), resulting in increased Monsoon rains in several ENSO years. For example,
positive IOD had facilitated normal or excess rainfall over India in 1983, 1994 and
1997 despite an El Nino in those years.
• Droughts Due to negative IOD: A negative IOD, on the other hand, complements El
NiNo leading to severe drought.
• Cyclones: At the same time, positive IOD results in more cyclones than usual in
Arabian Sea. Negative IOD results in stronger than usual cyclogenesis (Formation of
Tropical Cyclones) in the Bay of Bengal. Cyclogenesis in Arabian Sea is suppressed
during this time.
Thus, an IOD can either aggravate or weaken the impact of El Nino on Indian monsoon. If
there is a positive IOD, it can bring good rains to India despite an El Nino year. Similarly,
during years such as 1992, a negative IOD and El Nino had cooperatively produced
deficient rainfall.

Answer –
India has an exclusive economic zone of 2.02 million sq km along coastline of 7500
kilometre with rich and diverse marine living Resources which holds potential for possible
economic growth unless we explore it Sustainably.
The economic potential of Indian coastline
• Coastal Plains are the area with fertile soil. And are substitutable for cultivation. For
example, rice is major crop cultivated in this reason.
• Ports, the major and many minor ports are means of commercial activities which are
situated along the coastline like Jawaharlal Nehru Port, Kalapur etcetera.
• Minerals and oil. The sedimentary rock along the coastline are said to contain large
deposit of mineral oil and can Boost economy. Ask Bombay high. Is. The major oil
producing field in India.
• Source of livelihood. The fishing. And fishery Are major occupation in the of the
people living in the coastal area. While export industry also provides the means of
(just denote the coastal India in your diagram & also denote some major ports, coastal
plains also denite Bombay high & other oil field , denote the Marine rich area like Ganga
Brahmaputra delta , KG Delta western Ghats , denote the Sir creek area in Gujrat , denite
PMN in near Lakshadweep , A& nicobar , also denote Coral reefs islands…….in you
diagram……… if its not there in you diagram number may get cut )
There ocean exploration should be done sustainably to full fill the needs of growing
because rising challenges and increasing threat can only be countered by sustainable and
optimum use of oceanic resources. Hence the ocean exploration is needed as –
• Minerals: Indian Ocean contain vast amount of minerals, including the cobalt, zinc,
manganese and rare earth materials. These minerals are needed for electronic
industry to make smart phones, laptops and car components etc. This can help
Make in India initiative.
• Energy resources: The main energy resources present in Indian Ocean are
petroleum and gas hydrates. Petroleum products mainly includes the oil produced
from offshore regions. Gas hydrates are unusually compact chemical structures
made of water and natural gas. Deep ocean mission along with these resources
would help in exploiting tidal energy and resources.
• Manganese Nodules and Crusts: Manganese nodules contain significant
concentrations of manganese, iron and copper, nickel, and cobalt all of which have
a numerous economic uses.
• Sustainable development: Marine resources from Indian Ocean would serve as the
backbone of India’s economic growth and can help India to become a 5 trillion
dollar economy by 2022. Blue economy, through sustainable use of oceans, has
great potential for boosting the economic growth.
• Employment generation: It will provide jobs, improved livelihoods to many. This will
help in inclusive growth.
• Climate Change: It will help in study Impact of climate change on ocean. This would
help India to prepare for any disaster due to climate change. Also, Oceans provide
an alternate and more cleaner source of energy. It also act as an important carbon
sink. This will help in mitigating climate change.
• Disaster preparedness: Information from deep-ocean exploration can help predict
earthquakes and tsunamis.
• Nation’s Security: It will play a significant role in the security of the nation as many
critical military technologies rely heavily on rare earth elements which are abundant
in Ocean.
• Technological advancements: It can also help us in innovating technologies from
underwater vehicles to underwater robotics.
• Health industry: Unlocking the mysteries of deep-sea ecosystems can reveal new
sources for medical drugs, food, and other products.
Importance of coastal exploration for India’s economic growth –
Since , growing population of India is prosing many challenges before Indian
administration. To fulfill their needs, the new aspects are to be excavated like marine
economy. Hence importance to marine exploration can be understood as –
• Resources: It is important to enhance coastal resource efficiency and utilisation.
Indian Ocean contain vast amount of minerals, including the cobalt, zinc,
manganese and rare earth materials. These minerals are needed for electronic
industry for manufacturing smart phones, laptops and car components etc.
Seawater also contain economically useful salts such as gypsum and common salt.
Gypsum is useful in various industries. This would help Make in India initiative.
• Sustainable development: Marine resources from Indian Ocean can serve as the
backbone of India’s economic growth and can help India to become a $5 trillion
economy by 2022. Blue economy, through sustainable use of oceans, has great
potential for boosting the economic growth.
• Good governance: Coastal ecosystem is important to build of collective capacity of
communities and will enhance decentralised governance for adopting and
implementing integrated coastal management approaches. This would help in
participation of local people leading to good governance which is important for
sustainable and inclusive growth.
• Tourism: Coastal ecosystem include creation of infrastructure for tourism,
restoration and recharge of water bodies, beach cleaning and development, and
other small infrastructure facilities. This is important to promote tourism in
environment friendly way.
• Employment generation: It will provide jobs, improved livelihoods to many. This will
help in inclusive growth. E.g improving fishery resources exploitation can provide
livelihood to many. Livelihood improvement initiatives like demonstration of climate
resilient or salinity resistant agriculture, water harvesting and recharge/storage,
creation of infrastructure and facilities to support eco-tourism, community-based
small-scale mariculture, seaweed cultivation, aquaponics etc. would do value
addition to other livelihood activities.
• Pisciculture: Marine fisheries wealth around Indian coastline is estimated to have an
annual harvestable potential of 4.4 million metric tonnes. Thus coastal management
would provide a boost to fishery sector through development of infrastructure.
• Energy security: The main energy resources present in Indian Ocean are petroleum
and gas hydrates. Petroleum products mainly includes the oil produced from
offshore regions. Gas hydrates are unusually compact chemical structures made of
water and natural gas. Along with this tidal energy is also important that would
provide electricity to locals.
• Food security: It will lead to food security through fishery sector and other sea food
resources. It would also help in reducing malnutrition issue in India as fishes are
good source of nutrition.
• Efficient transportation and logistics: Coastal ecosystem require development of
infrastructure around the coasts. Coasts are major gateway of trade. Better
connectivity in the region will significantly cut the transport cost and will reduce
logistics inefficiencies.
Hence the coastal region of India holds a economic potential to make India Atmanirbhar
and using local things for global usages. The exploration should be in line with SDG – 14 (
life below water) would reap good benefits. The schemes like Sagarmala, Deep ocean
mission etc. will boost the participation of blue economy in India.

Mentorship – Geography

Answer –
The various landforms like mountain, Valley etc. are result of various to Geomorphic
processes which slowly continues to shape them and helps to understand and study them.
The major geomorphic process are 2 which are opposing process like Endogenic &
Geomorphic process –
• Geomorphological processes are natural mechanisms of erosion, weathering, and
deposition that result in the alteration of the surficial materials and landforms at the
surface of the earth.
• The exogenic and endogenic forces cause chemical actions and physical pressures on
earth materials
• This brings about changes in the shape of the surface of the earth which is known as
geomorphic processes.
Endogenic movements: The energy emanating from within the earth is the main force
behind endogenic geomorphic processes. The earth movements are mainly of two
types: diastrophism and sudden movements.
• Diastrophism: All processes that move, elevate or build up portions of the earth’s
crust come under diastrophism. They include:
❖ Orogenic processes involving mountain building through severe folding and
affecting long and narrow belts of the earth’s crust. They act tangentially to
the earth’s surface, as in plate tectonics.
❖ Tension produces fissures (force acting away from a point in two directions)
❖ Compression produces folds (force acting towards a point)
• Epeirogenesis processes involving uplift or warping of large parts of the
earth’s crust, thus it is a continental building process. They act along the earth’s
radius and thus are also called radial movements.
• When direction of movements is towards, it is subsidence.
• When it is away, it is uplift from the center. For ex: Raised beaches, elevated wavecut terraces, sea caves, etc.
• Sudden movements: They cause considerable deformation over a short span of
time, and may be of two types: earthquakes and volcanoes.
• Exogenic forces are a direct result of stress induced in earth materials by various
forces that come into existence due to sun’s heat. They may face shear stresses that
break rocks and other earth materials or molecular stresses caused due to
temperature changes.
All the exogenic geomorphic processes are covered under a general term, denudation.
Weathering, mass wasting/movements, erosion and transportation are included in
Thus, the above mentioned geomorphic processes are critical to provide the unique
structure of Earth’s crust..

Answer –
The ocean current are continuous movement of water in the ocean that follows set path
head, sometimes described as kind of rivers in the ocean.
Ocean current there are 2 type of ocean current
• Based on depth. This can be further divided into 2 parts like Surface Current which
constitute of 10% of all water in the ocean and deep water current constitute 90%
of ocean and guided by thermohaline circulation.
• Based on temperature it is also further classified into 2 types
❖ Cold current – this flow from polar reason to equatorward & have lower
surface temperature for example – Canary current in North Atlantic Ocean.
❖ Warm current – switch flow from Equatorial region towards polar areas and
having high surface temperature. For example Brazilian current in South
Atlantic Ocean.
Factors responsible for the origin and modifications of ocean currents:
Primary forces Secondary forces
Solar energy: Heating by solar energy
causes the water to expand. This causes
a very slight gradient and water tends to
flow down the slope causing ocean
current. The flow is normally from east to
Difference of density and salinity: It is
attributed to density differences in
different layers of ocean waters. Heavier
water sinks and causes the overlying
surface water to move in its space. This
gives rise to global oceanic circulation.
Planetary winds: Planetary winds are the
principal cause of the origin of ocean
currents. Such winds drive surface water
along with them.
Coastline shape: The shape of coastline
is also an important factor that affects
the current in the oceans.
Earth rotation and gravity: The rotation
of the Earth causes Coriolis force which
affects the direction of movement of
water and leads to formation of ocean
currents. Gravity tends to pull the water
down to pile and create gradient
Other factors: Accumulation of water on
east coasts leads to gravity induced
movements down the slope. Wind, Coast
line and inundation, large river
discharge, presence of partially enclosed
seas also modify ocean currents.
Coriolis force: This force intervenes and
causes the water to move to the right in
the Northern Hemisphere and to the left
in the Southern Hemisphere. These
produce large circular currents in all the
Ocean basins. One such circular current
is in the Sargasso Sea.
Temperature difference: Cold-water
ocean currents occur when the cold
water at the poles sinks and slowly
moves towards the equator. Warm-water
currents travel out from the equator
along the surface, flowing towards the
poles to replace the sinking cold water.
Indian Ocean circulation.
The circulation currents of Indian Ocean is different from the Pacific and the Atlantic Ocean.
The Indian Ocean is surrounded by huge landmass of Eurasia in the north and is only half
the ocean. Hence the circulation in the South Indian Ocean is similar to the other two
oceans while the circulation in the North Indian Ocean is completely different. The
monsoon winds also play a peculiar role in the reversal of the direction of currents in the
North Indian Ocean.
The North Indian Ocean Circulation
The currents in the North Indian Ocean are affected by the landmass of Eurasia and the
monsoon winds. Hence there is a change in the direction of the currents from season to
season in response to the seasonal rhythm of the monsoons.
Summer Circulation
• The North Equatorial current and counter equatorial current is absent in summer.
• Due to the influence of south-west monsoon and the absence of north-east trade
winds, a strong current flows from west to east in the summer season.
• The South-West monsoon Drift originates is summer and from June to September,
the North Equatorial current is replaced by an easterly movement of water.
• Thus the circulation of currents is in a clockwise direction.
• Somali current is also formed in summer by the eastward movement of water
caused by the South-West monsoon Drift. It flows from the ‘Horn of Africa’ in the
north-east of Africa. It is a cold current and due to the region of upwelling, Somali
and its neighbouring countries are arid.
Winter Circulation
• North Equatorial current is formed in winter under the influence of North-east
• It originates from the south of Indonesia and flows from east to west towards the
south of Srilanka.
• The North-East Monsoon Drift is also formed in winter starting from December
when the North-East monsoon causes a westwards and southwards drift along the
eastern coasts of India and along the Arabian coast.
• This generates an anti-clockwise circulation in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of
Southern Indian Ocean
The circulation in South Indian Ocean is continuous unlike North Indian Ocean and is not
affected by the change of seasons.
• South Equatorial Current: The South East Tradewinds originate the South
Equatorial Current. It flows from east to west and is a warm current. The flow of
this current is strengthened by the South Pacific Equatorial current through
• Equatorial Counter Current: At the equator, there is upwelling in winter due to
North and South Equatorial currents and this causes the generation of
Equatorial counter current.
• The South Equatorial current splits into two branches by the Madagascar
Island: The Madagascar current and the Mozambique current.
• These flow along the east of Madagascar and east of Mozambique respectively
to converge at the Cape of Agulhas. Henceforth this current is known
as Agulhas current.
• All the three currents are warm currents.
• The Agulhas current joined by the West Wind Drift or the Antarctic Circumpolar
Current and is deviated to its justify by the landmass of Australia.
• This flows as the West Australian current along the west coast of Australia in the
northern direction to finally reach the South Equatorial current, thus completing
the anti-clockwise circulation in the South Indian Ocean.
• Since it is formed by West Wind Drift, West Australian current is a cold current.
However , currents of North Indian Ocean demonstrate more dominant effects of winds on
circulation of ocean current.
Thus, understanding ocean current help to understand various changing pattern of
climate & influencing factors which then decide the strength of monsoonal rainfall in Indian

Mentorship - Geography

Answer –
The earth crust is constantly undergoing geological changes caused by Endogenic like,
orogenesis and exogenous like denudation process giving rise to various present
landforms and weathering is one of the phase of denudations process.
Denudations process. In geology, denudation involves the processes that cause the
wearing away of the Earth’s surface by moving water, by ice, by wind, and by waves,
leading to a reduction in elevation and in relief of landforms and of landscapes.
• Denudation incorporates the mechanical, biological and chemical processes of
erosion, weathering and mass wasting. Denudation can involve the removal of both
solid particles and dissolved material. These include sub-processes of cryo-fracture,
insolation weathering, slaking, salt weathering, bioturbation & anthropogenic
impacts .
• Factors affecting denudation include:´
❖ Anthropogenic activity
❖ Biosphere
❖ Climate (most directly in chemical weathering)
❖ Geology
❖ Surface topography
❖ Tectonic activity
All 4 phases of denigration take play simultaneously in different parts of world at different
rates and depending upon various physical constituent has given above.
Along with endogenic forces, Earth’s surface is being continuously subjected to by external
forces originating within the earth’s atmosphere (exogenic forces) like weathering, mass
movements, erosion and deposition.
Weathering – Weathering is defined as mechanical disintegration and chemical
decomposition of rocks, through the action of various elements of weather and climate.
Weathering occurs in situ, with little or no movement. Weathering can happen in three
• Chemical Weathering – A group of weathering processes i.e. solution, carbonation,
hydration, oxidation and reduction act on the rocks to decompose, dissolve or
reduce them to a fine clastic state through chemical reactions by oxygen, surface
/soil water and other acids.
• Physical Weathering – They are caused due to applied forces which can be
gravitational forces, thermal expansion forces, water pressures etc. The repeated
action of these processes cause damage to the rocks.
• Biological Weathering- It is contribution to or removal of minerals and ions from the
weathering environment and physical changes due to growth or movement of
organisms. Burrowing and wedging by organisms like earthworms, termites, rodents
etc., help in exposing the new surfaces to chemical attack and assists in the
penetration of moisture and Human beings by disturbing vegetation, ploughing,
and cultivating soils also help in creating new contacts between air, water, and
minerals in earth materials.
Thus, weathering is first step in formation of soil from rocks & leads to natural soil
enrichment & mineral enrichment through deposition, transportation or leaching process.
The effects of most of the exogenic geomorphic processes are small and slow and may be
imperceptible in a short time span, but in the long run play an important role.

Answer –
Seafloor spreading is a process that occurs at mid-ocean ridges, where new oceanic crust
is formed through volcanic activity and then gradually moves away from the ridge.
• That is, it explains why the age, thickness, and density of the oceanic crust increases
with distance from the mid-oceanic ridge.
• The idea that the seafloor itself moves (and carries the continents with it) as it
expands from a central axis was proposed by Harry Hess.

Sea floor spreading theory –
• According to this theory, the intense heat generated by radioactive substances in
the mantle (100-2900 km below the earth’s surface) seeks a path to escape and
gives rise to the formation of convection currents in the mantle.
• Wherever rising limbs of these currents meet, oceanic ridges are formed on the
seafloor and, wherever the failing limbs meet, trenches are formed.
• Adds new material to the ocean floor while pushing older rocks away from the
• New ocean floor forms along cracks in the ocean crust as molten material erupt
from the mantle spreading out and pushing older rocks to the sides of the crack.
• The new ocean floor is continually added by the process of sea-floor spreading.
Evidences that established the sea floor spreading theory –
• Evidence from Molten Material – Rocks shaped like pillows(rock pillows) show that
molten material has erupted again and again from cracks along the mid-ocean ridge
and cooled quickly.
• Evidence from Magnetic Stripes – Rocks that make up the ocean floor lies in a
pattern of magnetizing stripes that hold a record of the reversals in Earth’s
magnetic field.
• Evidence from Drilling Samples – Core samples from the ocean floor show that older
rocks are found farther from the ridge; the youngest rocks are in the centre of the
• Subduction – Process by which the ocean floor sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench
and back into the mantle; allows part of the ocean floor to sink back into the
• Deep-Ocean Trench – This occurs at subduction zones. Deep underwater canyons
form where oceanic crust bends downward. As mariana trench , tonga trench etc.
• Paleo-magnetism – Paleomagnetic studies of rocks have demonstrated that the
orientation of the earth’s magnetic field has frequently alternated (geomagnetic
reversal) over geologic time.
❖ Paleo-magnetism led the revival of the continental drift hypothesis and its
transformation into theories of Sea Floor Spreading and Plate Tectonics.
The sea floor spreading solved the problem of younger age crust found at the midoceanic ridges and older rocks being found as we go away from the middle part of the
❖ It also explained why the sediments at the central parts of the oceanic ridges are
relatively thin.
The sea-floor spreading also proved the drifting of continents as propounded by Alfred
Wegener and helped in the development of the theory of plate tectonics.

Mains – Geography

Answer –
India is the fastest growing large economy in the world, with an enormous population,
favourable demographics and high catch-up potential due to low initial GDP per head.
Services sector is the largest sector of India.
• Gross Value Added (GVA) at current prices for Services sector is estimated at
92.26 lakh crore INR in 2018-19. Services sector accounts for 54.40% of total
India’s GVA of 169.61 lakh crore Indian rupees.
• With GVA of Rs. 50.43 lakh crore, Industry sector contributes 29.73%. While
Agriculture and allied sector shares 15.87%.
Hence it can be said that for India the service sector is driver of economy while
manufacturing is just pacing up to become driver.
The location of Industry at any place is affected by – raw material presence, cheap
labour, infrastructure, agglomeration of consumer etc. hence main industrial region of
India are as follows –
Industrial Regions in India ( just write 2 3 lines and maximum 4 or 5 industrial regions by
providing – reason for industrialisation in that area and main towns or area only . Draw a
diagram also )
India has several industrial regions like Mumbai- Pune cluster, Bangalore-Tamil Nadu
region, Hugli region, Ahmedabad-Baroda region, Chottanagpur industrial belt,
Vishakhapatnam-Guntur belt, Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut region and the Kollam
Thiruvanathapuram industrial cluster. The Industrial region are discussed below:
• Mumbai-Pune Industrial Region – It extends from Mumbai-Thane to Pune and in
adjoining districts of Nashik and Solapur. Besides, industrial development has been
rapid in Kolaba, Ahmednagar, Satara, Sangli and Jalgaon districts. Development of
this region started with the location of cotton textile industry in Mumbai. Mumbai,
with cotton hinterland and moist climate favoured the location of cotton textile
industry. Hydro-electricity was developed in the Western Ghats region to meet the
requirements of this industry. With the development of cotton textile industry,
chemical industry also developed. Important industrial centres are Mumbai, Kolaba,
Kalyan, Thane, Trombay, Pune, Pimpri, Nashik, Manmad, Solapur, Kolhapur,
Ahmednagar, Satara and Sangli.
• Hugli Industrial Region – It extends from Bansberia in the north to Birlanagar in the
south for a distance of about 100 km along the Hugli River. Industries also has
developed in Mednipur in the west. Kolkata-Haora from the nucleus of this
industrial region. Kolkata emerged as a leading centre of the country. Later, Kolkata
was connected with interior parts by railway lines and road routes. Development of
tea plantations in Assam and northern hills of West Bengal, the processing of indigo
earlier and jute later coupled with the opening of coalfields of the Damodar Valley
and iron ore deposits of the Chotanagpur plateau, contributed to the industrial
development of the region. Cheap labour available from thickly populated part of
Bihar, eastern Uttar Pradesh and Orissa also contributed to its development. Cotton
textile industry also grew along with jute industry, paper, engineering, textile
machinery, electrical, chemical, pharmaceuticals, fertiliser and petrochemical
industries have also developed within this region. Important industrial centres of
this region are Kolkata, Haora, Haldia, Serampur, Rishra, Shibpur, Naihati, Kakinara,
Shamnagar, Titagarh, Sodepur, Budge Budge, Birlanagar, Bansberia, Belgurriah,
Triveni, Hugli, Belur, etc.
• Bangalore-Chennai Industrial Region – This region witnessed most rapid industrial
growth in post-Independence period. Till 1960, industries were confined to
Bangalore, Salem and Madurai districts but now they have spread over all the
districts of Tamil Nadu except Viluppuram. Since, this region is away from the
coalfields; its development is dependent on the Pykara hydroelectric plant, which
was built in 1932. Cotton textile industry was the first to take roots due to the
presence of cotton growing areas. Along with cotton mills, loom industry spread
very rapidly. Several heavy engineering industries converged at Bangalore. Aircraft
(HAL), machine tools, telephone (HTL) and Bharat Electronics are industrial
landmarks of this region. Important industries are textiles, rail wagons, diesel
engines, radio, light engineering goods, rubber goods, medicines, aluminium, sugar,
cement, glass, paper, chemicals, film, cigarette, match box, leather goods, etc.
Petroleum refinery at Chennai, iron and steel plant at Salem and fertiliser plants are
recent developments.
• Gujarat Industrial Region – The nucleus of this region lies between Ahmedabad and
Vadodara but this region extends upto Valsad and Surat in the south and to
Jamnagar in the west. Development of this region is also associated with the
location of the cotton textile industry since 1860s. This region became an
important textile region with the decline of the cotton textile industry at Mumbai.
Located in cotton growing area, this region has double advantage of the proximity
of raw materials as well as of market. The discovery of oil fields led to the
establishment of petrochemical industries around Ankleshwar, Vadodara and
Jamnagar. The port at Kandla helped in the rapid growth of this region. Petroleum
refinery at Koyali provided raw materials to a host of petrochemical industries. The
industrial structure is now diversified. Besides, textiles (cotton, silk and synthetic
fabrics) and petrochemical industries, other industries are heavy and basic
chemicals, motor, tractor, diesel engines, textile machinery, engineering,
pharmaceuticals, dyes, pesticides, sugar, dairy products and food processing.
Recently, largest petroleum refinery has been set up at Jamnagar. Important
industrial centres of this region are Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Bharuch, Koyali, Anand,
Khera, Surendranagar, Rajkot, Surat, Valsad and Jamnagar.
• Chotanagpur Region – This region extends over Jharkhand, northern Orissa and
western West Bengal and is known for the heavy metallurgical industries. This
region owes its development to the discovery of coal in the Damodar Valley and
metallic and non-metallic minerals in Jharkhand and northern Orissa. Proximity of
coal, iron ore and other minerals facilitated the location of heavy industries in this
region. Six large integrated iron and steel plants at Jamshedpur, Burnpur- Kulti,
Durgapur, Bokaro and Rourkela are located within this region. To meet the power
requirement, thermal and hydroelectric plants have been constructed in the
Damodar Valley. Densely populated surrounding regions provide cheap labour and
Hugli region provides vast market for its industries. Heavy engineering, machine
tools, fertilisers, cement, paper, locomotives and heavy electrical are some of the
important industries in this region. Important centres are Ranchi, Dhanbad,
Chaibasa, Sindri, Hazaribag, Jamshedpur, Bokaro, Rourkela, Durgapur, Asansol and
• Vishakhapatnam-Guntur Region – This industrial region extends from
Vishakhapatnam district to Kurnool and Prakasam districts in the south. Industrial
development of this region hinges upon Vishakhapatnam and Machilipatnam ports
and developed agriculture and rich reserves of minerals in their hinterlands.
Coalfields of the Godavari basin provide energy. Ship building industry was started
at Vishakhapatnam in 1941. Petroleum refinery based on imported petroleum
facilitated the growth of several petrochemical industries. Sugar, textile, jute, paper,
fertiliser, cement, aluminium and light engineering are principal industries of this
region. Important industrial centres are Vishakhapatnam, Vijayawada, Vijaynagar,
Rajahmundry, Guntur, Eluru and Kurnool
• Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut Region – This region is located far away from the mineral
and power resources, and therefore, the industries are light and market-oriented.
Electronics, light engineering and electrical goods are major industries of this
region. Besides, there are cotton, woollen and synthetic fabrics, hosiery, sugar,
cement, machine tools, tractor, cycle, agricultural implements, chemical and
vanaspati industries which have developed on large scale. Software industry is a
recent addition. To the south lies the Agra-Mathura industrial area which specialises
in glass and leather goods. Mathura with an oil refinery is a petrochemical complex.
Among industrial centres, mention is made of Gurgaon, Delhi, Shahdara, Faridabad,
Meerut, Modinagar, Ghaziabad, Ambala, Agra and Mathura.
• Kollam-Tiruvanantapuram Region – This industrial region is spread over
Tiruvanantapuram, Kollam, Alwaye, Ernakulam and Alappuzha districts. Plantation
agriculture and hydropower provide industrial base to this region. Located far away
from the mineral belt of the country, agricultural products processing and market
oriented light industries predominate the region. Among them, cotton textile, sugar,
rubber, matchbox, glass, chemical fertiliser and fish-based industries are important.
Food processing, paper, coconut coir products, aluminium and cement industries
are also significant. Important industrial centres are Kollam, Tiruvanantapuram,
Alluva, Kocchi, Alappuzha, and Punalur.
These industrial regions finally triggered the Urbanisation by means as –
Industrialization has historically leads to urbanization by means of.
• Creating economic growth and job opportunities. This leads to pulley maximum
number of people to the city’s, thereby increasing the migration for seeking and
• Industry laid demand for labours. It mostly remains high, which leads to
concentration of large section of Labour, skilled and unskilled to industrial sector.
This creates demand for their housing and other needs and finally lead to
agglomeration of urban centres.
• Increase in activities of real estate and construction sector further. In largest, the
spyce of towns and thereby urbanization.
• Education hub as industry required skilled and professional workforce. Many
education have gets located in town places.
• Infrastructure the government in order to cater to demand of industry sector as
root, water, electricity, transport etc. Quality infrastructure which in turn speed of
nation For example Smart City, project of Government of India is provided to. This
This positive industrial growth in manufacturing and service not only add value to
economic growth of country but also transfroms it Into urban world.

Answer –
Historically, India being known as agriculture economy has changed its identity from
primary to tertiary sector. the service sector which account for more than 55% of GDP and
36% of employment but still it fails to reap benefit from present demographic dividend.
• Demographic dividend defined by UN Population Fund is the economic growth
potential that can result from shift in a population as structure mainly when share of
working is population – 15 to 59 year of age is longer than nonworking share of
• India’s working is group population is 62.5% and will reach 65% by 2036 and
according to US it could add 2 points to the growth rate of GDP if utilised.
Failure of service sector to use demographic dividend.
• Recent report by UN PFA suggest that India’s demographic dividend is at risk with
unemployment at a 45 air high and poor health.
• Lack of expertise, skills and education being most important reason as large section
of people find no access to service sector like ITES, Telecom, BPOs.
• Number of people actually working from working is population is low As it is 64%.
This led to failure of service sector to accommodate and reap benefits from India’s rich
demographic dividend.
The ill-use of demographic dividend also finds its root in skipping the secondary sector in
India. The reason for such skips are –
• India’s success in software and IT-enables serviced (ITeS) exports, has made it a
significant services exporter with its share in world services exports rising from
0.6 per cent in 1990 to 3.3 per cent in 2013.
• Well educated and immense human resources, Fluency in English and availability
of cheap labour are other reasons for rapid growth of service sector in the
• On the other hand low growth in Secondary sector can be attributed to:
➢ The license Raj
➢ Restrictions on foreign investment
➢ Lack of measures to promote private industry
➢ Power Deficit
➢ Stringent Labour laws
➢ Lack of skilled labour
➢ Delays in Land Acquisition and environmental clearances
• Import of cheap manufactured goods etc.
• Globalisation and Liberalisation: Both the term influenced India almost at the same
time, which created a base to grow service sector. The globalization opened the
shifting of service sector job while liberalization opened the country’s market by
increased investment.
• Internal and external demand: The world wide demand of services sector with
increasing economy and purchase power has influenced greatly in growth of
service sector.

Mains – Geography

Answer –
In wake of covid19 , the biggest migration of people after 1947 in India had taken place.
Which started debate on migration , Socio-economic significance of migration and impacts
of various stakeholder. In context of that the migration in India can be defined as –
• Migration is defined as the movement of people from one place to another across
the political boundaries- national (internal) or international. It is an integral part and
an important factor in redistributing the population over time and space.
• Migrants who move within the boundaries of their own country are known as
internal migrants.
• There are four streams of Internal migration.
➢ Rural to urban (R-U)
➢ Rural to Rural (R-R)
➢ Urban to Rural (U-R)
➢ Urban to Urban (U-U)
Trend and pattern of Internal Migration in India:
• The Economic Survey of India 2017 estimates that the magnitude of inter-state
migration in India was close to 9 million annually between 2011 and 2016
• The 2001 census estimated the total number of internal migrants at 314 million
based on place of last residence, representing nearly 30% of the total population.
According to 2011 Census, the number of internal migrants were rose to 453.6
• The decadal growth in migration has gone up from 35.5% during 1991-2001to
44.2% during 2001-11.
• Uttar Pradesh and Bihar are the biggest source states (states from which people
migrate), followed closely by Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand,
Jammu and Kashmir and West Bengal
• The major destination states (states to where people migrate) are Delhi,
Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala.
The factors triggering the Internal Migration in India can be analysed as –
• Urbanization: An increase in the demand for labour in urban areas and better wages
increase migration.
➢ The pull factors of better job facilities, good salary, more income, medical
and educational facilities are attracting the rural people to move to the cities.
➢ The push factors of no job facilities, low salary, less income, drought, less
medical and education compel people towards cities.
• Marriage: Marriage is an important social factor for migration, from one rural area to
another rural or urban area, especially in case of females.
• Employment: Search for better employment in industries, trade, transport and
services results in R-U and U-U migration.
• Education: Due to lack of educational facilities in rural areas, people migrate to the
urban areas for better academic opportunities. In the 2011 census, about 1.77%
people migrated for education.
• Lack of security: Political disturbances and inter-ethnic conflicts is also a reason for
internal migration.
• Environmental and disaster induced factors force people to move from rural to
urban areas due to gradual deterioration of changing environmental conditions.
There can also be forced displacement due to reasons such as developmental
The migration is always in search of better opportunities, either because of push factor or
pull factors. Hence it has socio – economic impacts on various stakeholders which can be
analysed as –
• Opportunities and benefits:
➢ Labour Demand and Supply – Internal migration fills gaps in demand for and
supply of labour; and efficiently allocates skilled and unskilled labour; cheap
➢ Remittances – It provides remittances to households in the areas of origin;
increases consumer expenditure and investment in health, education and
assets formation
➢ Return Migration – When a migrant return to its place of origin, he/she
brings knowledge, skills and innovation (these are known as social
➢ Skill Development – Migration is an informal process of skill development. It
enhances knowledge and skills of migrants through exposure and interaction
with the outside world.
➢ Culture: Migration leads to intermixing of people from different cultures
which brings up a composite culture among the people.
• Impact on source areas:
➢ Migration changes the characteristics of the population in regions of out
migration-the proportion of old, children and females increases due to outmigration in source region.
➢ Remittances play an important role in bringing financial resources to the
migrant households and to the source areas
➢ Rural out‐migration may cause a tightening of the labour market in some
circumstances. For example: rural out migration has led to dearth of
agricultural workers in many areas.
➢ Feminization of agriculture: According to the Economic Survey 2017-18,
with growing rural to urban migration by men, there has been ‘feminisation’
of agriculture sector; there has been an increase in participation of women
as cultivators, labourers and entrepreneurs
• Impact on Destination Areas:
➢ Migrant labour provides comparatively cheap and pliable labour to the rural
and urban sectors in the destination areas. For example: In Gujarat, employer
strategies encourage migration to substitute surplus local labour for better
labour control.
➢ Large scale movement of people from rural to urban areas causes
overcrowding in cities and puts heavy pressure on urban infrastructure.
Improper urban planning coupled with large influx of poor migrants lead to
development slums lacking basic infrastructural facilities such as safe
drinking water, electricity, sewage, housing, security, hospital etc.
➢ In-migration also leads to demographic changes with large young male
population dominating the age-sex composition.
• Impact on Migrants (challenges faced by migrant workers):
➢ Employment in informal economy: Migrants dominate the urban informal
economy which is marked by high poverty and vulnerabilities. In an
unorganized and chaotic labour market, migrant workers regularly face
conflicts and disputes at worksites. The common issues they face are nonpayment of wages, physical abuse, accidents and even death at work.
➢ Issue of Identification documents: Proving their identity is one of the core
issues faced by poor migrant labourers at destination areas. The basic
problem of establishing identity results in a loss of access to entitlements
and social services, such as subsidized food, fuel, health services, or
education that are meant for the economically vulnerable sections of the
➢ Housing: Lack of affordable housing in Indian cities force migrants to live in
slums. Many seasonal migrants are not even able to afford rents in slums
force them to live at their workplaces (such as construction sites and hotel
dining rooms), shop pavements, or in open areas in the city
➢ Financial Access: Migrant workers have limited access to formal financial
services and remain unbanked
➢ Access to healthcare: Migrant worker have poor access to health services,
which results in very poor occupational health.
➢ Education of children: UNESCO’s 2019 Global Education Monitoring Report
(GEM Report) shows that children left behind by migrating parents and
seasonal migrants face fewer educational opportunities overall. According to
the report, 80% of migrant children across seven Indian cities did not have
access to education near worksites. Among youth aged 15 to 19 who have
grown up in a rural household with a seasonal migrant, 28% were identified
as illiterate or had an incomplete primary education.
➢ Social exclusion: There Is a growing hostility of urban governments, as well
as middle-class citizens, towards the urban poor, especially migrants to the
➢ Political exclusion: Migrant workers are deprived of many opportunities to
exercise their political rights. A 2011 study pointed out that 22% of
seasonal migrant workers in India did not possess voter IDs or have their
names in the voter list.
Enhancing livelihood opportunities for rural population is must to check the migration. The
government from time-to-time has taken various initiatives to combat farmers’ distress and
enhance livelihood opportunities in rural areas. Examples: Deendayal Antyodaya YojanaNational Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NRLM),Mahatma Gandhi National Rural
Employment Guarantee Act, Attracting and Retaining of Youth in Agriculture (ARYA).
Initiatives should be taken to foster social inclusion of migrants and reduce discrimination
as migrants provide the backbone to industry and also promotes globalisation by mixing
the culture. It’s dire need to foster the national strategy for – vocal for local, which will
justify the role of migrants in making India atmNirbhar.

Answer –
A cluster of dwellings of any type and size where human beings live is known as human
settlement. On the basis of size and type, patterns of human settlement are studied; hence,
a settlement could be very small (e.g. hamlet) and could be very large (e.g. metropolitan
The settlement at any area depends on various factors which are underlined as follows –
• Climate – The mild climate is preferable to human settlement and harsh climate
generally not preferable for human settlement. That is why the sparsely human
settlement is found in the equatorial region, desert areas, tundra, and polar region.
• Availability of potable water – Potable water is necessary for human survival. Hence,
dense settlements are developed along with the potable water bodies such as a river,
lakes, ponds.
• Fertile land – People prefer to live where fertile land is available. Northern Indian
plains are one of the dense human settlements. As Indo-Gangetic plain holds
settlement since 2500BC as Indus valley civilisation. Yet today the population density
of Bihar, West Bengal, Eastern UP is highest .
• Topography & terrain – People prefer to develop settlements where slopes are plain
or gentle. That is why very sparse settlements are developed in mountains, hills, and
rough terrain regions. As Himalayan state holds less population density and in
Arunachal Pradesh many districts hold 10 persons per square km.
• Transportation & communication – Dense settlements are developed along with
highways, railways, waterways, or airports. Like mumbai and Delhi, newYork etc. are
most populous cities because of infrastructural development. While Laddakh like
regions are less populated.
• Availability of economic opportunities – Economic opportunities attract people and
settlement, that is why cities are dense settle as compare to the village because of
economic opportunities.
• Law & order – People prefer to live where life and property are safe. As there is
migration from Terrorism hit area like sudan, Syria etc. to Europe.
• Pollution – The polluted places are not preferable for human settlement. This is the
main cause for outskirt agglomeration of settlement in New Delhi.
Since the settlements are largely depending on population, which are inhabitants. But the
17.7% decadal growth in population in India is prosing threats to sustainable settlements
as –
• Unemployment: Generating employment for a huge population in a country like India
is very difficult. The number of illiterate persons increases every year. Unemployment
rate is thus showing an increasing trend.
• Manpower utilisation: The number of jobless people is on the rise in India due to
economic depression and slow business development and expansion activities.
• Pressure on infrastructure: Development of infrastructural facilities is unfortunately
not keeping pace with the growth of population. The result is lack of transportation,
communication, housing, education, healthcare etc. There has been an increase in the
number of slums, overcrowded houses, traffic congestion etc.
• Resource utilisation: Land areas, water resources, forests are over exploited. There is
also scarcity of resources.
• Decreased production and increased costs: Food production and distribution have
not been able to catch up with the increasing population and hence the costs of
production have increased. Inflation is the major consequence of over population.
• Inequitable income distribution: In the face of an increasing population, an unequal
distribution of income and inequalities within the country widen.
• Ageing of Population: As per India Ageing Report 2017 by the United Nations
Population Fund (UNFPA) the share of the population over the age of 60 could
increase from 8% in 2015 to 19% in 2050. India will have to spend more on their
health along with geriatric care.
• Sustainable Urban Growth: UN report suggests that by 2050, the urban population
will be increased to 87.7 million and the number of urban agglomerations consisting
more than a million people is also expected to be doubled by 2035. Thereby creating
the need for improvisation of urban facilities with an emphasis on access to good,
affordable housing and mobility.
Conclusion –
• The proposed ‘Population Regulation Bill, 2019’ seeks to impose a two child norm.
However, it can add to the burden on women, by way of sex selective practices and
forced sterilisations. As the Economic Survey-2018 points out that ‘son meta
preference’ (the desire to have a male child)– has resulted in 21 million “unwanted
girls” in India.
Therefore, India needs to put in place the right policies to maximize the potential of its
people by enhancing the state of education, health and infrastructure, so that India figures
at better in various human development rankings.

Geography Qs -

Answer –
Natural resources are highly valued because human beings are dependent on them to fulfill
their fundamental needs that changes with time. The natural resources are Unevenly
distributed across the world.
Natural resources are material and constituent formed within environment or any matter or
energy that are resulting from environment used by living things as human use for food,
fuel, clothing and shelter.
• These comprise of water, soil, mineral vegetation, animals, air and sunlight.
the natural resources can be classified as.
• They can be biotic or abiotic These are derived from organic material or inorganic
• On the basis of amount of resource available for consumption of humans, it can be
classified as exhaustible and inexhaustible natural resources.
➢ Exhaustible resources are vegetation, animal, mineral ores, fossil or non
renewable fuels such as coal, petroleum, and natural gases.
➢ Inexhaustible or renewable sources are in ample amount, as example,
sunlight, air, water.
Since these resources are unevenly distributed across the world. Hence, Understanding the
distribution of natural resources is important.
Key natural resources in world –
It has been seen that most of the countries in the world are having natural
resources. Some have less amount while other countries are rich in a particular natural
resource. Economists stated that natural resources add wealth to nations.
In North America.
forest trees pine .
Redwood, sugar, pine, etc
are found.
Tobacco mash, potato
indigo , etc. are
In South America. The
tropical rainforest
deserts temperate and
cool climate are found.
Due to temperate and
Mediterranean type of climate
vegetation. The agricultural
product like oats, rye. Milate
agricultural products. And
meat products are also
Contributing in economy.
USA has the fossil fuel
Reserve Thorium Reserve,
while Mexico has bismuth
fluorite silver and Mercury.
The Coffee cocoa maize
, soya been citrus orange
sugar cane in Brazil are
main agricultural
While fisheries meat
products and wool are
main animal husbandry
The brazil is rich in
nibonium and iron ore.
etc. Are produced in
While meat production, egg
and silk are main animal
Oil, natural gas, gold, uranium
bauxite, copper gold Mercury
are main minerals found in
It is most abundant natural
resource reservoir.
Tropical desert temperate
Equatorial type vegetation
are found.
Millets, sorghum and fruits
are main agricultural
product while meat is main
animal product.
Cobalt copper bauxite oil
natural gas gold, uranium,
iron, diamonds are main
minerals found in Africa.
In Asia. Millets jowar,
vegetables, fruit nut,
wheat, spices are main
agricultural product.
Desert type tropical
humid and subtropical
type vegetation are
Eggs, fisheries, milk,
meat products are main
animal product.
Gulf countries are.
Reservoir of natural gas
petroleum crude oil.
While other minerals are
found in small amount .
The Oceania includes Australia,
New Zealand, which are huge
product producer of wool.
Australia is the largest
producer of iron ore and
minerals in the world.
Most important minerals are
bauxite, gold, iron ore,
coalfields, uranium resources.
Hence, with such variety of natural resources there is need for sustainable use of them In
line with sustainable development goal without any threat to future life.

Answer –
The countries like United States of America and Australia seeded the industrial activities
with use of natural resources and technology to achieve economic growth. But in case of
India, despite being Rich in flora and fauna and mineral resources, economic growth is not
seen as complementary with resource available.
India’s status in mineral Reserve.
India has an abundance of mineral deposits as.
• In Jharkhand and Orissa Steel production is done and India is the second largest
producer of steel in the world.
• In central India, North and eastern states of India, the coal is found in abundance
and India is the 4th largest producer of coal in the world.
• In iron ore production, India is 4th largest producer of world Which is widely
distributed across the country. The Main region are Chota Nagpur Plateau and some
parts in Karnataka as Babu Budan Hills.
• In Orissa, Maharashtra, Jharkhand Bauxites are found in abundance and India is
the 5th largest reserve Holder in the world.
Apart from mineral. Sector, which accounted for 1.53% of GDP. India is rich in other areas
also as.
• The Gondwana Region of India is abundant in natural resources like oil, gas, iron
ore , coal, Bauxite, gold, silver, etc.
• India has 7516.6 kilometre Long Mainland and 5422.6 kilometre Long Island
coastline which holds the potential for fishing , ocean polymetallic nodules
exploration and renewable energy like wind energy, tidal energy, etc.
• In India, the riverine areas all are also rich in natural resources. As recently the
natural gas is found in the Kauvery – Godavari basin natural gas potential of this
reason is another area which can be enquired.
Despite being such resource rich countries the optimum utilization of these resources is
not done in India, which hampered economic growth for most part of the country. The
reason for such Lagging are –
• Lack of inclusive policy in understanding the true potential of resources and its
sustainable use, thereby insuring economic growth of reason by means of providing
employment, creating it as industrial hub and environment impact assessment to
avoid Accident The lack of inclusive policy has been seen.
• No proper infrastructure at place. As most of mineral rich region of North eastern
India and Chota Nagpur Plateau are not properly connected with Road, Rail or
waterways connectivity & Large sedimentary Hills, Dense vegetation create
hindrance to the economic activities also.
• Lag in skill. As larger section of peoples, either unemployed or unskilled, resulting
in poor performance of industries in the sector which hinders the growth of
economy & region.
• The potential of resource complimenting economic growth is unnoticed over
corruption and Nexus between business, government, criminals etc which leads to
the unsustainable exploration of minerals From the mine and increasing in the
accidents as Example the recent coal mine accident in Meghalaya.
• Less fund attracting destination – The contribution to India’s economy is just 1.53%
of GDP compared to Australia’s 8% makes it less Fund attracting destination.
• Internal security is another issues as prevalence of Naxalites in the reason due to
conflict of local tribes and administrative further delayed any significant change in
economic growth of the reason.
Hence there is need to have a holistic approach to insure resource use sustainably and
economic growth of region thereby . The National mineral policy by the Government of
India is right Right step in this direction.


Answer –
According to ISRO – the 36.7% of lndia’s total arable and non arable land suffers from
various forms of degradation. The intensive cultivation & improper nutrient replenishment
have affected the soil fertility & deteriorated its capacity of yield. This have became the
main cause for the agricultural distress.
SOIL – soil is mixture of Rock debris and organic material which develops on earth surface.
• The major factor affecting soil formulation are relief , parent material, climate,
vegetation and other life forms and time.
• Component of soil are mineral particles, humus, water and air.
Good soil health, will amount to less agrarian distress as it helps in.
• For insuring economic and social development as more than 60% of population
gets employed and livelihood opportunities and the Indian agriculture is largely
• For food & nutrient security – if agri-produce from the field is adequate , it solves
the problem of food & Nutrition.
• Environmental Sustainability – as many micro & macro biological process are
directly and indirectly supported by good soil health, ensures environmental
sustainability & agroforestry would survive to earn more from farmers.
• Increase in income of marginal farmers – which are more than 89% of farmers if
soil fertility is good.
But , the constant decline in soil health is attributed to –
• Water erosion. The Chief Constituent factor in declining Soil health as it results in
loss of organic carbon nutrient imbalance, Soil compaction, decline in soil
biodiversity and contamination of soil due to heavy metals and pesticides. For
example, according to New Delhi based. NAAS Institute annual soil loss rate in
India is about 15.35% resulting in loss of 5.37 – 8.41 mha loss of nutrients.
• Chemical degradation. It is based on parameter like salinization acidification etc.
through chemicals. For example – 11 million ha of arable land suffers from acute
soil acidity.
• Toxic urbanisation – soil taxation through chemicals is increasing with urbanisation.
As more and more municipal & industrial wastes are being dumped in the soil. As
per study of India institute of soil science , Bhopal city has indicated such
• Imbalance use of fertilisers – as crop yield per ha is going low & loss in its fertility ,
soil health deteriorated due to excessive use of fertilizers also.
Thus analysing the need of Hour, government introduced soil health card , scheme to
create awareness & help agri sector. To replenish lost fertility & counter possible agrarian
distress. India also vouched to restore 26 mha by 2030 in UNCCD meeting.

Answer –
the recent devastating floods in Assam & North eastern states have resulted into loss of
lives & damage to the property , biodiversity of region. This is not the case of one part of
India but it was just a portion of that. Hence this is the time to call upon integrated
response to floods.
Why India needs Integrated flood management system ?
• High vulnerability to floods – as most of its geographical area is prone to annual
flooding like the river basin of ganga & Brahmaputra get flooded in each rainy
• Loss of lives & property – this has been always the reason for worry as social order
gets disturbed and also damages to economy. For example – in past 6 decades the
flood has costed 4.7 lakh crore.
• Poor adaptation & mitigation strategies – after 75 year of independence there is no
full proof plan for preparing floods in basins. There in no national level authority in
even after 43 year 1
st flood commission on India.
Then, what are the factors responsible for floods ?
Flood is usually a result of natural causes. It may also be caused by man-made factors. It
causes huge damage to life and property. There are many different causes leading to
flooding. Some prominent among them include:
• Massive Rainfall – Drainage systems and the effective infrastructure design aid
during heavy rains. They help the drainage of excess water into reservoirs in an easy
way. But in cases of heavy rainfall, the systems stop working. Thus flood is caused.
• Overflowing of the Rivers – The people living along the river always have a risk of
life from the overflowing of the Rivers. To prevent such a situation, a string of dams
are built. However, if these dams are not managed properly, they may cause flooding
and huge damage.
• Collapsed Dams – In the event of huge rainfall, the dams built begin to collapse.
Thus, causing the flood situation to become even critical for the people living
• Snowmelt – At the time of the high melting of snow due to heavy precipitation and
other factors, the situation of flooding arises. Adopting sustainable measures for
heavy precipitation can help in dealing with the flooding situation.
• Deforestation – The cutting of trees in a reckless manner i.e. deforestation is also a
major cause of man-made flooding. Trees prevent soil erosion and also the loss of
crops. The vegetation is also enriched as a result of more and more trees. This also
blocks the massive flow of rain, thus preventing flooding.
• Climate change – The climatic changes caused due to human practices also add to
the risk of flooding. Human beings cut trees in a large number, thus affecting the
process of photosynthesis. Thus increased level of carbon-di-oxide in the
atmosphere cause changes in climate posing threats of natural disasters like floods
• Emission of Greenhouse Gases – The burning of fossil fuels, the industrial influences,
the pollution all is depleting the level of the ozone layer and increasing the level of
greenhouse gases, becoming a major cause of man-made flooding.
• Other Factors – The broken supply lines cause the outflow of water but lead to less
damage. Also, there is water flow from the washing machines. Furthermore, overflow
from dishwashers worsens the situation. Also, the lack of proper sewage systems
adds to the destruction of this natural disaster.
Remedial measures –
• Disaster Preparedness Plan: A comprehensive flood management plan is needed
to include Disaster preparedness. This may require strengthening of the following:
➢ Flood Hotspot Mapping at local and regional scale.
➢ Management and regulation of riparian zones to prevent spilling and
➢ River flood modelling to prepare for incidences like reservoir breach and
emergency water release from dams.
➢ Advanced techniques such as mapping based on satellite imagery
and Geographic Information Systems will help in development of flood early
warning systems.
• Integrated Approach: Steps need to be taken for watershed management through
an integrated approach. Often these approaches involve both hard engineering
solutions and ecologically sustainable soft solutions.
➢ Hard Solutions: It involves civil engineering construction such as dams,
culverts and dykes, widening and deepening of river channels and
diversion channels to store and divert water to increase the lag time of
water reaching downstream.
➢ Ecological Soft Solutions: The solutions such as restoration and
management of riparian zones, afforestation along the river channels which
led to retention of rainwater and reduces the river discharge.
• Prioritising Buffers, Flexibility and Adaptability: This includes reviewing safety
criteria of dams and canals, re-building these with higher safety factors, creating
new intermediate storages, and introducing dynamic reservoir management.
• Reducing Disaster Risk Reduction: There is a need for efficient implementation of
the Sendai framework, this will reduce the vulnerability of any disaster.
• Focusing on Urban Flood Management: Keeping in view the fact that the problem
of Urban Flooding is becoming more severe and losses are mounting every year.
➢ the subject of urban flooding needs exclusive attention and the proper
implementation of NDMA guidelines on Urban Flooding 2016, is the need
of the hour.
Thus, it is the time for central & state government to have long term plan and a
coordinated approach to minimise devastating impacts of floods in the country.


Answer –
The monsoon type of climate are experienced in tropical region between 20 degree North
and South of equator. The region is influenced by the movement of inter-tropical
convergence zone (ITCZ) and is hot and humid all around the year because the sun
remains overhead.
Indian monsoon climate. It is of 2 division, namely.
• South West monsoon season. The high rainfall in this , is seasonal in characteristics
and divided into Bay Bengal branch and Arabian branch as it enters into India in
the period between June to September.
• Retreating monsoon season Under influence of North East Monsoon winds in period
of October to November, it is characterised by low precipitation to high
precipitation in various part of countries. As example, Tamil Nadu receives
maximum rain from North East monsoon
Factors determining Indian monsoon climate.
• The differential heating and cooling of land and water, Creating low pressure on
land mass compared to the high pressure on the sea.
• Shifting the position of Inter tropical convergence zone . It is also called monsoon
Trough. It is located over Ganga plain in this period
• The presence of high pressure area in East of Madagascar at 20 degrees South
approximately over Indian Ocean affects Indian Monsoon
• Tibetan plateaus – the heating of plateau during summer results in strong air
vertical current sand formation of low pressure over the plateau.
• The movement of Westerly Jetstream to the North of Himalayas and presence of
tropical easterly jet stream over Indian Peninsular region during summer.
• The Southern oscillation – . The normal condition of pressure and any further
change in it at South Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean result in periodic changes. In
pressure condition, called Southern Oscillation, which also affect Indian monsoon.
Also, the variation in the monsoon rainfall distribution is one of the main characteristic
of it. It can be realised from.
• Rainfall with highest precipitation – as largely guided by regional topography.
Western Ghat and Meghalaya receive the highest rainfall as more than 400
centimeters per year.
• Declining trend with increasing distance from sea as evidence from the fact that
coastal region like Konkan receive highest where as Marathwada region
remaining mostly dry in Maharashtra.
• Rain shadow area. The area which is Leeward side of the mountain receive less.
Rainfall has example Mahabaleshwar receives highest rain due to Sahyadri
mountains whereas. Wai bloc remain more or less dry.
• The special distribution is uneven as from 12 centimetre to more than 250
centimetre precipitation variation is there as in Western Rajasthan there is a less
than 12 centimetres Rainfall while in North East region – It is a more than 250
centimetre rainfall per year.
• North East Monsoon winds gives rain to the Tamil Nadu in eastern part of
Peninsula, whereas North India remains dry during this.
Hence monsoon climate with its variability it is a source of life to the 60% population of
India which largely depend on rainfed agriculture and for livelihood of people.

Answer –
The classification of climate is complex process and koppens climate classification scheme
is one of the most widely used climate classification scheme. With certain limitation. India
too classified its climate into 8 climatic region based on the above scheme.
Koppens climate classification scheme.
His scheme of climatic classification based on pattern of average precipitation, average
temperature and natural vegetation and their closed relationship.
• The categories are based on the data of annual and monthly averages of
temperature and precipitation.
• It recognises 5 major climatic type and each type is designated by Capital letter
• The season for dryness are indicated by small letters – f,m,w&s.
➢ f– No dry seasons
➢ m- monsoon climate
➢ w- winter dry season
➢ s- summer dry season
• the small letter a,b,c,d refers to the degree of severity of temperature.
Climatic groups according to Koppen’s –
Group Characteristics
A – Tropical The mean monthly temperature throughout the year is 18℃ i.e. Tropical
Monsoon ( Am)
B – Dry
Precipitation is very low in comparison to temperature & hence dry . If
dryness is less then semi arid & high then arid
C- warm
Mean temperature of coldest month is between 18 degree centigrade
and -3 degrees Centigrade. i.e. humid subtropical and Mediterranean.
D- cool
In temperature of warmest month is over 10 degrees Centigrade and
that of gold is under -3 degree Centigrade. As humid continental
E – ice
The mean temperature of warmest month is under 10 degrees
Centigrade. As tundra , polar ice cap .
H – highlands Cold due to elevations.
Accordingly , India divided its climate into 8 climate regions like As – Monsoon with dry
summer, Cwg – Monsoon with dry winter
However , there are certain limitations to this scheme as –
• The statics are based on temperature and precipitation and therefore precipitation
can only be estimated. Rather measured accurately.
• The comparison for. Open locality to another is difficult.
• He did not take into account the different weather elements like – Winds ,
precipitation intensity , amount of cloudiness & daily temperature extremes.
• It is largely empirical as it is based on fact and observations. The causative factor,
like climate has been totally ignored.
• The air masses, which impact climate of world also not included in this
• The letter symbol used by him are difficult to characterise the words.
Since Koppens classification of climate is based on statistical parameter, each climate
region can be precisely defined and studied.

Geography Qs

Answer –
The land of India contains great diversity in their physical features also. The North with its
rugged like topography due to series of mountains, Valley, gorges where as in South India
consisting of stable land with highly dissected plateaus, Denuded rocks and developed
series of scraps. In between these two, North Indian Plains lies.
Based on these micro variations, Indian physiographic is divided in 6 divisions as follows.-
• North and North eastern Himalayas. It contains Himalayas and North Eastern Hills.
❖ Himalayas vary in general orientation and large scale regional variation on
the basis of relief, alignment of range and geomorphological features.
Himalayas are divided in subdivisions like Kashmir, Himalayas, Himachal And
Uttarakhand Himalayas. Arunachal Himalaya etc.
• Northern plane they are formed by a level deposits from River like Indus, Ganga,
Brahmaputra and their tributaries which make it most fertile and supports economic
activities. This causes the population density and high population growth in this
• The peninsular plateau – It is irregular triangle shaped across Delhi ridge in
northwest to the Raj Mahal Hills in East and gir range in West & Cardamom Hills in
South. It is divided into many parts like Deccan plateau, Central Highland and
North eastern plateaus.
• Indian dessert northwest of Aravalli, great Indian Desert, also called Marusthal,
exists, with longitudinal dunes with few lakes with brackish water.
• The coastal Plains. The coastline of India is 7516.6 kilometres long. It is divided
into submerged western coastal Plains And narrow belt and emerge Eastern coastal
plain with broad belts.
• Islands – there are 2 major group of islands as Bay of Bengal Island Group
consisting of about 572 islands Like Andaman and Nicobar. And Arabian Sea Island
Group consisting of approx. 36 islands like – Dadra and Nagar haveli. Lakshadweep
Thus, this variety in physiography makes land differentiated into various landforms and

Answer –
Western Ghats, known for its rich biodiversity is also marked for not having major Delta
formation as the Peninsular River – Narmada, tapi etcetera do not carry enough silt &
sediments before drowning into Arabian Sea across Western Ghat.
Reason behind not formation of Delta.
• Topography of Western Ghats – western ghats are just close and continuous and
parallel to the western coast.
• Deccan platuesu slope. It is generally inclined towards East and therefore major
rivers flows towards East and very few flows towards West.
• The course of River. The Western River like Narmada, Tapi flows through Rift Valley
Sand Falls and have less scope to carry heavy gradient with them. Also their origin
is far from Western Ghats and did not form its own Valley.
• Tributaries – they are small as less number of tributaries, Joints main course of
River very less amount of sedimentation and discharge of water is added to it.
• Ideal condition for Delta Formation is missing as West flowing rivers are sorted with
high gradient and proximity to coast. Makes them less suitable for Delta Formation
• Stream velocity of River – it decreases as slope decrease and River with high
gradient result in high velocity thus forms estuaries and not deltas. Example River
kali estuary in Karwar of Karnataka.
• Coastline sea-water influences – sea currents washes little alluvial which is
deposited & It gives no opportunity for formation of Delta.
Hence in contrast to Western Ghat Eastern Ghats, which are not continuous, broken and
less gradient make it East flowing River to flow slow carry heavy scheduled. Before
drowning in to see forms Delta like Krishna, Godavari, Delta.


Answer –
With increase in green house gas emission & human induced activity are increasing the
climate change. This impact on ocean climate and marine pollution can be studies through
Biomarker – The pollution biomarker which are defined as quantitative measures of
changes in a biological system with respect to its normal status in response to pollutant
Use of biomarker in multi in pollution monitoring.
• For more clear analysis, the selection of an appropriate biomarker is must, as they
respond to the pollution differently.
• Most of ocean pollution is caused by invisible persistent events. Therefore missed
out and biomarkers are the tool which provide insights into this enquiry – e.g. coal
spill – The waste product from coal mining – low level of marine pollution but effect
on organs are long.
• The biomarkers used in pollution monitory, helps to establish the cause and gives
necessary data to inform any policy decision needs to be taken.
• This biomarkers are purely biochemical, manifesting themselves as damage to DNA,
Alteration to the activities of enzymes involved in metabolism, real damage to cells,
and their ability to perform properly.
Effect of climate change on marine pollution monitors. The changes are likely to affect the
biomarkers on 3 levels –
• First. Commonly used organism no longer be available as they migrate in further
North in the sea in search of cool water and they may get replaced by invasive
species from Warm water that are not sensitive to Warm water.
❖ The changing pattern of migration may increase the contamination of the
bodies which were previously contaminated.
• Second the feet of contaminants, indeterminate, determined by organisms, ability of
intake, which largely depend on temperature, pH and salinity, which is currently
under change due to climate change.
• Lastly Organism unable to migrate will experience increase distressed moving to
the changes in temperature, pH and Salinity.
Thus, evidence for climate change driven by pollution caused by human is overwhelming
and it is clearly evident from marine environment And through tools like biomarkers. There
is need for early warning to a direct hidden pollution level.

Answer –
Southern Ocean, also called the Atlantic Ocean, has ecological rich ocean basin and it plays
a critical role in how the carbon dioxide is taken out of atmosphere. This in turn helping
scientist to understand global climate change process and its transition from ice ages for
better prediction of current and future events.
How does it play important role in global climate change?
• By means of storing heat and carbon. Southern Ocean is our planets primary
storage of heat and carbon. Because it is estimated that to store 75% of global
Oceanic uptake of heat & Add 30% of global uptake of excess carbon from
• Antarctic Circumpolar current. Which connects all major ocean basins except Arctic
and is the largest ocean current on the planet and helps to keep Antarctica frozen.
And it plays important role in global climate change.
• Mixing of global current. Roaring 40s furious 50. Screaming 60s etcetera are blown
yearly uninterrupted across Southern Ocean. Which create massive waves in
Southern Ocean, resulting in mixing of warm water with cold water of Antarctic.
• The annual freezing and thawing of sea ice around Antarctica is the world’s largest
seasonal change.
• The Southern Ocean has been stable component of climate change and subjected to
the relatively begin global oscillation.
• Home of more than 9000 marine species and some of which are commercially
valuable and has been also major reason for exploitation of Southern Ocean &
increased human activities in the region.
• Since its discovery, Antarctica has been heavily exploited by people as Penguin for
Hence Antarctica or Southern Ocean is crucial for Oceanic one is equal system and level of
international cooperation should be at first place and easy communication, access to
receive possible threat to work mutually.
Growing level of carbon dioxide in ocean floor.
• The excess carbon dioxide in the sea is using all the seafloor calcite that has helped
to maintain pH level for the millennia. As in North West Atlantic Ocean, adjacent to
the Europe 40 to 100% of seafloor has been dissolved. At the most severe
• The calcium carbonate is still dissolving Carbon dioxide in the water.
• If human continues to emit carbon dioxide at the current level. There may be more
carbon dioxide in the ocean than before making sea extremely acidic.
Threats due to ocean acidification – The ocean acidification increased by 24% since
preindustrial level. It will have. Adverse impact as.
• It will adversely impact on marine food webs and Eco system.
• Increased acidification due to dissolved carbon dioxide would damage species with
calcium based cells and other species as well as example Coral reef.
• Increasing animal uptake of pollutants from the ocean floor such as copper, thereby
bringing change in DNA.
Hence, Oceanic acidification can alter competitive dynamics between species and raising
question over survival of marine ecosystem.

Geography Qs

Answer –
The air mass is a large volume of air in the atmosphere that is mostly uniform in
temperature and moisture. It is a large body of air, having little horizontal variation in
temperature and moisture.
Characteristics of air masses – ( keep 1 or 2 lines only in you answer )
• It must be large. A typical air mass is more than 1600 kilometres across and
several kilometres deep.
• At any given altitude in the air mass, its physical characteristics primarily
temperature, humidity, and stability are relatively homogeneous.
• It must be distinct from the surrounding air, and when it moves, it must retain its
original characteristics and not be torn apart by differences in airflow.
Formation of air masses – ( maximum 3 lines in your answer )
• When the air remain over a homogeneous area for sufficient longer time italic was
the characteristics of that area. The homogeneous reason can be vast ocean surface
or worst plane are plateaus called source reason.
• Air masses foreman integral part of global planetary vent system. Therefore they are
associated with one or another wind belt.
• They extend from surface to lower stratosphere.
• The main source reason are the high pressure belt in subtropics. Which gives rise to
the tropical air mass and around the poles such as source for polar air masses.
Role of air masses in micro climatic changes –
In a particular area, the occurrence of particular air masses helps to ascertain the climate of
that region. This in turn decides the type of flora and fauna as well as the type of crops that
can be grown. For instance,
• Precipitation: as example the maritime-tropical air over Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea
is a major reason for precipitation east of Rocky Mountains. It is also the cause of
persistent humidity in the summer season.
• Temperature: Maritime polar air affects the coastal temperature in subtropical and
arctic regions.
• Cyclones and anti-cyclones: Stormy cyclones form near the air-mass fronts. The mixing
of air masses will result in rising air feeding the cyclone formations in the subtropical
cyclone. Similarly, the warm maritime tropical air mass will provide the energy for
tropical cyclones.
• Drought: they are the result of hot, dry air mass. This can destroy natural vegetation
and kill trees. These regions have the increase risk of devastating wildfires. E.g.
California wild fires.
• At the boundaries between air masses, the clash of masses of air with different
characteristics can lead to dynamic weather like hail, tornadoes, high winds or ice
storms. E.g. tropical cyclones formed in east china sea.
Thus air masses spread across a massive region of more than 1000 kilometre or more.
They exercise a considerable influence on the climatic condition of reason over which they
lodge & carry with them distinctive, climatic feature of the source reason.

Answer –
Temperature inversion is a reversal of normal behaviour of temperature in the troposphere,
in which layer of cold air at the surface is overlain by a layer of warmer year.
Ideal condition for temperature inversion.
• Long winter nights: Loss of heat by terrestrial radiation from the ground surface
during night may exceed the amount of incoming solar radiation.
• Cloudless and clear sky: Loss of heat through terrestrial radiation proceeds more
rapidly without any obstruction.
• Dry air near the ground surface: It limits the absorption of the radiated heat from
the Earth’s surface.
• Slow movement of air: It results in no transfer or mixing of heat in the lower layers
of the atmosphere.
• Snow covered ground surface: It results in maximum loss of heat through
reflection of incoming solar radiation.
Impact of temperature inversion on weather –
• Dust particles in air: Due to inversion of temperature, air pollutants such as dust
particles and smoke do not disperse on the surface.
• Stopping the air circulation : It causes the stability of the atmosphere that stops
the downward and upward movement of air.
• Less rainfall: Convection clouds can not move high upwards so there is less
rainfall and no showers. So, it causes a problem for agricultural productivity.
• Lower visibility: Fog is formed due to the situation of warm air above and cold air
below, and hence visibility is reduced which causes disturbance in transportation.
• Thunderstorms and tornadoes: Intense thunderstorms and tornadoes are also
associated with inversion of temperature because of the intense energy that is
released after an inversion blocks an area’s normal convention patterns.
• Diurnal variations in temperature tend to be very small.
Effect of temperature inversion on habitat –
• Fog is formed due to the situation of warm air above and cold air below, and hence
Visibility is reduced due to the formation of fog hence it reduces visibility on
• Valleys may become very cold due to temperature inversion. People have to face
cool weather and hence migrate up to the hills.
• It may disturb the radio signals in the region as more of it is refracted from layers
above the cold air.
• Due to temperature inversion the dust particles get tapped near lower surface
hence causing pollution and impacting the health of habitants.
Thus ,temperature inversion is caused at the stack Atmospheric condition, while some time
it occurs due to for gentle of vertical movement of air which has significant impact on life
of the people and weather condition. It impacts in positive and negative manner both.

Geography Qs

Answer –
Salinity is the term used to define the total content of dissolved salts in sea water. It is
calculated as the amount of salt (in gm) dissolved in 1,000 gm (1 kg) of seawater.
• Salinity of 24.7 (24.7 o/oo) has been considered as the upper limit to demarcate
‘brackish water’.
• Salinity determines compressibility, thermal expansion, temperature, density,
absorption of insolation, evaporation and humidity.
• It also influences the composition and movement of the sea: water and the
distribution of fish and other marine resources
• Share of different salts is as shown below—
❖ NaCl— 77.7%
❖ magnesium chloride—10.9
❖ magnesium sulphate —.4.7
❖ calcium sulphate — 3.6%
❖ potassium sulphate — 2.5%
determinants of ocean salinity –
The salinity of Ocean water in the surface layer of oceans depend mainly on evaporation and
• Evaporation of ocean water and formation of sea ice both increase
the salinity of the ocean as example – Red sea, Caspian sea etc.
• However these “salinity raising” factors are continually counter-balanced by
the processes that decrease salinity such as the continuous input of fresh
water from, precipitation of – rain, rivers & snow.
• Surface salinity is greatly influenced in coastal regions by the freshwater flow from
rivers, and in polar regions by the processes of freezing and thawing of ice.
• Wind, also influences salinity of an area by transferring water to other areas.
• The ocean currents contribute to the salinity variations. Salinity, temperature and
density of water are interrelated. Hence, any change in the
temperature or density influences the salinity of an area. As example – as Gulf stream
in Northern Atlantic increases salinity in north-western Atlantic.
Distribution of salinity –
Horizontal Distribution of Salinity:
The surface salinity of oceans decreases on either side of the tropics. For instance, the
surface salinity along the Tropic of Cancer is around 36 parts per thousand (ppt) while at
the equator it’s around 35 parts per thousand. On the basis of their salinity levels, seas
across the world can be categorized as follows:
• Seas with salinity levels below the normal: They have a low salinity due to the influx
of fresh water. They include the Arctic Ocean, Southern Ocean, Bering Sea, Sea of
Japan, Baltic Sea etc. Their surface salinity can be as low as 21 ppt.
• Seas with normal salinity levels: These have a salinity in the range of 35 to 36 ppt.
They include the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of California, Yellow Sea etc.
• Seas with salinity levels above the normal: They have higher levels of salinity
because of their location in regions with higher temperatures leading to greater
evaporation. They include the Red Sea (39 – 41 ppt), Persian Gulf (38 ppt),
Mediterranean Sea (37 – 39 ppt) etc.
Vertica Distribution of Salinity:
There is no definite trend in the variation of salinity with depth. Instances of increase, as
well as a decrease in salinity levels, have been found with increasing depth.
From the above graph, it is evident that,
• Salinity decreases with increasing depth at the equator as well as near the tropics.
• At higher latitudes, salinity is found to increase with increasing depth.

Salt Budget –
It is also known as the salt cycle. It involves all the processes through which salt moves
from the ocean into the lithosphere, to a certain extent into the atmosphere, and back into
the oceans.
• Moving water, including groundwater, leaches minerals from the rocks through the
process of surface erosion. The mineral-laced water joins the rivers and streams
which finally reach the oceans. These minerals add to the salinity levels of the ocean
• Some of the salts in the ocean waters accumulate at the ocean bottom through the
process of sedimentation turning into mineralized rocks. Over a period of millions
of years, some of these rocks get raised above the ocean surface due to plate
tectonics, or due to volcanic activity. This brings the salt back to the lithosphere in
the form of minerals (rocks).
• Salt from the oceans also gets sprayed into the atmosphere due to the action of
wind. This salt returns to the lithosphere mixed with precipitation. However, this
constitutes a tiny fraction of salt moving from the land to the sea and vice versa.
• Salt cycle operates over a very long period of time.
Every year, around 3 billion tons of salt gets added to the oceans from the land. A tiny
fraction of this salt is extracted by humans for daily consumption.

Answer –
Sun is the ultimate source of heat. And the differential heat received from sun by different
regions on earth is the ultimate reason behind all climatic features.
The factors affecting the temperature distribution –
• The angle of incidence – result in unequal solar insolation & variance in
• Duration of sunshine – Heat received depends on day or night; clear sky or
overcast, summer or winter etc..
• Transparency of atmosphere – Aerosols (smoke, sooth), dust, water vopour, clouds
etc. effect transparency.
❖ If the wavelength of the radiation is more than the radius of the
obstructing particle (such as a gas), then scattering of radiation takes
❖ If the wavelength is less than the obstructing particle (such as a dust
particle), then total reflection takes place
• Land and sea differential – Albedo of land is much greater than albedo of oceans
and water bodies. Especially snow covered areas reflect up to 70%-90% of
❖ Average penetration of sunlight is more in water – up to 20 metres, than
in land – where it is up to 1 metre only.
❖ The specific heat of water is 2.5 times higher than landmass, therefore
water takes longer to get heated up and to cool down.
• Prevailing winds – The oceanic winds have the capacity to take the moderating
influence of the sea to coastal areas – reflected in cool summers and mild winters.
This effect is pronounced only on the windward side (the side facing the ocean)
• slope – Slopes that receive direct Sun’s rays are dry due to loss of moisture through
excess evaporation. These slopes remain barren if irrigational facilities are absent.
But slopes with good irrigational facilities are good for agriculture due to abundant
sunlight available. They are occupied by dense human settlements.
• Ocean currents influence the temperature of adjacent land areas considerably.
(more while studying ocean currents).
• Altitude – With increase in height, pressure falls, the effect of greenhouse gases
decreases and hence temperature decreases (applicable only to troposphere).

So understanding the patterns of distribution of temperature in different seasons is
important for understanding various climatic features like wind systems, pressure systems,
precipitation etc..


Answer –
This year weak El – Nino resulted in more than average rainfall in many parts of India. El
Nino is name given to the occasional development of warm ocean surface water along the
coast of Ecuador and Peru.
El- Nino refers to the unusual warming of the central and East Central Equatorial Pacific
Ocean, which affects global weather.
The factor responsible for causing El Nino.
• Normal condition – When Low pressure develops in the region of northern Australia
and Indonesia and a high pressure system over the coast of Peru as a result, Trade
winds move strongly from East to West.
• The Walker circulation. It is caused by the pressure gradient force that results from
high pressure system over eastern Pacific Ocean and low pressure system over
• Weak Walker cell. It causes El-Nino event as a normal low pressure system is
replaced by a week high in the Western Pacific.
• Accumulation of warm ocean water due to Equatorial counter current on the
coastline of Peru.
• This warm water accumulation causes the thermocline to drop, which cut of the
upwelling of cold deep ocean water along the coast of Peru.
This unusual event affects global weather by means of..
• El Nino affects global weather. It favours eastern Pacific hurricanes and tropical
storms. Record and unusual rainfall in Peru, Chile and Ecuador are linked to the
climate pattern.
• On marine biodiversity – El Nino reduces upwelling of cold water, decreasing the uplift
of nutrients from the bottom of the ocean.
❖ This affects marine life and sea birds. The fishing industry is also affected.
• Causing draught – Drought caused by El Nino can be widespread, affecting southern
Africa, India, Southeast Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. Countries dependent
on agriculture are affected.
• Australia and Southeast Asia get hotter.
• A recent WHO report on the health consequences of El Nino forecasts a rise in vectorborne diseases, including those spread by mosquitoes, in Central and South America.
• Cycles of malaria in India are also linked to El Nino.
El Niño is a naturally occurring event, and there is nothing that can be done to stop its
effects on the weather or on people around the world. However, because it can typically be
noticed by meteorologists, people in the countries affected by it can take measures in
order to curb some of the impacts.

Answer –
As more than 60% of population employed in agriculture sector, the occurrence of Indian
monsoon at every level impacts life of many Indian people and any disturbance to this
event peris at large.
Indian monsoon it is a seasonal wind which is Periodic in nature, which reverse the
direction with the change of season.
• It is double system of seasonal beans as the flow from sea to land during summer
and from land to sea during winter.
• Indian monsoon’s are conventional cells on very large scale.
• India receives South West monsoon wins in summer and North East Monsoon wins
in winter.
• Countries like India in Tunisia, Bangladesh receives rainfall from South West
monsoon winds whereas South East China, Japan during North East rainfall season.
Factors affecting Indian monsoon –
• The differential heating and cooling of land and water creates a low pressure on the
landmass of India while the seas around experience comparatively high pressure.
• The shift of the position of Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) in summer, over
the Ganga plain (this is the equatorial trough normally positioned about 5°N of the
equator. It is also known as the monsoon-trough during the monsoon season).
• The presence of the high-pressure area, east of Madagascar, approximately at 20°S
over the Indian Ocean. The intensity and position of this high-pressure area affect the
Indian Monsoon.
• The Tibetan plateau gets intensely heated during summer, which results in strong
vertical air currents and the formation of low pressure over the plateau at about 9
km above sea level.
• The movement of the westerly jet stream to the north of the Himalayas and the
presence of the tropical easterly jet stream over the Indian peninsula during summer.
• Tropical Easterly Jet (African Easterly Jet).
• Southern oscillation – Normally when the tropical eastern south Pacific Ocean
experiences high pressure, the tropical eastern Indian Ocean experiences low
pressure. But in certain years, there is a reversal in the pressure conditions and the
eastern Pacific has lower pressure in comparison to the eastern Indian Ocean. This
periodic change in pressure conditions is known as the SO.
Factor affecting North East monsoon.
• Formation and strengthening of high pressure plate. And Siberian plateau in winter.
• Westward migration, subsequent weakening of high pressure cell in the southern
Indian Ocean.
• Shifting of ITCZ in further South.
Any Chennai? Any changes in monsoon affect not only normal life of all people and
ecosystem but also nations economy through various means.
Effect of Indian Monsoon on various parts of world – Effect of change in pattern of the Asian
monsoon on various parts of the world:
• Indian monsoon is considered a ‘textbook phenomenon’ clearly defined which has
not changed much in the preceding century.
• However this process has hit an erratic front, with floods in the northwest and the
northeast and rainfall deficit in southern part of the nation.
• Rainfall extremes have increased threefold over the last few years and now extend
over all of central India – from Gujarat to Odisha.
• Onset of monsoon has delayed every year since 2002 and it also lasts for shorter
duration, compressing the Indian monsoon.
• The interspersed breaks in the monsoon have increased resulting in larger drier
periods in the monsoon itself.
• Rainfall intensity, duration, frequency and spatial distribution have significantly
undergone change in the past decade or two.
• Cycles of droughts and floods have become more common in many parts of India and
their intensity has changed over the time. e.g. Cyclone Amphan.
• Also now cyclones are also started to occur on the western coast of the countries.
e.g. Cyclone Vayu.
• Areas that have traditionally received plenty of rainfall are often remaining dry, while
places that are not expected to get a lot of monsoon rain have sometimes been
getting flooded.
• The intensity and amount of rainfall over the region has increased drastically. For
instance, Typhoon Kammuri in Phillipines and Flooding in parts of China.
• The agricultural cycle of sowing to harvesting is facing tremendous challenge as
unprecedented breaks and excess rainfall in short period of time making difficulty to
set sowing pattern.
• Many of the metro cities are receiving excessive rainfall as compared to their average
normal. e.g. Recent flooding in Mumbai.
• Also some experts opined that Australian bushfires partly due to late monsoon ending
in India.
• The lack of water in other areas has hit water table levels. By 2030, India is expected
to require almost 1.5 trillion m3 of ground water, where the current supply is only
740 billion m3, putting a huge pressure on the river basins, which are facing
challenges of their own due to fast-disappearing glaciers and reduced rainfall.
In recent times it is proved that monsoons are (nearly) unpredictable natural disasters.
Hence, following steps are needed to tackle this crisis:
• Need to change crop cycles, credit cycles, create storage infrastructure to deal with
• We need to invest in developing the state of the art technology to predict the accurate
data regarding the monsoon cycle.
• Also, we need modification in the approach of handling of disasters by NDRF and
SDRF as the intensity of the rainfall is extreme in some cases.
• Change in the type and variety of crops and change in the kind of inputs used by
farmers to deal with the altered reality is needed of the hour

Geography Qs

Answer –
Climate zones are areas with distinct climate which occurs in East West direction around
earth and can be classified using different climatic parameter as monsoon type,
Mediterranean type etc.
Monsoon type climate and its characteristics.
• Monsoon climate, also known as tropical monsoon climate, is found in region
bounded by Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn.
• The region is influenced by movement of Inter tropical convergence zone and is
hot and humid all around the year because sun remains overhead.
• Distribution. This climate is confined with 5 to 30 degree North or South on either
side of Equator. As- Indian subcontinent, Indochina like – Vietnam, Cambodia,
Thailand, southern China, Northern Australia, etc.
• winds seasonal reversal in the direction of wind is an outcome – differential rate of
heating and cooling of continental land mass and sea water.
➢ Low pressure area post summer result in south west monsoon wind and
during winter reversal of wind direction occurs.
• Temperature. Region’s proximity to Tropic makes it hot and humid in summer
temperature range is 30℃ to 45℃ and in winter it is 15℃ to 30℃
• Precipitation. Region experiences heavy to low rainfall as per physical geography
and wind direction asymmetrically. As example. In India, Cherrapunji gets over 1000
centimetre rainfall and Rajasthan Aravalli belt left mostly drive.
• Seasons. Monsoon climate experiences distinct season.
➢ Hot and dry season from March to mid June. Rainy season from mid June to
September with unequal distribution of rainfall. And cold and dry season
from October to February.
• Vegetation. Monsoon type shows a great variation from dense Forest to Throne
Mediterranean climate
it is also called Western margin Climate, is caused by mainly due to shifting of wind
• Distribution. Entirely confined to the western portion of continental masses between
30 degree. And 45 degree North and South of the equator. It is best developed in
Chile reason.
• Characteristics.
➢ Clear Sky and high temperature. Climate is not extreme because of cooling
from water bodies.
➢ A dry, warm summer with offshore trades – As westerly shift towards poleword and rain bearing clouds do not reach Mediterranean region.
➢ Rainfall in winter with onshore westerlies. In northern Hemisphere prevailing
onshore westerlies bring much cyclonic rain from Atlantic. The rain comes in
heavy showers and only a few days with bright sunny periods between them.
➢ The local winds of Mediterranean climate. Many local wins are common
around the Mediterranean Sea. These are.
❖ Sirocco hot dry dusty wind originating in Sahara Desert.
❖ Mistral. Cool wind from North.
➢ Vegetation. Trees with small, broad leaves are widely spaced and absence of
seat in distinct feature of Mediterranean land.
this monsoon type, along with its distinct season and Mediterranean type with its Dry
sunny summer and with Mild winter covers different reason of world.

Answer –
Recent extreme weather events like unanticipated and unseasonal rainfall resulting in
floods – As example recent flood in India and China & growing intensity of tropical and
temperate cyclone need urgent action to understand climate change and factors
responsible for it.
Climate change.
It is a periodic modification of Earths climate brought about due to the change in
atmosphere as well as the interaction between the atmosphere and various other
geological, chemical, biological and geographical factor within the Earth system.
• It makes weather system less predictable.
• It causes damage in weather events like more frequent and intense hurricanes,
flood, cyclones, flooding, etcetera.
• Rising sea level due to rise in temperature and subsequently melting of ice.
Factors responsible for climate change.
Climate change is caused by natural as well as anthropogenic factors as –
Natural factor – Which causes Earth climate to change are –
• Continental drift as it changes land mass, physical feature and position and changes
in water bodies impact climate change.
• Variation of Earths orbit. It impact sunlight’s seasonal distribution that reaches
Earth surface. The orbital variation caused huge impact on Climate due to
Milankovich cycle. These cycles influence the behaviour of ice formation.
• Plate tectonic – It influences the global and local pattern of climate and atmosphere.
The ocean geography is determined by continents position and location of sea play
important role in global climate.
• Ocean currents. The temperature difference of water and horizontal wind causing
the movement of water influences the climate of reason.
• Volcanic activity – With eruption of volcano it emits gases and dust particle, this
leading to the cooling of weather and emitted gases and ashes influences the
climate of reason.
• Anthropogenic factors responsible for climate change. These factors do not affect
the climate change directly, but they paces the process of climate change.
➢ Greenhouse gas emissions. It absorbs heat radiation from the earth. This
lead to more absorption and retaining the heat in the atmosphere, thus
resulting in global warming which affect climate change.
➢ Atmospheric aerosol – change in microphysical and chemical properties of
clouds, aerosol can directly affect climate change by absorbing or reflecting
solar radiation.

Climate change and its impact is seen as a threat to India because.
• India will be Vulnerable to climate change due to its diverse terrain, Rapid use of
natural resources due to current trend of pacing urbanization, industrialization and
economic growth.
• Economic loss. Since natural disasters have a negative impact on economy. The
climate change will also impact the Indian economy.
• More than 60% of India’s agriculture is depend on rain and majority of population
is dependent on agriculture sector for survival. The impact of climate change on
agriculture is severe – as climate change can reduce crop output by 12%.
• The poverty reduction rate will also be slow down.
• The melting glacier and loss of Snow can prose a risk to reliable water resource in
India affecting River system.
• Health, the decreasing availability of food can give rise to considerable health
issues among women and children.
Thus the national efforts like INDC as a part of Paris climate, 2015 in
collaboration with international communities like IPCC, WHO, UNDP need a
comprehensive framework to address climate change and infrastructure at pace to
tackle with threat.


Answer –
During winter, the temperature of national capital territory and many parts of Northern
India experiencing cold wave there by dropping of Mercury to low due to the arrival of
North Westerly Wind or Western Disturbance.
Western disturbance –
Western disturbances are low-pressure depressions which occurs during winters,
particularly the northern states of India. These are extratropical cyclonic storms which
originate over the Mediterranean Sea and travel eastwards to enter the Indian
subcontinent from the northwest. These disturbances bring mild rainfall, which is extremely
important for the growth of rabi crops.
• It is non- monsoonal precipitation pattern driven by westerlies. Western disturbance
are more frequent and strong in winter season
The arrival in India.
• During winters, a high-pressure system develops near Ukraine and in its
surrounding countries which causes the cold air from polar regions to come in
contact with the relatively warm and moist air at lower/temperate latitudes.
• The warm air mass is usually a part of the westerlies and carries a lot of moisture.
When the two air masses at different temperatures meet, a front is formed.
• The formation of a front leads to cloud formation and heavy rainfall in areas coming
under the influence of the frontal activity.
• Unlike a tropical cyclone which is formed in the lower atmosphere, a temperate
cyclone usually formed in the upper atmosphere. At such heights, these cyclones
come into contact with the subtropical westerly jet stream which carries them
• In the course of its travel, the cyclone gathers moisture from the Caspian Sea and
the Persian Gulf. It enters India mainly through the states of Punjab, Haryana, and
Impact of Western disturbance on Indian subcontinent.
• It plays important role in bringing moderate to heavy rain in low lying areas and
heavy snow to the mountain areas of Indian subcontinent specially in winter.
• This precipitation greatly impact agriculture, particularly Rabi crops, as wheat thus
addresses the issue of food security.
• But excessive precipitation causes failure of crops, landslides, flood and avalanche.
• Over into Gangetic plain it brings cold wave condition and dense fog. These
condition remains stable until disturbed by another Western disturbance. Hence
causing pollution problem like Delhi
Western disturbance with its severity, has both positive and negative impact on Indian
subcontinent landmass and life forms.

Answer –
Indian climate, mostly tropical and less temperate, gets affected by local wind, Seasonal
reversal of winds and western disturbance, and thus described as a tropical monsoon type.
The various factors affecting Indian Climate are –
• Latitudinal location. The mainland of India extends between 8°N to 37 degree
North. Areas South to the Tropic of Cancer are in tropics and are most hot summer
and winter. On the other hand, northern part get influenced by hot local wind as
Loo and Western disturbance which brought cold waves.
• Disturbance from sea. Coastal regions have moderate or equable or maritime
climate where as interior locations are deprived of the moderating influence of the
sea and experience extreme or continental climate. The monsoon winds first reach
the coastal regions and hence bring good amount of rainfall.
• Himalaya – the Himalaya acts as climatic divide between India & central Asia. It
protects India from cold and dry air masses of Central Asia and effective barrier for
rain bearing South West monsoon wins.
• Monsoon wind. During monsoon, June to September, brings rainfall, but the air
distribution is asymmetrical.
• Upper air circulation. Over Indian land mass air is brought about by jet streams.
Easterly jet stream helps in the sudden onset of South West Monsoon and Westerly
jet stream and Western Disturbance brings best winter, rainfall and snowfall.
• Tropical cyclone. They originate in Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea and influence the
weather condition bringing heavy rain.
Thus asymmetrical rainfall due to geography of landmass, physical barrier and changing
pattern of wind is seen over Indian land mass – As Punjab and Haryana or not desert like
Reason for decreasing rainfall from East to West in the Plains.
• Existence of many miner low pressure cells that exist all over the plain reason.
• As Monsoon wins move from East to West. The moisture level decreases due to
successive rainfall at each low pressure region.
• By the time winds reach the western part of Plains like Delhi and Haryana, all
moisture in the monsoon wins is exhausted.
• Thus rainfall decrease from moving East to West in the Plains.
The Indian climate, despite these factors, get largely affected, Due to El – Nino & ENSO
and positive and negative Indian Ocean dipole. Which ultimately affect the Indian monsoon
and its distribution over Indian land mass.


Answer –
Pattern of movement of planetary winds is called general circulation. This circulation
depends on following –
• Latitudinal variation of atmospheric heating
• Emergence of pressure belts
• The direction of belts following apparent path of the sun.
• The distribution of continent and oceans
• The rotation of earth.
Air expands when heated and gets compressed when cooled. This results in variations in
the atmospheric pressure. The result is that it causes the movement of air from high
pressure to low pressure
The wind redistributes the heat and moisture across the planet, thereby, maintaining a
constant temperature for the planet as a whole
The associated tri-cells –
Hadley cell: The cell is located between 10 – 30-degree latitude in both the hemisphere.
• This is a thermally induced cell and is the result of intense solar insolation. The
intense insolation produces rising air along the equator.
• The rising air cools down below tropopause and diverges towards the pole as antitrade. They lead to upper air pilation around 30 degrees latitude and sink causing
the sub-tropical high pressure. The trade wind flows from this HP toward the
equator and completes this cell. It is one of the most permanent cells and is
associated with Tropical monsoon climate and tropical desert.
Ferrell Cell: This cell extends from 35 to 60-degree latitude in both the hemisphere.
• This is a thermally indirect cell and induced due to dynamic forces. In this cell the
warm air is seen ascending from the polar front and breaking through near the
tropopause. The most important feature of this cell is that the polar front is more
continuous in the middle troposphere.
• There is subsidence of air in the horse latitude from the tropical as well as polar
front dells. On the surface, the circulation is completed by the westerly wind flowing
toward the poleward side.
Polar cell: It extends from 65 to 90 degree in both the hemisphere.
• This is a thermally direct cell and is strongest during winter. There is sinking air
along the poles which moves towards the sub polar low as easterly wind.
• In the sub polar lows, the easterly and westerly interact and the air rise to
complete the polar cell circulation
• Tri-cellular circulation plays an important role in world climate:
• Maintaining Heat budget – maintain the heat balance throughout the globe by
transferring energy from high energy tropical areas to low energy polar areas.
• Cyclone formation – The interaction of easterly and westerly creates frontogenesis
which influences the climate of the sub polar area.
• Desertification – The tropical deserts of the world are a manifestation of the air
circulation of the Hadley cell in 30° N/S.
• Influence on Monsoon – The Phenomenon of monsoon is heavily influenced by the
Upper air circulation and the trade wind movement. This also impacts the El-Nino
which ultimately affects the Monsoon.
• Impact on ocean – Warming and cooling of the Pacific Ocean are most significant in
terms of general atmospheric circulation. The warm water of the central Pacific
Ocean gradually drifts towards the South American coast and substitutes the cool
Peruvian current.
Thus atmospheric circulation plays an important part in global climate and its

Answer –
Planetary winds are wind system of earth’s atmosphere which owes its existence and
direction to solar radiation and to the rotation of earth. And due to latitudinal difference in
air pressure & largely effects climate of world. They are also called primary winds or
permanent winds.
These winds are controlled by the latitudinal pressure belts. These winds involve large
areas of the globe. The winds blow over the wide area of continents and also, oceans.
These winds are permanent in nature.
Planetary Winds are further categorized into the following types:
❖ Trade Winds
❖ Westerlies
❖ Polar Winds

• Trade Winds – These winds are also known as Easterlies due to the reason that the
trade winds usually, blow from the east.
➢ These winds blow from sub-tropical high-pressure areas (30N and S)
towards the equatorial low-pressure belt. Trade winds are descending.
• Westerlies – Such winds blow from sub-tropical high-pressure belts towards the
low-pressure belts.
➢ The Westerlies of Southern Hemisphere are stronger and also, in constant
direction than the Northern hemisphere.
➢ In the Northern Hemisphere, the Westerlies are irregular in nature. These
winds develop between 40-65N latitudes.
• Polar Easterlies – These are dry and cold Prevailing Winds.
➢ The Cold air rises and subsides at the pole.
➢ Due to the Coriolis effect, the outflow of the Wind is deflected towards
The impact of planetary winds on world climate can be analysed as –
• Impact of trade winds – At the Equator, these winds are humid and warmer in
➢ The heavy rainfall is caused due to the convergence, and hence, the rise of
winds took place.
➢ As compared to the Western Ocean, the Trade Winds are stable and drier in
the Eastern Ocean.
➢ They cause considerable rainfall om eastern margin of landmass whereas
they cause deserts on western margins.
• Impact of westerlies – they cause rainfall on western margin of landmass hence
developing Mediterranean type climate system.
• Polar winds – they gives the birth to the cyclone and brings frequent changes in
weather conditions and causes heavy rainfall.
Thus, most of weather phenomena are largely related to planetary wind circulation as
cyclone , EL-Niño, and impact on ocean current which directly or indirectly affects life
on earth.

Geography Qs

Answer –
Solar eclipse is a natural event that takes place on Earth when the Moon moves in
its orbit between Earth and the Sun (this is also known as an occultation).
• It happens at New Moon, when the Sun and Moon are in conjunction with
each other.
total solar eclipse is the condition in which moon passes between Earth and Sun casting a
shadow on Earth by covering the entire sun Within which daylight of Earth is momentarily
easting used. This is visible only in certain parts of Earth because.
• The moon’s shadow on Earth isn’t very big, so only a small portion of places on
Earth see it.
• Most of the time the Moon passes a little above or little below the sun and this it is
not able to cover the entire sun.
• Most of the time this shadow falls over the water bodies and thus humans can’t see
solar eclipse over continents.
• Condition of perigee must be satisfied when sun, moon and Earth comes in the
straight line.
Even total solar eclipse is rare phenomena then, Also there are many type of solar eclipse.
• Partial solar Eclipse. Only small part of Sun surface is covered by Moon.
• Annual Solar eclipse sun gets covered in such a way that only a small ring like silver
of light is seen Which is called as Ring of Fire. The Ring of Fire was Visible in some
parts of India on 26 December 2019.
• Total solar eclipse. The entire central portion of Sun is covered by Moon. A
phenomenon called “Bailey’s Beads” often appears as sunlight shines out
through valleys on the lunar surface.
Since eclipse are geographical phenomena, but the impact of these eclipse on Earth is
also There. The impact of solar eclipse on Earth. Can be analysed as.
• On temperature. Eclipses may cause the temperature to decrease by up to 3 °C.
• Wind. This brief dip in temperature of air also affect local wind speed and
• Health it is strongly recommended against to viewing the Sun directly during the
total solar eclipse, as it may cause the permanent damage to once retina. And
may result in total partial blindness.
• On atmosphere. Total solar eclipse me cause sudden loss in office stream
ultraviolet radiation from sun which generates the ionized layer of Earth’s
• A total solar eclipse provides a rare opportunity to observe the corona (the
outer layer of the Sun’s atmosphere). Normally this is not visible because the
photosphere is much brighter than the corona.
• There is a long history of observations of gravity-related phenomena during
solar eclipses, especially during the period of totality.
• Confirmation of Einstein’s theory: The observation of a total solar eclipse of
1919, helped to confirm Einstein’s theory of general relativity. By comparing the
apparent distance between stars in the constellation Taurus, with and without
the Sun between them, Arthur Eddington stated that the theoretical predictions
about gravitational lenses were confirmed.
The sun is our unusual events and occurs during New Moon. Search natural agents and
Such phenomena has been interesting area for researchers to reveal the truth &
Unravel the mystery.

Answer –
The earth as a whole does not accumulate or lose heat. It maintains its temperature. This
can happen only if the amount of heat received in the form of insolation equals the amount
lost by the earth through terrestrial radiation.
This balance between the insolation and the terrestrial radiation is termed as the heat
budget or heat balance of the earth.
The process of heating and cooling of Earth involves –
• Terrestrial radiation. Long waves from Earth gets absorbed by certain gases like
carbon dioxide or greenhouse gases and warms the atmosphere.
• Conduction. It is the transfer of heat at the June off contact between earth
surface and atmosphere.
• Conviction. It is vertical movement of air. After getting heated at lower layer of
• Advection. It is the transfer of heat through horizontal movement of air.
While for the heating of Earth The solar radiation is only source.
• Heat budget of earth.
Heating and cooling, or natural phenomenon as but they impact the earth in such manner.
• Imbalanced heat budget is seen due to anthropogenic factor like expanded
agriculture, industrialization, increasing urbanization resulting into forestation, and
increased concentration of Greenhouse gases.
• This resulted in to variation in overall albedo of Earth surface and amount of heat
retained in the atmosphere and ocean at a given point of time. Because of the effect
of albedo, highly developed areas such as urban cities can experience higher
average temperatures than the surrounding suburban or rural areas, a phenomenon
known as the “Urban Heat Island Effect”.
• The higher average temperature can be attributed to less vegetation, higher
population densities, and more infrastructures with dark surfaces (asphalt roads,
brick buildings, etc.).
• Recently IPCC report vouched about possible increase in temperature due to rising
global warming phenomena can impact life in various ways like.
➢ Loss of life. The human security is in threat as natural hazards. Events like
cyclone floods, heat waves and their frequency would increase.
➢ Food insecurity. As million of people still starving for food increase in
temperature, diseases and climate events of uncertain Heavy rain would
impact crop and cell life of food.
➢ Economic growth of country, mainly coastal region and least developed
countries, would face severe consequences.
➢ Melting of ice increase in sea level would submerge small island countries
and marine biodiversity would be threatened.
Thus the events of imbalance in heat budget being felt more in numbers these days and
efforts like Paris Climate Summit Kigali Agreement are underway to address these issues
for giving a better planet for future world.


Answer –
An earthquake is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release
of energy in the Earth‘s lithosphere that creates seismic waves.
• Earthquake is the form of energy of wave motion transmitted through the surface
layer of the earth.
Causes of earthquake.
❖ Abrupt release of energy along a fault causes earthquake.
❖ Fault zone – The immediate cause of most shallow earthquakes is the sudden
release of stress along a fault rupture (crack) in the earth’s crust. Sudden slipping of
rock formations along fault rupture in the earth’s crust causes earthquakes.
❖ Plate tectonic – Slipping of land along the fault line along convergent, divergent and
transform boundaries cause earthquake.
❖ Volcanic activity – Volcanic activity also can cause an earthquake, but the
earthquakes of volcanic origin are generally less severe and more limited in
extent than those caused by fracturing of the earth’s crust.
❖ Earthquakes in volcanic regions are caused by the consequent release of elastic
strain energy both by tectonic faults and the movement of magma in volcanoes.
❖ Human induced earthquake – Human Induced Earthquakes refers to typically minor
earthquakes and tremors that are caused by human activity like mining, large scale
petroleum extraction, artificial lakes (reservoirs), nuclear tests etc. as example The
1967 Koynanagar earthquake occurred near the Koyna Dam reservoir in
Maharashtra and claimed more than 150 lives.
According to the seismologists, the earthquake itself is not the killer, but it is the
unpreparedness among the society, in terms of inadequate infrastructure, which kills
Measures needed
❖ Risk recognition – The fact that there is a risk first needs to be recognised. People
need to be made aware of this risk. For this setting up earthquake warning systems
in different parts of country , setting up of Nation disaster recognition centre etc. is
❖ Risk mapping – risk mapping of the areas in the region and divide them into zones
depending upon amount of risk involved. So that proper guidelines should be made
in concerned area as per earthquake susceptibility.
❖ Risk mitigation – This required investment in R&D to develop cost effective quakeresistant designs.
❖ Mock Drills are very necessary to make people aware what is needed to be done.
❖ Curriculum changes as NCERT has already introduced Disaster Management, so that
people can get clear idea about the risk and after effects.
Since earthquake is a natural phenomenon. Hence mitigation and early adaptation of
techniques. To prevent life losses is necessary. Since better knowledge about threat is best
prevention strategy and in India country like India where 58.6% area is Earthquake prone.
Having sufficient knowledge and adopting necessary measures is only cure.

Answer –
Paleo magnetism is the study of the record of earth’s magnetic field with the help
of magnetic fields recorded in rocks, sediment, or archaeological materials.
Paleo magnetism led the revival of the continental drift hypothesis and its transformation
into theories of Sea Floor Spreading and Plate Tectonics.
• The regions that hold the unique record of earth’s magnetic field lie along the midocean ridges where the sea floor is spreading.
• On studying the palaeomagnetic rocks on either side of the oceanic ridges, it is
found that alternate magnetic rock stripes were flipped so that one stripe would be
of normal polarity and the next, reversed.
• Hence, palaeomagnetic rocks on either side of the mid-ocean or submarine ridges
provide the most important evidence to the concept of Sea Floor Spreading.
Magnetic field records also provide information on the past location of tectonic plates.
Explanation –
• These oceanic ridges are boundaries where tectonic plates are diverging (moving
• The fissure in between the plates allowed the magma to rise and harden into a long
narrow band of rock on either side of the vent.
• Rising magma assumes the polarity of Earth’s geomagnetic field at the time before
it solidifies on the oceanic crust.
• As the conventional currents pull the oceanic plates apart, the solidified band of
rock moves away from the vent (or ridge), and a new band of rock takes its place a
few million years later when the magnetic field was reversed. This results in
this magnetic striping where the adjacent rock bands have opposite polarities.
This process repeats over and over giving rise to a series of narrow parallel rock bands on
either side of the ridge and alternating pattern of magnetic striping on the seafloor.


Tropical cyclones is an intense circular storm that originates over warm tropical ocean and
is characterized by low atmospheric pressure high winds and heavy rain. In India case
tropical cyclones are formed over bay of Bengal more as compared to Arabian ocean
recent cyclone on November 23rd 2020 hit Pondicherry and Tamil Nadu coastal area.
• These cyclones are formed over slightly warm ocean water in India the period
between April May and October December period are conducive for cyclones.
• Then the low level of a above the word is nice to have an anticlockwise rotation in
Northern hemisphere clockwise in the southern hemisphere

Answer –
Coriolis force is one of the three force which the horizontal wind near earth surface as well
as ocean currents.
Coriolis force –
• The rotation of the earth about its axis affects the direction of the wind and this
force is called the Coriolis force. It is directly proportional to the angle of latitude.
• It deflects the wind to the left direction in the southern hemisphere and the right
direction in the northern hemisphere.
• The deflection is more when the wind velocity is high. It is maximum at the poles and
is absent at the equator. The Coriolis force is zero at the equator and the wind blows
perpendicular to the isobars.
Coriolis force is zero at equator because – Because there is no turning of the surface of the
Earth (sense of rotation) underneath a horizontally and freely moving object at the equator,
there is no curving of the object’s path as measured relative to Earth’s surface. The object’s
path is straight, that is, there is no Coriolis effect.
Impact of Coriolis force on different geographical phenomena –
• On cloud dynamics – the impact of force is on the determining the frequency of
oscillation and thus the cloud dynamics.
• Weather Patterns – The development of weather patterns, such as cyclones
and trade winds, are examples of the impact of the Coriolis effect.
• Impact on Human Activity – The weather impacting fast-moving objects, such as
airplanes and rockets, is influenced by the Coriolis effect. The directions
of prevailing winds are largely determined by the Coriolis effect, and pilots must
take that into account when charting flight paths over long distances.
• The Coriolis Effect on Other Planets – The Earth rotates fairly slowly, compared
to other known planets. The slow rotation of Earth means the Coriolis effect is
not strong enough to be seen at slow speeds over short distances, such as the
draining of water in a bathtub.
• Upwelling ecosystem & blue economy – increase in upwelling due to pressure
gradient causes nutrients to mix and thus the marine biodiversity.
Since larger impact of Coriolis force is seen on weather phenomena hence its impact on life
is greater.


Answer –
The title of Sardar denotes vallabh bhaie’s contribution in gaining independence. While the
phrase architecture of modern India denotes his contribution in independent India.
Sardar Patel was a supporter of self reliance and Making a united and well prosperous
India for that he also supported the partition To prevent civil war In modern India. He was
the man of dignity and denoted as Iron Man of India. Some of his work done in pre
independence India and in independent India are listed below
Contribution of Sardar Patel in India’s independence –
By Taking the Inspiration from Mahatma Gandhi. He joined the movement at age of 42 and
begin campaign with farmers in 1918
• He played a major role in mobilising the Kheda Satyagraha of 1918, which led by
the Gandhi to protest against the high taxes levied by the British on the farmers
despite crop failure due to heavy rains and play epidemic.
• It was the Patel’s wake the led campaign in Bardoli, Gujarat, against the taxes
increased even after flood hit , in 1928 .
• In 1931, he served as president of Indian National Congress in its Karachi session,
which changed the nature of movement from a political struggle and added it new
socio economic dimension. As part of Congress, he was part of no changers &
emphasize on the crucial role of constructive work in village region and carrying the
message of nationalism to the masses.
• He was also the chairman of Congress Parliamentary Sub Committee, which had
complete control over Congress ministries during 28 months of the rule under
1935 Act. And he emphasised to work in a dimension of increasing and improving
the life of peoples.
• He was one of the first Congress leader who accepted the Partition of India as a
solution of the Muslim rising separatist movements led by Mohammed Ali Jinnah.
• He played a crucial role when RIN Mutiny was taking place and tried to slow down
The agitation of soldiers And Navy officials . Because he thought that armed
rebellion would receive violent retaliation from British.
• In the Constituent Assembly, Patel was a part of Constituent Assembly to frame the
Constitution of India. He was instrumental in collecting eminent people across the
country and persuaded Ambedkar to become member of Drafting Committee.
• Patel was the chairman of Committee’s responsible for minorities, tribal and
excluded areas , Fundamental right and provincial constitutions. The ideology of
Patel is clearly visible even today related to these subjects.
Sardar Patel, who was a prominent figure in Indian freedom struggle, became India’s
first Deputy Prime Minister and first Home Minister. As the responsibilities changed, the
Patel’s contribution in building India also changed, but with same energy and
enthusiasm. His contribution in independent India can be analysed as
• As a first Deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister of Independent India, he
added many dimensions in the leadership and political qualities.
• He was in charge of Home Affairs, information and broadcasting ministry and
Ministry of States. Hence He laid a mammoth task of integrating 562 princely
states into the Indian Union. He skilfully achieved this and took strong steps like
sending the army to the Junagadh and Hyderabad to force them to align with
free India.
• Sardar Patel Vision that the civil services should strengthen cohesion and
national unity. He dreamed of a vibrant and strong federal administrative system
in which the All India services would play an important role.
• It was his vision to make Ambedkar as a head of drafting committee That
Formed the vibrant Constitution of India
• It was Sardar Patel’s vision that the religion should be separated, and each and
every person, either it is a politician or a commoner, should practice their
religion as their faith. That’s why he went to Somnath even being the Deputy
Prime Minister of India.
Patel was a selfless leader who played the countries interest above Everything else and
saved India’s destiny with single minded devotion. The invaluable contribution of Sardar
Patel in building modern and unified India needs to be remembered by every Indian as
Country marches ahead as one of the largest economies in the world & Biggest democracy
of world. Even today there is a need of iron thoughts like Patel to tackle the rising issues
of India.

Answer –
In fighting of India against the Britishers, each and every section of India participated in
the National movement. The women, peasant, tribal and other Vulnerable section were
equal contributor to the independence of India.
Their contribution can be analysed as follows
Contribution of women
• Politically – After formation of Indian National Congress, women leaders like
Ramabai, Ranade and Pandita Ramabai fought for women rights and Kadambini
Ganguly who participated in INC Sessions contributed to the movement.
• Leadership. The women were At front of demand of self government or swaraj.
The Home Rule Movement was one such movement that had women at the helm.
As example, Any basent led the Home Rule League across the India that advocated
for self governance of country along with Gangadhar Tilak.
• In revolutionary activities – Many women featured in satyagraha in a non violent
way but some followed the revolutionary way of struggle that included activities
using arms to fight British imperialism. Pritilata Wadekar and Kalpana Dutt
participated in Chattgong armoury raid equally and in another case, Suniti
Choudhary killed a British official.
• Participation in mass movements. Gandhi’s mass movements would have not been
successful if women did not participate actively. It was because of large scale
participation of women that movements like civil disobedience movement and Quit
India was successful. For example. Sarojini Naidu was actively involved in Salt
Satyagraha in Dharshana. Similarly, the Khera, Satyagraha , it wasn’t be successful
without the active participation of women villagers. Kasturba Gandhi was the
backing of Gandhi’s movement and she was jailed in 1942’s Quit India movement.
• It was Usha Mehta who led the Quit India movement going by playing a major role
of running Congress radio. It was the main source of transferring the information
from one place to another to the Participants.
Hence in one say It can be said that contribution of women was very important for Success
of Indian Freedom movement. And women actualised year Role.
The role of deprived section was also very much important for successful
implementation of Indian National Congress policy for Indian freedom movement. These
can be analysed
Since many year this section was deprived because of exploitation of feudal Lords,
zamindars and the British rule. But it contributed Heavily in Indian freedom struggle
• Peasants participated in Swadeshi movement of 1905.
• The contribution of peasants during Non cooperation movement was also
noteworthy. As Example, in Awadh region reason, a powerful peasant movements
developed under the leadership of Baba RamChandra .
• During the Civil Disobedience movement, no rent, no revenue campaign in various
parts of the country were taken up by peasants leaders. This also laid the
foundation of All India Kisan Sabha in 1936 at Lucknow session of Congress &
demanded abolition of zamindari and occupancy rights for all tenants.
• During the Quit India Movement, all section of peasants cutting across cast lines
and even many landlord supported the movements believing that British rule was at
the end.
Role of Tribes
• As known, adivasi always treated others or outsiders as the Dikue, also
participated in Indian national movement. For example, in civil disobedience
movement, the tribal belt of Chhotanagpur saw militancy action against British.
Bong and Som Monji led struggle under influence of Gandhi at Hazaribagh.
Rani Gaidileu of North East got arrested during national movement events and
were released after India gaining independence.
Role of depressed class
• Doctor Ambedkar, the maker of Indian constitution, uplifted the depressed class
and enable them to participate in Indian National Movement indirectly as by
strengthening then downtrodden society. Many depressed class leaders
criticised and opposed exploratory policies of British. As Mahatma fully opposed
economic policy of British India
Even though there was socio economic backwardness in India, the education penetration
was low and the means of communication were also less. Then also the different section of
society participated in Indian national movements and their collective effort gained the
India independence.


Answer –
Mahatma Gandhi is known bas Father of Nation for a reason. As he was successful in launching many
mass movement successfully related to freedom struggle and became a mass leader.
He also worked for building the nation through his idea of Swaraj.
Gandhi’s idea of Swaraj
the word Swaraj means self government or self rule used similar line by Dayanand Saraswati or Tilak
through Home rule movement. Gandhi’s concept refers to –
• Independence from foreign dominations, economically, politically and Intellectually.
• Stresses on governance as self governance through the individuals and for the peoples.
• Decentralization of power like political Swaraj.
• Community building by means of cooperatives and development of village through the services
for villagers. And also making the village Self reliant.
• Swaraj by means of educate in masses to sense of their capacity to regulate and control the
• And Lastly, at the individual level it means the capacity for dispassionate self assessment, self
purification and growing Reliance.
The main approach to this was non violence observance and satyagraha mode of struggle.
Though the aim wasn’t achieved, but it left its impact in the future organisations and movements like
Bhudan Movement and Student Movement of JP Narayan.
Gandhi’s idea and his leadership qualities made him a national mass leader. But many events
contributed too make him leader. Some events which leads to establish him as a mass leader Are
• Gandhi in South Africa Gandhi, with his effective leadership in organising satyagraha against
registration certificate of 1906, Campaign against restrictions on Indian migration and campaign
against tax and invalidation of Indian marriages, protest against Transvaal Immigration Act led
the struggle by means of satyagraha as a weapon, gave him the experience of managing the
• Champaran satyagraha after returning to the India the first civil disobedience in 1917 was
organised satyagraha against British over Tinkathiya system forced by European on indigo
Farmers of India. He was joined by other leaders like Rajendraprasad , JB Kriplani.
Planters agreed to compromise and only 25% compensated. But it led the first Battle of civil
disobedience and made Gandhi as a face of masses.
• Ahmedabad mill strike In 1918 He intervened in a dispute between cotton mill, owners of
Ahmedabad and the workers over the issue of discontinuation of plague bonus. Also, workers
wanted 50% hike in wages and Gandhi ask the workers to go on strike and demanded 35%
increase in wages. It was the successful attempt of hunger strike By Gandhi in India.
It established the Gandhi as actual caretaker of masses of India and. Very much related
to their concerns.
• Kheda Satyagraha of 1918 British imposed heavy taxes despite crop failure in Kerala district of
Gujarat due to drought. British said that the property of farmers would be ceased for non
payment of taxes. Gandhi asked Farmer not to pay taxes and organised satyagraha later British
agreed to suspend the tax for drought years.
Since it was a first non corporates in movement in India by Gandhi. It laid him. The mass leader
as a Actual leader
• Rowlett Act and first mass strike by Gandhiji In 1915, many people accepted his leadership and
reached positively to his call of organised harthal
• Non Cooperation movement of 1920 past Jallianwala Bagh massacre, the Gandhi organised
non cooperative movement and emerged as a Mas leader as it was the first attempt against
British on such scale.
Thus Gandhi, through his exemplary leadership and through weapon of piece, non violence and
satyagraha, give new fees to Indian national movement and immerse as a leader of Peoples of India.

Answer –
After calling an end to non cooperation movement and Gandhi’s arrest in March 1922, there was a
disintegration. Disorganization. And demoralization among nationalist leader. A debate started among
Congress men.
They were the several incident that made the division in the Indian National Congress Party
• Withdrawal of non-cooperation movement in 1922 – after the incident of chaurachauri in UP ,
Gandhi called off the movement. Some congressmen like C rajagopalachari, Sardar patel, MA
Ansari stood against this action. This led the foundation of gap in INC .
• Gaya session 1922 – In the Gaya session of Congress CR, Das moved a proposal to enter the
legislature, but it was defeated. Das and other leaders broke away with the congress and
formed the swaraj Party.
• GoI Act 1919 – Many congress leaders were there who saw that government of India act 1919
Double edged sword. And elections were to be conducted on basis of this act. Hence, many
leaders demanded to Boycott the elections.
On the basis of above incidence the INC was divided into 2 parts – swarajist or Pro Changers
& No changer, based on the council participation or boycott.
Swarajist consist of – C R Das , Vitthal bhaie patel , M L Nehru etc.
No changers were – C rajagopalachari , Sardar patel ,Rajendra prasad.
Even though there was a bifurcation of Indian National Congress. But the ideas and aims of both Pro
changers and no changes were near about same. Their contribution can be analysed as
Their contribution can be analysed as –
Contribution of Swarajist –
• With the coalition partners , they out voted the government several times, even on matter of
budgetary grants & passed adjournment motion.
• A noteworthy achievement was the defeat of public safety Bill in 1928, which was aimed at
empowering the government to deport undesirable and subversive foreigners.
• as the government was alarm to buy spread of socialist and communist ideas and believed that
crucial role was being played by British and other foreign activist being sent by commintern.
• But due to communal violence and death of CR Das the position of swarjist was weakened.
Contribution of no changes.
• Ashram sprung up were young men and women worked among tribal sand, lower caste, and
popularised charkha and khadi.
• National schools and college were setup very students were trained in a Non colonial ideology
• Significant work was done for Hindu Muslim unity. Removing untouchability by courts of foreign
clothes and liquor and for flood relief.
• The constructive workers served as backbone of civil disobedience as active organizers.
Hence, despite the obstructions and changing socio political climate, so Rajesh manage to achieve and
strengthen there hold for sometime. That also gave a momentum to the coming nationalist movement.
While no changes were actively participating in making and making India ready for next moment..


When the failure of moderate politics became quite apparent by the end of the 19th
century, reaction set in from within the congress circles and this new trend is referred to as
the ‘Extremists’ trend. This extremism developed in three main regions and under the
leadership of three important individuals- Bipin Chandra Pal in Bengal, Bal Gangadhar Tilak
in Maharashtra and Lala Lajpat Rai in Punjab.
The factors that led to the rise of and extremist trend within the Congress circles
• Frustration with moderate politics was definitely the major reason behind the rise
of extremists’ reaction. The congress under moderate leadership was being
governed by an undemocratic constitution, although after repeated attempts by
Tilak, a new constitution was drafted and rectified in 1899, it was never given a
proper trial.
• Moderate politics reached a dead end as most of their demands remained
unfulfilled and this was certainly a major reason behind the rise of extremism.
• The failure of the Moderates to win any notable success other than the expansion
of the legislative councils by the Indian Councils Act (1892).
• The partition of Bengal in 1905 opened the eyes of the Indians to the true colors
of the British rulers.
Characteristic attributes of the extremists trend
• The extremist goal was ‘swaraj’. This, at that time either meant complete
autonomy and freedom from British control, or a total Indian control over the
• Extremists called for boycotting of foreign goods and the use of swadeshi goods.
• They vehemently opposed the appeasement policy of the moderates. Leaders like
Tilak gave the slogan, “Swaraj is my birth right and I shall have it”.
• They were strongly against British imperialistic policies in India. They took pride
in Indian culture and history. They looked at the ancient scriptures for inspiration
and courage.
• They were very vocal in their opposition to the British rule unlike the moderates
who had faith in British justice. They did not believe in loyalty to the British Crown.
• They tried to instill self-respect and patriotism in the people by invoking the great
heroes of past like Shivaji maharaja, Rani Laxmibai etc.
The extremists drew inspiration from India’s past, invoked the great episodes in the history
of the Indian people and tried to infuse national pride and self-respect among them.
Idealizing western culture gives the Indians an inferiority complex. The rich history of India
was revived by them, especially with regard to Hindu history and ideologies.

Answer –
In fighting of India against the Britishers, each and every section of India participated in
the National movement. The women, peasant, tribal and other Vulnerable section were
equal contributor to the independence of India.
Their contribution can be analysed as follows
Contribution of women
• Politically – After formation of Indian National Congress, women leaders like
Ramabai, Ranade and Pandita Ramabai fought for women rights and Kadambini
Ganguly who participated in INC Sessions contributed to the movement.
• Leadership. The women were At front of demand of self government or swaraj.
The Home Rule Movement was one such movement that had women at the helm.
As example, Any basent led the Home Rule League across the India that advocated
for self governance of country along with Gangadhar Tilak.
• In revolutionary activities – Many women featured in satyagraha in a non violent
way but some followed the revolutionary way of struggle that included activities
using arms to fight British imperialism. Pritilata Wadekar and Kalpana Dutt
participated in Chattgong armoury raid equally and in another case, Suniti
Choudhary killed a British official.
• Participation in mass movements. Gandhi’s mass movements would have not been
successful if women did not participate actively. It was because of large scale
participation of women that movements like civil disobedience movement and Quit
India was successful. For example. Sarojini Naidu was actively involved in Salt
Satyagraha in Dharshana. Similarly, the Khera, Satyagraha , it wasn’t be successful
without the active participation of women villagers. Kasturba Gandhi was the
backing of Gandhi’s movement and she was jailed in 1942’s Quit India movement.
• It was Usha Mehta who led the Quit India movement going by playing a major role
of running Congress radio. It was the main source of transferring the information
from one place to another to the Participants.
Hence in one say It can be said that contribution of women was very important for Success
of Indian Freedom movement. And women actualised year Role.
The role of deprived section was also very much important for successful
implementation of Indian National Congress policy for Indian freedom movement. These
can be analysed
Since many year this section was deprived because of exploitation of feudal Lords,
zamindars and the British rule. But it contributed Heavily in Indian freedom struggle
• Peasants participated in Swadeshi movement of 1905.
• The contribution of peasants during Non cooperation movement was also
noteworthy. As Example, in Awadh region reason, a powerful peasant movements
developed under the leadership of Baba RamChandra .
• During the Civil Disobedience movement, no rent, no revenue campaign in various
parts of the country were taken up by peasants leaders. This also laid the
foundation of All India Kisan Sabha in 1936 at Lucknow session of Congress &
demanded abolition of zamindari and occupancy rights for all tenants.
• During the Quit India Movement, all section of peasants cutting across cast lines
and even many landlord supported the movements believing that British rule was at
the end.
Role of Tribes
• As known, adivasi always treated others or outsiders as the Dikue, also
participated in Indian national movement. For example, in civil disobedience
movement, the tribal belt of Chhotanagpur saw militancy action against British.
Bong and Som Monji led struggle under influence of Gandhi at Hazaribagh.
Rani Gaidileu of North East got arrested during national movement events and
were released after India gaining independence.
Role of depressed class
• Doctor Ambedkar, the maker of Indian constitution, uplifted the depressed class
and enable them to participate in Indian National Movement indirectly as by
strengthening then downtrodden society. Many depressed class leaders
criticised and opposed exploratory policies of British. As Mahatma fully opposed
economic policy of British India
Even though there was socio economic backwardness in India, the education penetration
was low and the means of communication were also less. Then also the different section of
society participated in Indian national movements and their collective effort gained the
India independence.

The Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act of 1919, popularly known as the Rowlett Act
or Black Act, was a legislative act passed by the Imperial Legislative Council in 1919 in the
backdrop of World War I. Passed on the recommendations of the Rowlett Committee and
named after its president, British judge Sir Sidney Rowlett, it aimed at curbing civil liberties
of Indians and giving the state excessive powers to restrict freedom. The object of this
enactment was to replace the repressive provisions of the wartime Defence of India Act
(1915) by a permanent law.
Provisions of Rowlett act:
• The Rowlatt Act enabled British government to jail anyone suspected of plotting to
overthrow them for as long as two years without trial.
• Rowlatt act allowed cases to be in camera tried without juries and also to try them
• The incarceration was to be without due process or the right to fair trial i.e. Habeas
Corpus which was highly regarded in Britain.
• The act also allowed deportation of any person on mere suspicion of sedition and revolt.
• Possession of literature if declared treasonable or seditious pamphlets were considered a
punishable offence.
• Trial of all political cases by tribunals to be set up for the purpose.
• Rowlatt Act also provided for the press to be controlled even more strictly.
• The act gave sweeping powers to the police to search premises and arrest anyone merely
on suspicion without needing a warrant.
• The repressive act denied the under trials the right to information regarding the identity
of their accusers as well as the nature of the evidence presented against them for their
alleged crimes.
• Lastly, after completion of their sentences, the convicts had to deposit securities to
ensure their good behaviour and were also prohibited from participating in political,
religious, or educational activities.
What irked the Indians?
• The act was felt to be extremely repressive and the Indian public too was extremely angry
and resentful.
• Called as the Black act, it aimed at curbing the growing nationalist sentiments in the
• Due to its regressive nature, every Indian member of the Central legislative assembly
opposed the act.
• Restriction of civil liberties was felt as an extreme state excess and was equally opposed
by various nationalist leaders.
• Suspending the right of Habeas Corpus under the act in India which was well respected
in Britain also resented the public.
• Mahatma Gandhi was highly critical of the act as he felt it was morally incorrect to punish
a group of people for a crime committed by only one or a few.
In response to the act, Mahatma Gandhi called for a nationwide protest against it and
launched Satyagraha against it. Things turned ugly in Amritsar where the Jallianwala Bagh
massacre occurred.
Rowlett Act also formed one main reason behind the popular Non-cooperation movement
launched by Mahatma Gandhi against the British rule. Eventually, the act was repealed by
the Government of India in 1922 on recommendations of Repressive Laws Committee.


Agriculture being a very important source of revenue during the British Raj, peasants were
the most exploited class in the Indian economy as a direct result of the transformation of the
agrarian structure. The peasant movements proved to be a very important phase of Indian
struggle against the oppressive British rule.
Indian peasantry was impoverished as a result of:
• Regressive taxation policies: Permanent settlement, Ryotwari systems etc.
• Ruin of traditional handicrafts leading to overcrowding of land
• Dominating interference in the forest acts, forest rights and traditional social
• Distorted measures of land revenue collections etc.
Common underlying factors to the peasant movements include:
• Unreasonably high rents and protection to the landlords and moneylenders.
• Arbitrary evictions and unpaid labour.
• Exploitation of the already overburdened farmers by the Zamindars and
• Harsh systems of the British. E.g: Forced cultivations of Indigo crop, Sunset clause,
seizure of cattle and crops due to non-payment of loans etc.,
• Transferability of land which deprived the traditional occupancy rights.
• Lack of awareness of clauses leading to sudden loss of land and work, leading to
collective uprisings.
Mobilization of the peasants can be explained in 4 phases:
Peasant movements before 1857:
• The peasants during this phase organized themselves and elected their own
• They collectively raised a huge army equipping themselves with primitive
• Peasants attacked courts and looted stores.
• Prominent places became the centres of mobilization.
• Examples of this phase are: The Rangpur Rebellion ( 1783)
Peasant movements after 1857:
• Mobilization of peasants in protests continued in some earlier forms but acquired
new features in this phase.
• Greater awareness of colonial policies, laws and institutions helped the peasants
protest in a prepared manner to some extent.
• There was growing involvement of educated middle class intelligentsia such as
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, RC Dutt etc., as spokespersons for the movements.
• The Deccan riots of 1875 were characterized with burning of deeds, bonds and
looting the zamindar offices.
Movements in the 1920s:
• This phase saw the development of class consciousness, influenced by the
Gandhian movement, Russian Movements etc.,
• Local issues integrated with the national cause of Swaraj
• Creation of Sabhas, Conferences and Co-operative movements to ensure fair
systems of land revenue and tenancy.
• Example: creation of UP/Awadh Kisan Sabha (1918)
Peasant Movements after the WW2:
• Earlier movements were mostly non-violent with small fractions of violent surges,
but this phase had increasingly violent uprisings.
• Examples: Telangana Movement (1946-51), Tebhaga Movement where the
peasants revolted using mass struggle with the support of Bengal Province Kisan
The Peasant movements created an atmosphere and led to many immediate and postindependence agrarian reforms. Though in diverse areas, the revolts indulged on the broad
ideology of nationalism.

Answer –
The modern Indian working class arose in consequence to the development and growth of
factory industries in India from the second half of the nineteenth century. It is however
about the turn of the twentieth century, it took the shape of the working class
It was after World War I that the working class struggle in the country entered into a
different phase. The unorganised movement of the workers took an organised form
• Trade unions were formed on modern lines.
• Firstly in the 1920s, serious attempts were made by the Congress and the
Communists to mobilise the working class and hence from then onwards the
national movement established a connection with the working class.
• Secondly, it was in 1920 that the first attempt to form an all India organisation was
made. Tilak was instrumental in the formation of the All India Trade Union Congress
• Thirdly, in this decade, India witnessed a large number of strikes. The strikes were
prolonged and well participated by the workers. The number of strikes and the
number of workers involved in these strikes went on increasing in the subsequent
• Communists who arrived in the 1920s seriously became interested in working-class
questions and therefore they sought to mobilise the working class through the
Workers and Peasant Parties (WPPs) in which they were active throughout the
Working-class movements in pre-independence period:
According to labour historians, the span of working-class activities in India is divided into
three distinct phases. Those three phases are:
•The first phase spans from 1850 to 1890:-
o The actions of the working class in the earliest stage were sporadic and
unorganised in nature and hence were mostly ineffective.
o Some philanthropists in the 1880s sought to improve working
conditions by urging the British authorities in India to introduce
legislations for improving its condition. S. S. Bengalee in Bombay,
Sasipada Banerjee in Bengal and Lokhandya in Maharashtra were
prominent among them.
o In the last decades of the 19th century, there occurred strikes at
Bombay, Kurla, Surat, Wardha, Ahmedabad and in other places.
o The strikes, however, were only sporadic, spontaneous, localised and
short-lived and were caused by factors such as reduction in wages,
imposition of fines, dismissal or reprimand of the worker.
o These actions and militancy, which they showed, helped in the
development of class solidarity and consciousness, which was missing
o The resistance was mediated by outsiders or outside leaders. Agitations
grew and they were not on individual issues but on broader economic
questions, thus leading to a gradual improvement later on.
•The second phase from 1890 to 1918:
o It is only from the late 19th century in Madras, and from the second
decade of the twentieth century in Bombay that serious attempts were
made for the formation of associations that could lead organised form
of protests.
o Between 1915-1922, there was resurgence of workers’ movement
along with the Home Rule movement and the Non-cooperation
movement. The most important development was undoubtedly, the
formation of the All-India Trade Union Congress under the leadership of
Tilak and Lala Lajpat Rai.
•The third phase from 191 8 to 1947:
➢ The clearest policy of Congress came only in 1936 when it appointed a
committee to look after labour matters. Thus it was from the late 1930s
that the Congress established deep links with the working class in the
➢ The WPPs were able to organise the working class considerably. ‘The
WPPs were most successful in Bombay where it organised a strike in 1928
than in other cities of India.
➢ There was a radicalisation of working-class activity by the end of the
1920s but what is also crucial is that there also grew differences between
the Moderates and the Communists; as a result, the AITUC split and the
National Trade Union Federation (NTUF) was formed by the moderate
➢ The RTUC merged with the AITUC in 1935 and the NTUF affiliated itself
with the AITUC in 1938. As a result of this, there was a growth of trade
unions and trade union activity throughout the 1930s and the 1940s. The
number of strikes went up by the end of the 1930s.
▪ The strikes spread to several smaller industrial towns in the
▪ The working class during these struggles were not only
defensive but were also offensive in the sense that they
demanded among other things restoration of wage cuts,
recognition of their union rights and resisted new forms of
oppression of labour.
▪ It has also been found that an increasing number of women
workers came to the forefront of the workers’ struggle
o On the industrial front, from 1939 onwards the working condition of
the workers was affected seriously.
▪ There was increase in the working hours, multiple shift systems
were introduced, wages were significantly reduced, and
workers. on the whole, were subjected to great hardships.
▪ As a result, strikes erupted throughout the country and
probably the most important demand of the workers was the
demand for a Dearness Allowance against rising prices and
cost of living.
The last years of the colonial rule also saw a remarkably sharp increase in strikes on
economic issues all over the country. The all-India strike of the Post and Telegraph
Department employees being the most well known among them.


Answer –
Pandit Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar was one of the greatest social reformers of the 19th century.
Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar was was a Bengali polymath from the Indian subcontinent, and a key
figure of the Bengal Renaissance. He was a philosopher, academic educator, writer, translator,
printer, publisher, entrepreneur, reformer and philanthropist.
• He was the most prominent campaigner for Hindu widow remarriage and petitioned Legislative
council despite severe opposition and a counter petition against the proposal with nearly four
times more signatures by Radhakanta Deb and the Dharma Sabha. But Lord Dalhousie personally
finalised the bill despite the opposition and it being considered a flagrant breach of Hindu
customs as prevalent then and the Hindu Widows’ Remarriage Act, 1856 was passed.
• He received the title “Vidyasagar” (in Sanskrit Vidya means knowledge and Sagar means ocean,
i.e., Ocean of Knowledge) from Sanskrit College, Calcutta (from where he graduated), due to his
excellent performance in Sanskrit studies and philosophy. Noted Cambridge mathematician Anil
Kumar Gain founded Vidyasagar University, named in his honour.
• His ideas were excellent blend of Indian and western thought.
• Unlike other social reformers who sought to set up alternative societies, he sought to transform
Hindu society from within.
• With support from people like Akshay Kumar Dutt, Vidyasagar introduced the practice of widow
remarriages in the mainstream society.
• In earlier times, remarriages of widow would occur sporadically only among the progressive
members of the society.
• The prevailing custom of Kulin Brahmin polygamy allowed elderly man to marry teenage girls.
After such marriages, these girls would usually be left behind in their parental homes, where they
might be subjected to orthodox rituals, especially if they were subsequently widowed.
• These included a semi starvation, hard domestic labour etc.
• Vidyasagar efforts led to the legislation of widow remarriage, and the stoppage of the custom of
• The first lawful widow remarriage was celebrated in Calcutta in 1856 under the inspiration and
supervision of Vidyasagar.
• Vidyasagar also fought for women’s education. As a government inspector of the schools, he
helped organise thirty five schools many of which he ran at his own expense.
• As a secretary of Bethune school (established in 1849), he was one of the pioneers of higher
education for the women in India.
• As an academician, he evolved new methodology to teach Sanskrit. He introduced the study of
modern Western thought in the Sanskrit college.
• Vidyasagar meaning ‘ocean of wisdom’, was a moniker given to him. He was also part of a larger
social movement called the Bengal Renaissance, in the footsteps of Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
• Vidyasagar brought about a revolution in the Bengali education system and refined the way
Bengali language was written and taught. His book, ‘Borno Porichoy ’ (Introduction to the
alphabets), is still used as the introductory text to learn Bengali alphabets.
• He, along with fellow reformers Ramgopal Ghosh and Madan Mohan Tarkalankar founded several
schools for girls in the early 19th century. He believed that everyone, irrespective of their caste or
gender, had the right to education and so he opened up the premises of the Sanskrit College for
people from lower castes.
• Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar was vocal about the cause of widow remarriage and introduced the
practice and pushed for the Widow Remarriage Act XV of 1856. He also reconstructed the Bengali
alphabet and reformed Bengali typography into an alphabet of 12 vowels and 40 consonants.
• He authored many books which helped the Bengali education system.
He passed away on July 29, 1891 in Kolkata at the age of 70. After his death Rabindranath Tagore
said, “One wonders how God, in the process of producing forty million Bengalis, produced a man!”
The Vidyasagar Setu, which connects Howrah and Kolkata, is named after him. Rectitude and
courage were the hallmarks of Vidyasagar’s character, and he was certainly ahead of his time.
In recognition of his scholarship and cultural work, the government designated Vidyasagar a
Companion of the Indian Empire (CIE) in 1877.

Answer –
WW I gave birth to two ideologies – Fascism in Italy and Nazism in Germany, which changed the
course of World Politics and economics. Italian were dissatisfied by perceived injustice by Allied
forces that they did not give deserved share to Italy in war exploits. Germany was forced to
accept the one sided terms of Treaty of Versailles, which created a feeling of vengeance amongst
the Germans.
• Both were based on Jingoistic Nationalism. They fed on the emotions of their
• Both Mussolini and Hitler, were strong dictators who infused their ideology into
general public through press and educational institutions.
• Both the countries followed expansionist policy and tried to expand their borders by
means of force. They both encouraged wars and believed in the concept of “might is
• They were strongly against communism and any sort of democracy.
• Fascism believed in superiority of the nation (Italy) which Nazism was based in
superiority of Race as well as nation. The kind of atrocities seen against Jews under
Nazi regime was not seen under Fascist regime of Italy.
• Hitler did mix religion with government matters but Mussolini allied with the Church.
• Mussolini initially was against Germany supported the allied nations, but later was
influenced by Hitler’s style of rule and allied with him.
Events leading to WW2
Germany and Italy both encouraged arms race and manufactured sophisticated weapons like
warplanes, submarines etc. Germany even made conscription compulsory.
Although this was not liked by other European powers, but they neglected it as Both of them
were against communism.
Both Germany and Italy neglected the presence of League of Nations, which was a toothless
organization. They kept following expansionist policy and what league did was to slam weak
sanctions, which were ignored by them.
Due to aggressive policy of Nazis and Fascists, expansion of army and accumulation of arms, a
war of catastrophic scale became imminent.

▪ Recently, the Parliament passed three labour codes — on industrial relations;
occupational safety, health and working conditions; and social security — proposing to
simplify the country’s archaic labour laws and give impetus to economic activity without
compromising with the workers’ benefits.
▪ Along with the ‘Code on Wages Act- 2019’, these can significantly ease the conduct of
business by amalgamating a plethora of Central and State laws on labour. These labour
codes can have a transformative impact on labour relations in India.
Benefits of Labour Codes
▪ Consolidation and simplification of the Complex laws: The three Codes simplify labour
laws by subsuming 25 central labour laws that have been on the table for at least 17
o It will provide a big boost to industry & employment and will reduce multiplicity
of definition and multiplicity of authority for businesses.
▪ Single Licensing Mechanism: The codes provide for a single licensing mechanism. It will
give fillip to industries by ushering in substantive reform in the licensing mechanism.
Currently, industries have to apply for their licence under different laws.
▪ Easier Dispute resolution: The codes also simplify archaic laws dealing with industrial
disputes and revamp the adjudication process, which will pave the way for early
resolution of disputes.
▪ Ease of Doing Business: According to the industry and some economists such reform
shall boost investment and improve ease of doing business. It drastically reduces
complexity and internal contradictions, increases flexibility & modernizes regulations on
safety/working conditions
▪ Other benefits for Labour: The three codes will promote fixed term employment, reduce
influence of trade unions and expand the social security net for informal sector workers.
Concerns with the Labour codes
▪ Promote arbitrary service conditions for workers: The codes provide the liberty to
industrial establishments to hire and fire their employees at will.
o This move might enable companies to introduce arbitrary service conditions for
▪ Free Hand to States: The central government has also attracted criticism that states
have been given a free hand to exempt laws in violation of labour rights. However, the
Union Labour Minister has said the labour issue is in the Concurrent list of the
Constitution and therefore states have been given the flexibility to make changes as
they wish.
▪ Affect Industrial Peace: Industrial Relation Code proposes that workers in factories will
have to give a notice at least 14 days in advance to employers if they want to go on
o However, earlier the Standing Committee on Labour had recommended against
the expansion of the required notice period for strike beyond the public utility
services like water, electricity, natural gas, telephone and other essential
o Further, Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh has also opposed the Code, describing it as a
clear attempt to diminish the role of trade unions.
▪ The Periodic Labour Force Survey observes that 71% of regular wage/salaried workers
in the non-agriculture sector did not have a written contract, and 50% were without
social security cover. The new laws, by simplifying compliance, should create an
incentive for workforce formalisation.
▪ The new labour codes will help in increasing the pace of generating good quality jobs
to cater to the growing workforce, their rising aspirations and to absorb out-migration
of labour from agriculture. This way India can fully be able to capitalize on its inherent
labour and skill cost and help a fast economic recovery especially post Covid-19


Answer –
The moderates contributed significantly in Indian freedom struggle. The main objective of
the Moderates was to achieve self-government within the British Empire. They followed a
middle path and not an extreme path against British empire.
Methods employed by the Moderates:
1. In order to achieve their aim, they made several demands for reform and
indulged in criticising the Government policies.
2. They believed in patience and reconciliation rather than in violence and
3. They relied on constitutional and peaceful methods in order to achieve their aim.
4. They focus on educating people, arousing their political consciousness and
creating a public opinion, which.
5. In order to create public opinion in England, the Moderates arranged lectures in
different parts of England. A weekly journal called India was published in
England for circulation among the British population.
6. Moderates used different types of newspaper and chronicles to criticise the
government policies through newspaper like Bengali newspaper, Bombay
chronicle, Hindustan Times, Induprakash, Rast Goftar and a weekly journal India.
7. They also asked the Government to conduct an enquiry and find ways and
means to solve the problems faced by people.
8. They held meeting and held discussions concerning social, economic and
cultural matters. The moderates organized meetings at various places like
England, Mumbai, Allahabad, Pune, and Calcutta.
9. They drafted and submitted memorandum and petitions to the government, to
the officials of the Government of India and also to the British Parliament. The
object of the memorandum and petitions was to enlighten the British public and
political leaders about the conditions prevailing in India.
Contributions of Moderate Nationalists:
• The moderates led by Dadabhai Naoroji, R.C. Dutt, Dinshaw Wacha and others,
analysed the political economy of British rule in India, and put forward the “drain
theory” to explain British exploitation of India.
• All-India public opinion – Moderates were able to create an all-India public opinion
that British rule in India was the major cause of India’s poverty and economic
backwardness. The moderates demanded reduction in land revenue, abolition of
salt tax, improvement in working conditions of plantation labour, etc.
• Expansion of councils – helped in expansion of councils i.e. greater participation of
Indians in councils and helped in reform of councils i.e. more powers to councils,
especially greater control over finances.
➢ The early nationalists worked with the long-term objective of a democratic
• Administrative Reforms – They campaigned for General Administrative Reforms. They
demanded and put pressure on British empire on Indianisation of government
service on the economic grounds.
➢ They asked and contributed in Separation of judicial from executive
They criticised:
➢ oppressive and tyrannical bureaucracy and an expensive and time-consuming
judicial system.
➢ Aggressive foreign policy which resulted in annexation of Burma, attack on
Afghanistan and suppression of tribals in the North-West.
➢ Increase in expenditure on welfare, education, especially elementary and technical,
irrigation works and improvement of agriculture, agricultural banks for cultivators
• Civil rights – fought for civil rights including the right to speech, thought,
association and a free press. Through campaigns, the nationalists were able to
spread modern democratic ideas, and soon the defence of civil rights became an
integral part of the freedom struggle.
The nationalists were, thus, able to build a national movement while undermining the
political and moral influence of imperialist rule. This helped in generating anti-imperialist
sentiments among the public. But, at the same time, the nationalists failed to widen the
democratic base of the movement by not including the masses, especially women, and not
demanding the right to vote for all.

Answer –
The constant flow of wealth from India to England for which India did not get an adequate
economic, commercial or material return has been described as drain of wealth from
India. Dadabhai Naoroji gave ‘drain of wealth theory’ in his book ‘Poverty and Un-British
Rule in India’. Scholarly, estimate drain of wealth to be around 9% of India’s GDP in
18th century and 6% of GDP in 19th century.
The various constituents of drain of wealth are as follows:
• Territorial Expansion enabled the Company to generate greater commercial
revenues to access Indian goods for export purposes.
• The drain also included the movement of private funds to England. For ex.- earnings
of Englishmen from plunders during wars, bribes obtained from the native states
According to G.A. Princep, over Rs. 1 crore was sent away from India every year
between 1813 and 1820 as private wealth.
• Another form of movement of wealth away from India was the money paid to banks,
insurance companies, shipping companies in England for the services they render in
• The Company’s remittances to England (Home Charges) also formed a major part of
the drain. This included, salaries/ pensions paid to the Company’s employees in
The consequence of Drain of wealth were as follows:
• It impoverished all the section of Indian society particularly the peasants, who bore
the brunt of the taxes raised by the Britishers.
• It drained India of its precious capital, which could have otherwise been invested in
industrialization/ modernization of India.
• The drain of Indian wealth was used for financing the Industrial Revolution in
England and is also the reason why industrial revolution did not take place in India.
• The economic criticism of British rule had helped in shattering the myth of
benevolence of British administration in India.
It was instrumental in laying the foundations for the demand for Swaraj and ensuing
freedom struggle. Thus, British methods of exploitation though less painful but resembled
the blood-sucking leeches.

Answer –
Bal Gangadhar Tikal and Gopal Krishna Gokhale are two brightest stars of Indian National
Struggle from two different school of thought. Tilak was extremist while Gokhale was a
Tilak was a strong supporter of Swaraj. He actively participated in Swadeshi movement and
wanted to spread the movement throughout India. He edited Keshri in Marathi and Mahratta
in English and used
it as a tool to spread his ideas. His poem on Shivaji invoked Chepakar brothers to assassinate
Plague commissioner Rand. He started Shivaji and Ganesh Utsav in Maharashtra to inculcate
nationalism in common public. He was believer of Hindu-Muslim unity and was responsible
for Lucknow pact in 1916.
Gokhale was the political Guru of Gandhi and Jinna. He judicially used the parliament floor
to oppose the British policies and Budget. He started Servants of India Society to educate
masses. Being a moderate, independence was not high on his agenda, he wanted reforms
in present institution and more participation of Indian in Government bodies. He was
proponent of social reforms and strongly support Age of Consent Bill.
Tilak in contrast to Gokhale opposed British interference in Hindu tradition and hence
opposed Age of Concent bill.Tilak wanted mass participation and direct action which Gokhale
opposed. Gokhale opposed Tilak nomination as president of Indian National Congress in
1906 and 1907, which resulted in split in Congress.
Though they belonged to two different school of thought, their main objective was love for
motherland and welfare of its people.


Answer –
In the later 1870s and early 1880s, a solid ground had been prepared for the establishment
of an all-India organisation. The final shape to this idea was given by a retired English civil
servant, A.O. Hume, who mobilised leading intellectuals of the time and, with their cooperation,
organised the first session of the Indian National Congress in December 1885.
Indian National Congress – aims and objectives
• Nation building: The first and foremost major objectives of INC was to promote the nationbuilding process in India. It was to create a national identity of being an Indian among the
people and to promote National Unity. This was important because colonial administrators
did not consider India as a nation, but just a geographical expression.
• To provide for an all India political platform: It was to allow political workers from all over
the country to educate and mobilize masses under a common all India political
• To promote political consciousness and political awakening among the educated citizens
and then to all the sections of the society.
• To create a common Pan-India political leadership (or the headquarters of the movement).
A national leadership was the ‘sine qua non’ for the success of the national movement.
• To promote political liberal democracy and democratic culture in the country. The working
structure of Congress sessions was democratic through debates, discussions, and voting.
• To create and promote anti-colonial ideology among the people. This was essential for the
success of national movement against the authoritarian and colonial government.
• To prepare and put forward the popular demand of Indian national congress before the
government. This was to ensure the public welfare and also to unify them over these issues.
The success of INC –
• They represented the most progressive forces of the time.
• They were able to create a wide national awakening of all Indians having common
interests and the need to rally around a common programme against a common enemy,
and above all, the feeling of belonging to one nation.
• They trained people in political work and popularised modern ideas.
• They exposed the basically exploitative character of colonial rule, thus undermining its
moral foundations.
• Their political work was based on hard realities, and not on shallow sentiments,
religion, etc.
• They were able to establish the basic political truth that India should be ruled in the
interest of Indians.
• They created a solid base for a more vigorous, militant, mass-based national movement
in the years that followed.
Conclusion –
Earlier, there was a theory that Hume formed the Congress with the idea that it would prove to
be a ‘safety valve’ for releasing the growing discontent of the Indians. However, INC
represented the urge of the politically conscious Indians to set up a national body to express
the political and economic demands of the Indians.
• In the circumstances, Historians observe, the early Congress leaders used Hume as a
‘lightning conductor’ i.e., as a catalyst to bring together the nationalistic forces even if
under the guise of a ‘safety valve’.

Answer – Through the charter Act 1833 The company’s commercial activities
were closed down. It was made into an administrative body for British Indian
possessions. The company’s trade links with China were also closed down.
act permitted the English to settle freely in India. This act legalised the
British colonisation of the country. The company still possessed the Indian
territories but it was held ‘in trust for his majesty’.
Body –
The main provisions of Charter Act 1833
• India became a British colony – The Governor-General of Bengal was redesignated as the Governor-General of India. This made Lord William
Bentinck the first Governor-General of India.
➢ Thus, the country’s administration was unified under one control
The Governor-General in council had the authority to amend,
repeal or alter any law pertaining to all people and places in
British Indian territories whether British, foreign or Indian native.
• Indian Law Commission – The act mandated that any law made in India
was to be put before the British Parliament and was to be called ‘Act’.
As per the act, an Indian Law Commission was established.
• Split in Bengal Presidency – The act provided for the Presidency of
Bengal to be divided into the Presidencies of Agra and Fort William.
• Indians in Government service – This was the first act that gave
permission for Indians to have a share in the country’s administration. It
stated that merit should be the basis of employment to government
service and not birth, colour, religion or race.
• Slavery – The act provided for the mitigation of slavery existing in India
at that time. The British Parliament abolished slavery in Britain and all
its possessions in 1833.
• Tilt towards Christianity – Since the number of British residents in the
country was increasing, the act allowed for having three Bishops in
India. It also sought to regulate the establishment of Christian
institutions in India.
Conclusion –
It was the first step in the centralisation of India’s administration. The ending
of the East India Company’s commercial activities and making it into the
British Crown’s trustee in administering India. Codification of laws

Answer –
The Allahabad High Court in a recent ruling declared that the conversion for
the sole purpose of marriage as ”null and void”.
What is Special Marriage Act?
• The Special Marriage Act, 1954 (SMA) was enacted to facilitate the
marriage of couples professing different faiths and preferring a civil
• People from different castes or religions or states get married under
SMA in which marriage is solemnized by way of registration.
• The prime purpose of the Act was to address Inter-religious marriages
and to establish marriage as a secular institution bereft of all religious
formalities, which requires registration alone.
What are the features of the SMA?
• Basic age Criteria: The marriage of any two persons may be
solemnised under the SMA, subject to the man having completed 21
years of age and the woman 18.
• Basic Conditions needs to be met: Neither should have a spouse
living; both should be capable of giving valid consent, should not
suffer from any mental disorder of a kind that renders them unfit for
marriage and procreation.
• Restrictions related to Religious laws: They should not be within the
degrees of prohibited relationship — that is, they should not be
related in such a way that their religion does not permit such
• Notice Procedure: Parties to an intended marriage should give notice
to the ‘marriage officer’ of the district in which one of them had
resided for at least 30 days. The notice will have to be entered in a
‘Marriage Notice Book’ and a copy of it displayed at a conspicuous
place in the office.
• The marriage has to be solemnised within three months of the notice,
and if it is not, a fresh notice will be needed.
• Provision for objections to the marriage: Any person can object to the
marriage within 30 days of the publication of the notice on the
ground that it contravenes one of the conditions for a valid marriage.
The marriage officer has to inquire into the objection and give a
decision within 30 days. If he refuses permission for the marriage, an
appeal can be made to the district court. The court’s decision will be
• Member of Undivided Family: Also, the Act says that when a member
of an undivided family who professes Hindu, Buddhist, Sikh or Jaina
religions, gets married under SMA, it results in his or her “severance”
from the family.
Marriage being a personal matter has to be sparingly regulated, unless it leads
to social evils. Freedom of choice should be given primacy in a liberal
Democratic country like India.
Value Addition –
If Q is about the critical analysis of SMA then –
What are the Criticisms of SMA i.e. the hurdles faced by inter-faith couples?
• Practical Difficulties: The provisions relating to notice, publication and
objection have rendered it difficult for many people intending to
solemnise inter-faith marriages.
• Vulnerable to coercive tactics by family: Publicity in the local
registration office may mean that family members objecting to the
union may seek to stop it by coercion.
• Danger posed by fringe groups: There have been reports of right-wing
groups opposed to inter-faith marriages keeping a watch on the
notice boards of marriage offices and taking down the details of the
parties so that they can be dissuaded or coerced into abandoning the
• Intrusion of Privacy: The law’s features on prior public notice being
given and objections being called from any quarter, places a question
mark on the safety and privacy of those intending to marry across
• Violation of Right to Equality: In the case of Hindu and Muslim
marriage laws, there is no requirement of prior notice and, therefore,
such a requirement in the SMA is considered as violation of the right
to equality of those opting for marriage under SMA.
• Pushes for religious conversion: Due to complexities involved in SMA,
the intending couple finds it easier to settle for marriage under the
personal law of one of them, with the other opting for religious
conversion. While conversion to Islam and Christianity has formal
means, there is no prescribed ceremony for conversion to Hinduism.
Are there laws against conversion for the sake of marriage?
• The Himachal Pradesh Freedom of Religion Act, 2019, and the
Uttarakhand Freedom of Religion Act, 2018, both prohibit conversion
by misrepresentation, force, fraud, undue influence, inducement,
allurement and ‘by marriage’.
• There is a separate section in both laws under which, not conversion
for the purpose of marriage, but marriage done solely for the purpose
of conversion, may be declared null and void by a family court based
on a suit by either party.


Answer –
In the later 1870s and early 1880s, a solid ground had been prepared for the establishment of an all-India organisation. The final shape to this idea was given by a retired English civil servant, A.O. Hume, who mobilised leading intellectuals of the time and, with their cooperation, organised the first session of the Indian National Congress in December 1885. Indian National Congress – aims and objectives • Nation building: The first and foremost major objectives of INC was to promote the nation-building process in India. It was to create a national identity of being an Indian among the people and to promote National Unity. This was important because colonial administrators did not consider India as a nation, but just a geographical expression. • To provide for an all India political platform: It was to allow political workers from all over the country to educate and mobilize masses under a common all India political organization.
• To promote political consciousness and political awakening among the educated citizens and then to all the sections of the society. • To create a common Pan-India political leadership (or the headquarters of the movement). A national leadership was the ‘sine qua non’ for the success of the national movement. • To promote political liberal democracy and democratic culture in the country. The working structure of Congress sessions was democratic through debates, discussions, and voting. • To create and promote anti-colonial ideology among the people. This was essential for the success of national movement against the authoritarian and colonial government. • To prepare and put forward the popular demand of Indian national congress before the government. This was to ensure the public welfare and also to unify them over these issues.
The success of INC –
• They represented the most progressive forces of the time.
• They were able to create a wide national awakening of all Indians having common interests and the need to rally around a common programme against a common enemy, and above all, the feeling of belonging to one nation.
• They trained people in political work and popularised modern ideas.
• They exposed the basically exploitative character of colonial rule, thus undermining its moral foundations.
• Their political work was based on hard realities, and not on shallow sentiments, religion, etc.
• They were able to establish the basic political truth that India should be ruled in the interest of Indians.
• They created a solid base for a more vigorous, militant, mass-based national movement in the years that followed.
Conclusion –
Earlier, there was a theory that Hume formed the Congress with the idea that it would prove to be a ‘safety valve’ for releasing the growing discontent of the Indians. However, INC represented the urge of the politically conscious Indians to set up a national body to express the political and economic demands of the Indians.
• In the circumstances, Historians observe, the early Congress leaders used Hume as a ‘lightning conductor’ i.e., as a catalyst to bring together the nationalistic forces even if under the guise of a ‘safety valve’.

Answer – ―Russian revolution was like a firecracker with a very long fuse. Even though the actual
revolution was in 1917, the fuse had been burning for nearly half a century
Circumstances that lead to Russian revolution –
• Historical Causes:
➢ Almost the entire Europe underwent political and economic transformation by
becoming republics like France or constitutional monarchies like England. However,
Russia was still living in the old world under the autocratic rule of Czars.
➢ Even though serfdom was abolished in 1861, it did not improve the condition of
the peasants. They still had small land holdings with no capital to develop. Land
hunger of the peasants was a major social factor in the Russian society.
• Economic cause:
➢ Industrialisation began very late in Russia in the second half of the nineteenth
century. More than half of the capital for investment came from foreign countries.
But they showed no concern for the workers conditions.
➢ Whether factories were owned by foreigners or Russians the condition of work were
horrible. Low wages, child labour was common.
➢ Workers had no political rights trade unions were outlawed.
➢ By 1911, Stolypin‘s land reforms were starting to fail because of the rapid growth
of peasantry and the inefficient farming techniques.
• Political causes:
➢ Russian state under Czars was completely unsuited to the needs of the modern
times. Czars still believed in the divine right of kings
➢ Alexander III- ―Pogroms organized violence against revolutionaries and Jews which
broke out in many parts of Russia. With this the government alienated three most
importantgroups peasantry, industrial workers and the intelligentsia.
➢ They imposed use of Russian language and tried to belittle the cultures of the
people of these areas.
➢ The Czar Nicholas announced his ―October Manifesto granting freedom of speech,
press and association and conferred the power to make laws upon an elected body
called ―The Dum , But he soon relapsed into his old ways.
➢ Many scandals took place especially royal family‘s association with Rasputin a selfimposed holy man who became the real power behind the throne.
➢ Corruption resulted in great suffering to the people.
➢ By 1912, Both Bolsheviks and Mensheviks revived
• Ideology:
➢ Russian thinkers had been influenced by developments in Europe and wanted to
see similar changes in Russia.
➢ After the split in the Russian Social democratic labour party Mensheviks and
Bolsheviks came into picture Bolsheviks worked for the demands of peasantry
• Military:
➢ In 1904 Russian Japanese war, Russia suffered reverses in the war which
strengthened the revolutionary movement in Russia.
➢ Bloody Sunday (Revolution of 1905):In 1905 mass of peaceful workers with their
wives and children were fired at in St.Petersburg while on their way to the winter
palace to present a petition to the Czar. This incident provoked a wave of strikes all
over the country and it was considered dress rehearsal for the later revolution.
➢ A new form of organization developed in this revolution which proved decisive in
the upheaval of 1917.This was the ―Soviet or the council of workers
➢ World War I failure: Czarist state was incapable of waging a modern war and Russia
entering WWIproved fatal and breakdown of Russian autocracy.
6,00,000soldierswerekilled and were in no match to the German army. Poor
transportation meant that arms and ammunition were slow to reach the front.
Conclusion –
First revolution in the history which proclaimed the building of a socialist society as its objective.
This had led to the creation of new states all across the globe.
o Formation of communist parties in many countries of the world with the objective of bringing
about revolution and following common policies.

Answer – The Global Hunger Index (GHI) 2020 report has placed India at 94thposition among
107 countries, much behind Bangladesh, Pakistan and Nepal.
When Global Hunger Index (GHI) report was published, India had a food stock of more than 68
million tonnes (excluding un-milled paddy) in the central pool. the food stock went up to 70
million tonnes by Sep 2020.
Causes of poor performance –
• Small and Marginal farmers: Due to reasons such as reduced soil fertility,
fragmented lands or fluctuating market price of farm produce, agriculture output
from small and marginal holdings are either stationary or declining.
o Almost 50 million households in India are dependent on these small and
marginal holdings. Despite having the surplus food, most small and
marginal farming households do not produce enough food grains for their
consumption around the year.
• Income decline: Relative income of one section of people has been on the decline.
This has adverse effects on their capacity to buy adequate food, especially when
food prices have been on the rise.
• Unemployment: Lack of income opportunities other than the farm sector has
contributed heavily to the growing joblessness in rural areas. The Periodic Labour
Force Survey (PLFS) 2017-18 revealed that rural unemployment stood at a
concerning 6.1 per cent, which was the highest since 1972-73.
• MGNREGA: The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005
(MGNREGA) which was a major rural job program, had been weakened over the
years through great delays in payments and non-payments, low wages and reduced
scope of employment due to high bureaucratic control.
• PDS inefficiency: The public distribution system (PDS) of the state is not functioning
well or is not accessible to everyone.
The ways to address the paradox –
• One effort to address the hunger (and nutrition) challenge is the enactment of the
National Food Security Act
• To improve nutritional content in food products, steps must be taken towards
universal food fortification.
• Adequate funding is required for the effective implementation of any nutrition
• Many of the causes for the occurrence of malnutrition is known, however attention
needs to be paid to understanding what prevents the nation from achieving its goals
related to nutrition.
• Attention needs to be paid on building neighbourhood health and nutrition profiles
and carrying out interventions based on identified needs.
• Governments, private actors, and NGOs should carefully coordinate
their responses to overlapping food and health crises and work with community
organizations to make sure interventions are culturally acceptable, reach the most
vulnerable, and preserve local ecosystems.
• Food should be priced not only by its weight or volume but also by its nutrient
density, its freedom from contamination, and its contribution to ecosystem
services and social justice.
• Governments should expand access to maternal and child health care, as well
as education on healthy diets and child feeding practices.
Conclusion –
GHI(Global Hunger Index by IFPRI) had ranked India at 94th out of 107 in 2020. This position
is going to further weaken due to the effects of the pandemic. State and civil society must
move with haste to prevent this emerging humanitarian crisis of poverty and hunger. Only by
sustained efforts can we regain progress towards goals of Zero poverty(SDG-1) and Zero
Hunger(SDG -2).

History Model Qs and answers – Marathas

After the Mughal Empire started declining as the central authority in the
beginning of the 18th century, the Marathas tried to gain control over the
erstwhile Mughal territories. Through their repeated attacks on the
declining Mughal Empire they further weakened it but failed to build a panIndia Empire.
Potential of the Marathas to develop a new pan-India empire:
• Able leadership: Marathas had some brilliant commanders and statesmen
to accomplish this task. For instance, Chhatrapati Shivaji developed
administrative efficiency by introducing concept of Ashtapradhan (a cabinet
of 8 ministers), with clearly defined roles.
• Military capability: Since they were militarily powerful, they had the
potential to defend the subcontinent against foreign invasions. Peshwas like
Bajirao I and Nana Saheb, won various battles in different geographies.
Further, the Maratha navy was also successful in fending off European
navies with cannons for half a century.
• Diplomatic acumen: Some of their Peshwas excelled in diplomacy and won
over several areas to create a big empire. Example, Shivaji used his
diplomatic skills to prevent his enemies from uniting against him.
• Control over large area: By 1740, the Marathas had acquired control over
large territories of the Mughal Empire. A large portion of the Maratha
empire was on the coast, which was secured by the potent Maratha Navy
under commanders such as Kanhoji Angre.
Issues with nature of Maratha polity:
• Lack of unity: Maratha chiefs lacked unity, which resulted in the formation
of many power centres (Maratha Confederacy) that frittered away their
power due to infighting. Local revenue officers i.e. deshmukhs and
zamindars took advantage of this dynastic factionalism. After the death of
Madhab Rao, the Marathas were caught in mutual hostilities. They could not
meet the challenges posed by the English.
• No long-term vision: Maratha chiefs lacked long-term vision, rather
preferred short-term individual benefits and hence were ready to be played
at the hands of external power. Maratha Power was built up on the
individual personalities and there was no well thought out policy or plan to
establish pan India Maratha kingdom.
• Administrative setup: They were more focused on conquering a state but
failed to build asound administrative structure in them. E.g. the system of
jagirdari (saranjams) created several power centres.
• Resentment among the public: They relied on force rather than creating
loyalty among the public. Their conquest would seldom go beyond plunder
and levying of chauth and sardeshmukhi.
• Lack of political allies: The Marathas did not focus on forming alliances
with other kingdoms, which led to multiple kingdoms rallying with Maratha’s
enemies such as the Rohillas, the Jats, the Rajputs.
Thus, due to this nature of polity, which was shared among chiefs, sardars
and deshmukhs,
Marathas could not build a pan-India empire. This led to their defeat in the
Battle of Panipat and later at the hands of British who divided the mutually
warring Maratha chiefs and defeated them in separate battles.

Answer :-
Various factors contributed to the rise of Marathas in the sixteenth
and seventeenth centuries. The physical environment of the Maratha
country shaped certain peculiar qualities among the Marathas. The
mountainous region and dense forests made them brave soldiers
and adopt guerilla tactics.
They built a number of formidable forts on the mountains. The
spread of the Bhakti movement in Maharashtra inculcated a spirit
of religious unity among them.
The Marathas held important positions in the administrative and military
systems of Deccan Sultanates of Bijapur and Ahmadnagar. But the credit
of establishing a powerful Maratha state goes to Shahji Bhonsle and his
son Shivaji. The political unity was rendered by Shivaji Maharaj.
Shivaji was born at Shivner in 1627. His father was Shahji Bhonsle
and mother Jija Bai. He inherited the jagir of Poona from his father in
Achievements of Chhatrapati Shivaji
• Initial phase
➢ He first conquered Raigarh, Kondana and Torna from the ruler
➢ After the death of his guardian, Dadaji Kondadev in 1647,
Shivaji assumed full charge of his jagir.
➢ He captured Javli from a Maratha chief, ChandaRao More. This
made him the master of Mavala region.
➢ In 1657, he attacked the Bijapur kingdom and captured a
number of hill forts in the Konkan region.
➢ The Sultan of Bijapur sent Afzal Khan against Shivaji. But Afzal
Khan was murdered by Shivaji in 1659 in a daring manner.
• Military Conquests of Shivaji
➢ TheMughal emperor Aurangazeb was anxiously watching the
rise of Maratha power under Shivaji.
➢ Aurangzeb sent the Mughal governor of the Deccan, Shaista
Khan against Shivaji. Shivaji suffered a defeat at the hands of
the Mughal forces and lost Poona.
➢ But shiva ji killed his son in 1663.
➢ In 1664, Shivaji attacked Surat, the chief port of the Mughals
and plundered it.
➢ A second attempt was made by Aurangzeb to defeat Shivaji by
sending Raja Jai Singh of Amber. He succeeded in besieging the
fort of Purander.
Treaty of Purander1665:
• According to the treaty, Shivaji had to surrender 23 forts to
the Mughals out of 35 forts held by him. The remaining 12
forts were to be left to Shivaji on condition of service and
loyalty to Mughal empire. On the other hand, the Mughals
recognized the right of Shivaji to hold certain parts of the
Bijapur kingdom.
• Renewed war against Mughals
➢ Surat was plundered by him for the second time in1670.
➢ He also captured all his lost territories by his conquests.
➢ In 1674 Shivaji crowned himself at Raigarh and assumed the title
Shivaji’s policy and Expansion of Marathas
• Administrative Policies – He laid the foundations of a sound system of
administration. The king was the pivot of the government. He was
assisted by a council of ministers called ashtapradhan.
➢ Peshwa – Finance and general administration. Later he became
the prime minister
➢ Sar-i-Naubat or Senapati – Military commander, a honorary post.
➢ Amatya – Accountant General.
➢ Waqenavis – Intelligence, posts and household affairs.
➢ Sachiv –Correspondence.
➢ Sumanta – Master of ceremonies
➢ Nyayadish –Justice.
➢ Panditarao – Charities and religious administration.

• Revenue Policies
➢ Lands were measured by using the measuring rod called kathi.
Lands were also classified into three categories – paddy fields,
garden lands and hilly tracks.
➢ Taxes : Chauth and sardeshmukhi were the taxes collected not in
the Maratha kingdom but in the neighbouring territories of the
Mughal empire or Deccan sultanates.
❖ Chauth was one fourth of the land revenue paid to the
Marathas in order to avoid the Maratha raids.
❖ Sardeshmukhi was an additional levy of ten percent on those
lands which the Marathas claimed hereditary rights.
• Military Policies –
➢ Shivaji was a man of military genius and his army was well
➢ The regular army consisted of about 30000 to 40000 cavalry
supervised by havaildars. They were given fixed salaries.
➢ There were two divisions in the Maratha cavalry–
o Bargirs, equipped and paid by the state;
o Silahdars, maintained by the nobles.
➢ In the infantry, the Mavli foot soldiers played an important role.
➢ Shivaji also maintained a navy.
The forts played an important role in the military operations of the
Marathas. By the end of his reign, Shivaji had about 240 forts. Each fort
was put under the charge of three officers of equal rank as a precaution
against treachery.
The above conquests and policies of Shivaji was the major reason for Maratha
stronghold in the region against Mughals. They became a formidable enemy of
neighbouring kings.
Marathas after Shivaji
The Maratha kingdom was, however, certainly weakened at the start of 18th
century due to various internal and external factors.
• A full-scale civil war broke out between the forces of Shahu (grandson
of Shivaji) and those of Tarabai (Rajaram’s widow).The loyalty of
Maratha sardars and Deshmukhs kept on shifting from one block to
• Since the time of Balaji Viswanath, the office of the Peshwa became
powerful. He died in 1720 and was succeeded by his son Baji Rao,
who was in power till1740.
• After the death of BajiRao in 1740, Shahu appointed his son
BalajiBajirao (1740-1761) as Peshwa. This was indeed the peak
period of Maratha glory.In 1761, after the third battle of
PanipatMadhavRao became the Peshwa. In 1772, Madhav Rao died of
• After the death of Madhav Rao, the struggle for power occurred
between RaghunathRaoand Narayan Rao. In 1773 Narayan Rao was
• Madhav Rao Narayan succeeded his father Narayan Rao.
• RaghunathRao tried to capture power with the help of British. This led
to the 1stAnglo-Maratha war.
• MadhavRao died in 1794. BajiRao II, son of Raghunath Rao succeeded
Madhav Rao.
• At the end of 3rd Anglo- Maratha war Peshwa was dethroned and
pensioned off while other Maratha states remained as subsidiary
Reasons for fall of Marathas
• War of Succession: – There ensued a war of succession after the death
of Shivaji between his sons, Shambaji and Rajaram. Shambaji emerged
victorious but later he was captured and executed by the Mughals.
Rajaram succeeded the throne but the Mughals made him to flee to
the Ginjee fort.
• Political structure: Divisions within – The other reason for downfall of
Maratha empire was its own structure. Its nature was that of a
confederacy where power was shared among the chiefs or sardars
(Bhonsle, Holkeretc).
• Weak Revenue Administration – Marathas depended on the collection
of Chauth and Sardeshmukhi and on their exploits from plunder and
loot. They failed to develop an efficient system of revenue
administration. New territories were conquered but much less focus
was on the administration. Rulers were mainly interested in raising
revenue from peasantry through taxation.
• Weak Diplomacy – Marathas did not take the trouble to find out what
was happening elsewhere and what their enemies were doing. There
was no far-sighted statesmanship or effective strategy. They failed to
cultivate alliances with forces around them.
• Anglo-Maratha Wars and Subsidiary Alliance – In 1802, Peshwa Baji
Rao II accepted subsidiary alliance by signing Treaty of Bassein. This
marked the downfall of Maratha empire. By 1818 the Maratha power
was finally crushed and the great chiefs that represented it in central
India submitted and accepted the over lordship of the East India
Shivaji was really a constructive genius and nation-builder. His rise from
jagirdar to Chatrapathi was spectacular. He unified the Marathas and
remained a great enemy of the Mughal empire. He was a daring soldier and a
brilliant administrator. Post his rule, infighting, disunity amongst Marathas .

Mission Karmayogi- the National Programme for Civil Services Capacity
Building (NPCSCB) is meant to be a comprehensive post-recruitment reform of
the Centre’s human resource development. These are the Comprehensive
reform of the capacity building apparatus at the individual, institutional and
process levels for efficient public service delivery.
• It aims to prepare Indian civil servants for the future by making them
more creative, constructive, imaginative, proactive, innovative,
progressive, professional, energetic, transparent, and technologyenabled.
Benefits of the Mission Karmayogi: At present bureaucracy is facing challenges
like- Rule orientation, political interference, inefficiency with promotions, and
generalist and specialist conflict. The mission will be effective in dealing with
these issues.
• Rule Based to Role Based: The programme will support a transition
from rules-based to roles-based HR management, so that work
allocations can be done by matching an official’s competencies to the
requirements of the post.
• Domain Training: Apart from domain knowledge training, the scheme
will focus on functional and behavioural competencies also.
• It will provide an opportunity for civil servants to continuously build
and strengthen their Behavioural, Functional and Domain
Competencies in their self-driven and mandated learning paths.
• Uniform Training Standard: It will harmonise training standards
across the country, so that there is a common understanding of
India’s aspirations and development goals.
• On Site Learning: It will emphasize on ‘on-site learning’ to
complement the ‘off-site’ learning.
• Adoption of Best Practices: It will encourage and partner with the
best-in-class learning content creators including public training
institutions, universities, start-tips and individual experts.
Challenges of the mission
John Maynard Keynes, the economist, once said that “The difficulty lies, not in
the new ideas, but in escaping from the old ones. “there is a tendency in
the Bureaucracy to resist the change which challenges their status quo.”
• The bureaucracy too must understand the need of domain knowledge
and the importance of moving away from generalist to specialist
• In today’s world the governance is getting technical with each passing
day and hence it’s important that the person in authority too should
have the requisite skill and experience in that particular area.
• Thus, there should be a behavioural change in the bureaucracy too and
they must embrace the change as a need of the hour and not an attack
on their status quo.
• Moreover, these online courses must not become another opportunity
for the officers to go for the sabbatical leaves.
• It must be ensured that they are actually attending the courses and
participating in it so that the purpose doesn’t get defeated.
While this is a welcome move, it is also a fact that lackadaisical attitude of
public servants is only one side of the coin. Equally culpable is the political
interference which manifests itself in transfers which must be addressed too.
➢ Ashok Khemka, the IAS officer from Haryana, is a living testimony of it
who has been transferred 52 times so far in his career.
Clearly, the reform process is not going to be easy but this is a good move in
the right direction.

Modern INDIA & CURRENT AFFAIR – Model answer

Answer –
the later 1870s and early 1880s, a solid ground had been prepared for the
establishment of an all-India organisation. The final shape to this idea was
given by a retired English civil servant, A.O. Hume, who mobilised leading
intellectuals of the time and, with their cooperation, organised the first
session of the Indian National Congress in December 1885.
The main aims of the Indian National Congress in the initial stage-
• Found a democratic, nationalist movement;
• Politicise and politicise the nationalist issues
• Work as headquarter for a movement;
• Promote friendly relations among nationalist political workers from
different parts of the country;
• Develop and propagate an anti-colonial nationalist ideology;
• Formulate and present popular demands before the government with a
view to unifying the people over a common economic and political
• Develop and consolidate a feeling of national unity among people
irrespective of religion, caste or province;
• Carefully promote and nurture Indian nationhood.
Evaluation of the success of INC in the early phase
• Successes
➢ They represented the most progressive forces of the time.
➢ They were able to create a wide national awakening of all Indians
having common interests and the need to rally around a common
programme against a common enemy, and above all, the feeling
of belonging to one nation.
➢ They trained people in political work and popularised modern
➢ They exposed the basically exploitative character of colonial rule,
thus undermining its moral foundations.
➢ Their political work was based on hard realities, and not on
shallow sentiments, religion, etc.
➢ They were able to establish the basic political truth that India
should be ruled in the interest of Indians.
➢ They created a solid base for a more vigorous, militant, massbased national movement in the years that followed.
Issues with functioning in its early phase
The early nationalists did a great deal to awaken the national sentiment, even
though they could not draw the masses to them.
• The moderate phase of the national movement had a narrow social
base and the masses played a passive role. This was because the early
nationalists lacked political faith in the masses; they felt that there were
numerous divisions and subdivisions in the Indian society, and the
masses were generally ignorant and had conservative ideas and
INC in the early phase failed to widen their democratic base and the scope of
their demands.
Earlier, there was a theory that Hume formed the Congress with the idea that
it would prove to be a ‘safety valve’ for releasing the growing discontent of
the Indians. However, INC represented the urge of the politically conscious
Indians to set up a national body to express the political and economic
demands of the Indians.
In the circumstances, Historians observe, the early Congress leaders used
Hume as a ‘lightning conductor’ i.e., as a catalyst to bring together the
nationalistic forces even if under the guise of a ‘safety valve’.

Answer –
Second World War (WW-II) was a global military conflict which lasted from
1939 to 1945. The vast majority of nations formed two opposing military
alliances, the Allies and the Axis.
• The Allies consisted of France, Poland and the United Kingdom, as well
as their dependent states, such as British India. Later joined by the US
and China.
• The Axis, also known as “Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis”, consisted of
Germany, Italy, and Japan.
Factors led to the Second World War
• Unresolved issues: The Treaty of Versailles was signed in 1919 in a
hostile environment after the first World War to bring peace in Europe.
❖ The treaty was harsh on Germany and served as a humiliation for
the Germans. It brought many hardships for the German
population and further deteriorated the entire geopolitical
landscape of Europe.
❖ The treaty could not contain the rise of extreme nationalism in
fascist regimes of Italy, Germany and Japan which in turn led to
the increased scramble for new colonies.
• Nationalistic tensions: Disintegration of German population into newly
created nations was used by Hitler to justify German aggression and
expansion before the second World War.
❖ The humiliating conditions of the treaty of Versailles annoyed the
Germans for years and in many ways led to the rise of Nazism in
❖ The terms of the Treaty of Versailles were violated by Hitler which
led to the formation of alliances like the Anti-Comintern Pact
(1937) between Germany, Japan and Italy and the NonAggression Pact (1939) between Germany and USSR.
• The economic depression: The period before World War II was a time of
great economic suffering throughout the world called the Great
Depression. It posed severe risks to the entire economies of the world
and specifically in Europe..
• Aggressive foreign policy: Unemployment, poverty lead the cause for
development of dictatorial regimes across Europe, who rationalized the
idea to take anything by force, led to more aggressive/nationalist
foreign policy.
• Empire building forces: In the atmosphere of cut-throat economic
trade/Depression, the answer of countries like Japan & Italy was to
build an empire.
❖ This secures their supplies of raw materials and natural resources.
Countries like Japan (Manchuria), Italy (Abyssinia) and Germany
(eastern Europe), therefore, set international conflict and tension,
This created unstable governments and turmoil around the world that led to
the Second World War.
The 1930s economic depression gave opportunity to Mussolini and his
Fascist Party came to power, making Italy rich and powerful.
Rising to power in an economically and politically unstable Germany, Adolf
Hitler and his National Socialist (Nazi Party) rearmed the nation to further his
ambitions of world domination.
Other Factors Includes
• Japan’s Militarism: In 1931, Japan was hit badly by the economic
depression. Japanese people lost faith in the government. They turned
to the army in order to find a solution to their economic problems.
➢ In order to produce more goods, Japan needed natural resources
for its factories. The Japanese army invaded China, an area rich in
minerals and resources.
• Failure of League of Nations: The treaty led to the formation of
the League of Nations which failed to prevent actions of fascist regimes
like invasion of Manchuria by Japan.
➢ The idea of the League of Nations was to prevent wars through
disarmament, collective security and negotiation. Unfortunately
the League failed miserably in its intended goal.
• Appeasement policy: The failures of the League in the 1930s were not
only because of aggressor nations undermining its authority, but also
down to its own members.
➢ Britain and France, the two most influential members, ignored the
League in their efforts to appease Hitler, it allowed Hitler to
expand German territory unchecked, this led to the outbreak of
the Second World War.
The seeds of the Second World War were sown in the treaty of Versailles. The
harsh restriction led to the growth of dictatorial regimes and ingrained the
feeling of revenge in Germany and Italy. Both these nations re-emerged as a
strong military power with fascist tendencies driven by extreme nationalism in
their respective countries.
Whereas, Japan’s economic condition after the great depression and its
militaristic policy in search of natural resources led to the formation of
alliances with axis powers.

Answer –
▪ nation’s destiny is linked to its neighbourhood- this specifies the need
of a peaceful and integrated neighbourhood. India’s foreign policy that
actively focuses on improving ties with India’s immediate neighbours
which is termed as Neighbourhood first policy.
▪ Significance of the policy: Former PM A.B. Vajpayee once famously said
‘You can change your friends but not neighbours’. For India to play a
vital role in the emerging multipolar world politics, it is important to
develop enduring linkages between its domestic priorities and its
foreign policy objectives.
o Political and socio-economic development of India is largely
dependent on a stable, secure and peaceful neighbourhood.
Challenges to regional diplomacy and connectivity
▪ Divided Subcontinent: The problems generated by the partition of India
divided the subcontinent on politico-religious lines.
➢ Further, challenges of settling boundaries, sharing river-waters,
protecting the rights of minorities, and easing the flow of goods
and people, affects regional diplomacy.
▪ Emergence of China: China annexed Tibet 1950-51, this marked the
arrival of China at the Indo-Tibetan frontier. This profoundly
transformed the geopolitical condition of India.
➢ Beyond the bilateral territorial dispute between India and China,
the emergence of a powerful state on India’s frontiers affected
India’s relationship with its neighbouring countries.
▪ Influence of Domestic Politics: India’s domestic politics always had an
impact on our regional policy. The same is true of our neighbours,
whose domestic politics impact their engagement with India. For
➢ Issue of Tamils has been a dominant factor in India’s Sri Lanka
➢ West-Bengal’s Chief Minister pulled out of the Teesta Waters
agreement between India And Bangladesh.
▪ Lack of connectivity: This sorry state of connectivity today reflects
decades of geostrategic divergence, political nationalism, and economic
Way Forward
▪ Policy Non-interference: The size of India is an important factor in the
way our neighbours view India and its policies. India accounts for a
major chunk of the land area, population, economic activity, resources,
of South Asia.
➢ Therefore, India as well as other neighbours need to be conscious
of its neighbours discomfort of having to deal with a big
neighbour and must follow the policy of non-interference in
domestic affairs.
▪ Establishing a Border Commission: Demarcation of India external
boundaries is yet to be completed. Resolution of border disputes will
pave way for stable regional integration. Thus, India must strive for
resolution of border by establishing a border commission.
▪ Broader Lens of Foreign Policy Goals: Integrating India’s regional
economic and foreign policy remains a major challenge. Therefore, India
should resist compromising bilateral relationships with neighbours for
short economic interests.
▪ Improving Regional Connectivity: Regional connectivity must be pursued
with greater vigour while security concerns are addressed through costeffective, efficient and reliable technological measures which are in use
in other parts of the world.
▪ Implementing Gujral’s Doctrine: India’ neighbourhood policy should be
based on the principles of Gujral Doctrine. This would ensure India’s
stature and strength cannot be isolated from the quality of its relations
with its neighbours and there can be regional growth as well.
Although there are complex challenges and situations, neighbourhood first
policy must be anchored in the sustained engagement at all levels of the
political and people to people levels, building upon the deep cultural affinities
which are unique to India’s relations with its neighbours.

History – modern India & society

Answer –
The constant flow of wealth from India to England for which India did not get
an adequate economic, commercial or material return has been described as
drain of wealth from India. Dadabhai Naoroji gave ‘drain of wealth theory’ in
his book ‘Poverty and Un-British Rule in India’. Scholarly, estimate drain of
wealth to be around 9% of India’s GDP in 18th century and 6% of GDP in
19th century.
The various constituents of drain of wealth are as follows:
• Territorial Expansion enabled the Company to generate greater
commercial revenues to access Indian goods for export purposes.
• The drain also included the movement of private funds to England. For
ex.- earnings of Englishmen from plunders during wars, bribes obtained
from the native states According to G.A. Princep, over Rs. 1 crore was
sent away from India every year between 1813 and 1820 as private
• Another form of movement of wealth away from India was the money
paid to banks, insurance companies, shipping companies in England for
the services they render in India.
• The Company’s remittances to England (Home Charges) also formed a
major part of the drain. This included, salaries/ pensions paid to the
Company’s employees in England
The consequence of Drain of wealth were as follows:
• It impoverished all the section of Indian society particularly the
peasants, who bore the brunt of the taxes raised by the Britishers.
• It drained India of its precious capital, which could have otherwise
been invested in industrialization/ modernization of India.
• The drain of Indian wealth was used for financing the Industrial
Revolution in England and is also the reason why industrial revolution
did not take place in India.
• The economic criticism of British rule had helped in shattering the myth
of benevolence of British administration in India.
• It was instrumental in laying the foundations for the demand for
Swaraj and ensuing freedom struggle.
Thus, British methods of exploitation though less painful but resembled the
blood-sucking leeches ,which made India from a major global trading and
export country to the major import country.

Answer –
o The revolt of 1857 started on 10th May when the Company’s Indian
soldiers at Meerut rebelled. Called the Sepoy Mutiny by the British, it is
now recognized as the First War of Independence against the British
o This rebellion was a major anti-colonial movement against the
aggressive imperialist policies of the British. In fact, it was an economic,
political and social struggle against the British rule.
Oppressive character and policies of Colonial rule in India:
o Political policies: The nature of colonial expansion through annexation
became a major source of discontent among the Indian rulers.
o Their policy of annexation called Doctrine of Lapse led to a
number of independent kingdoms being annexed to the British
Empire. These were states that were enjoying British protection
but their rulers had died without leaving a natural heir to the
throne. In this manner Lord Dalhousie annexed the Maratha
States of Satara, Nagpur, Jhansi and several other minor
o This interference by the East India Company was disliked by many
Indian rulers.
o The policy of annexation also affected soldiers, crafts people and
even the nobles.
o Even the traditional scholarly and priestly classes lost the
patronage which they were getting from these rulers.
o Economic policies: It caused the disruption of the traditional Indian
economy and its subordination to the British economy.
o Indian economy now suffered under the British policies. Since
they worked against the interests of Indian trade and industry,
Indian handicrafts completely collapsed.
o The British sold cheap, machine made clothes in India which
destroyed the Indian cottage industry. It also left millions of
craftsmen unemployed.
o The Britishers also imposed heavy duties on Indian made goods.
Now they could reap huge profits as there was no competition for
their goods. Thus, the British drained India of her wealth and her
natural resources.
o The colonial policy of intensifying land revenue demand led to a
large number of peasants losing their land. Permanent Settlement
of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa did not recognise the hereditary
rights of the peasants on land and if they failed to pay 10/11 th
of the entire produce, their property could be sold off.
o Social and Religious interference:
o Social reforms against sati, female infanticide, widow re-marriage
and education of woman, made many people unhappy. The
missionary work instilled apprehensions in masses.
o The religious sentiments of the sepoys were hurt in 1806 in the
Madras presidency. The Hindus were asked to remove their caste
marks from their foreheads and the Muslims were asked to trim
their beards
o Discontent in the Army:
o Indian soldiers were not given posts above that of subedars.
Some sepoys wanted special bhatta/allowance if sent on oversea
duty. Sometimes they were paid, but most of the time they were
o They were paid salaries less than their English counterparts. As a
result, the morale of the Indian sepoy was very low.
o Administrative character: Rampant corruption in the Company’s
administration, especially among the police, petty officials and lower
law courts, was a major cause of the discontent.
o British foreign policy: The revolt succeeded with certain outside events
in which the British suffered serious losses-the First Afghan War (1838-
42), Punjab Wars (1845-49), and the Crimean wars (1854-56). The
British were seen to be not so strong and it was felt that they could be
o Immediate policies: The government decided to replace the oldfashioned musket, ‘Brown Bags’ by the ‘Enfield rifle. The loading
process of the Enfield rifle involved bringing the cartridge to the mouth
and biting off the top. There was a rumour among the Sepoys in
January 1857 that the greased cartridge contained the fat of cow and
pig. This sparked off the revolt of sepoys on 29th March 1857.
o The Revolt of 1857 was the first sign that the Indians wanted to end
British rule and were ready to stand united for this cause. Even though
they failed to achieve their objective they succeeded in sowing the
seeds of nationalism among the Indians.

Introduction –
Launched in 2018, Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PMJAY), under
Ayushman Bharat umbrella is world largest healthcare program. The scheme
extends access to hospital care for 10.74 Crore beneficiary families and about
50 crore Indian citizens. It is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme under the Ministry
of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW).
Highlights of the Scheme
• The scheme guarantees eligible families are covered for inpatient
expenses of up to Rs 5 lakh per year in any government or empanelled
private hospitals all over India.
• It addresses concerns of expenditure by vulnerable families for
secondary and tertiary care. The extension of comprehensive primary
health care is given under Health and wellness centres.
• An autonomous and empowered National Health Agency (NHA) has
been established with corresponding state-level health agencies
• The benefit cover under it also includes pre and post-hospitalization
• Unlike private insurance schemes, PMJAY does not exclude a person
on account of pre-existing illnesses.
• One unique feature of the PMJAY is its national portability once fully
Assessment of the Scheme:
• PM-JAY has dramatically changed the picture of the health sector and
directly benefit poor people.
• Increased benefit cover to nearly 40% of the population, especially
the poorest & the vulnerable.
• The poor and vulnerable can now avail benefits in both public and
empanelled private facilities. It ensures all people can access quality
health services when and where they need them, without suffering
financial hardship.
• It provides cashless and paperless access to services for the
beneficiary at the point of service.
• It guarantees quality, affordability and accountability in the health
• It has rationalized the cost of care in the private sector.
But still there exist some Concerns and Challenges with PMJAY:
• PM-JAY focuses on secondary and tertiary care, taking away the
attention from primary care and public health-related investments.
• Massive shortages in the supply of services (human resources,
hospitals and diagnostic centres in the private/public sector). So
PMJAY will raise the demand without raising supply.
• The current package prices are too low to encourage private-sector
hospitals to fully participate in the scheme.
• Unfair practices by doctors and officials at every level.
• Hospital insurance addresses only a small amount of out-of-pocket
• Still, millions of people across India are pushed into poverty because
of out-of-pocket spending on health care.
• PMJAY excludes the 500 million people or so of the middle-class
Way Forward:
• Raise the percentage of GDP allocated to health from 1.2% today to
2.5% by 2022.
• Government hospitals need infrastructure and machinery upgradation, which can be done by the earnings of public hospitals
under PMJAY.
• Ensuring adaptive price setting, third-party monitoring, strict
regulation, and quality improvements in public sector hospitals.
• PMJAY will need a gamut of skilled manpower as facilitators and
administrative staffs at various levels.
• Universal health coverage (UHC) will require an insurance program for
the middle class also.
• Need to strengthen the country’s primary care services.
• A larger share of India’s public health expenditure to be allocated to
preventive care.


Answer –
British came to India as traders to earn maximum profit. The same tendency
reflected in their revenue policy.
Three major systems of land revenue collection existed in India. They were –
Zaminidari (permanent settlement), Ryotwari and Mahalwari.
Zamindari System– introduced by Cornwallis / Zamindars were given
ownership rights of the land / in Bengal, Bihar, Odissa and parts of United
Provinces. / Out of collected amount 1/11 share of zamindar and 10/11 of
East India company.
Ryotwari System– introduced by Thomas Munro/ tax directly collected from
peasants/ in Madras, Bombay, parts of Assam and Coorg / tax rate- 50% of
produce in dry areas and 60% in irrigated areas.
Mahalwari System– introduced during William Bentick / Mahals comprised of
2-3 villages. Tax was collected from village committees/ in Central Province,
North-West Frontier, Agra, Punjab, Gangetic Valley, etc of British India.
Effects on Indian Economy:
• Self sustainable economy of Villages called Jajmani system was
• De-industrialisation, as raw materials were not provided to industries.
• Life expectancy reduced, under nourishment and malnourishment
caused a weak workforce.
• High tax rates resulted into low capital in the hands of Indians.
• Caused large scale famines.
Effects on Agriculture:
• Tax money was not invested in agriculture and was siphoned out. This
made even the most productive lands barren.
• Commercialisation of agriculture. Farmers were forced to grow indigo
and opium.
• In a large part of country, peasants were left as tenants on their own
• No finance facility by government caused money lenders to charge
exorbitant rates pushing farmers into a vicious circle of poverty.
• Farmers started migrating to cities to look for petty labour jobs,
leaving farming.
absentee landlordism caused sub-feudalization in Bengal and deteriorated the
condition of peasants and became one of the contributing factors of
agricultural crises such as famine in and around Bengal. The plight of poor
farmers due to oppression by these intermediaries was criticized by some of
the British officers who opposed the emulation of the zamindari system in
other parts of the British India. Under the Mercantilism policy of British: one
country’s gain required another country/colony’s loss. Therefore, British
Government prohibited East India company from exporting gold and silver
from England to pay for Indian goods import.

Answer –
The American Revolution, which took place between 1765 and 1783, was a
political upheaval during which colonists in the Thirteen North American
Colonies of Great Britain rejected the British monarchy, overthrew the
authority of Great Britain, won political independence and went on to form
the United States of America. The American Revolution was the result of a
series of social, political, and intellectual transformations in American society,
government and ways of thinking.
Body –
The famous European explorers came from England, Spain, Italy, Portugal and
France – Refer to the French in America and the Spanish in America. The
voyages(a long journey involving travel by sea) of the first explorers and the
countries of Europe were motivated by various reasons, the foremost being to
build great empires – which led to the colonization of America. The other
reasons were as follows:
• Increased Power in Europe – the England , French and Spanish
were ruling entire northern hemisphere this causes tussle of
superiority & resulted into long wars like 7 day war.
• Prestige – superiority and better establishment of national power
made the colonies as their prestige of power .
• Wealth – gold, silver, spices and the raw materials of new lands
• Opportunities for trade – Britain bought American raw materials
for low prices and sold manufactured goods to the colonists.
• Spreading the Christian Religion – refer to Religion in the
Along with increasing population and prosperity, a new sense of identity was
growing in the colonists’ minds. By the mid-1700s, colonists had been living
in America for nearly 150 years. In 1651, the British Parliament passed a
trade law called the Navigation Act. This and subsequent trade laws
prevented colonists from selling their most valuable products to any country
except Britain. Also, colonists had to pay high taxes on imported French and
Dutch goods. Other reasons were –
• Socio Cultural Causes – Lot of political and religious dissidents had
settled in colonies (escaping persecution in Europe). Liberal and
progressive thinking –inspired by ideas of Enlightenment. Ideas like:
Natural law and rights, Liberalism Property rights ,Republicanism
• Political Causes – Colonies had self appointed legislature and executive.
Head of government- Governor appointed directly by British crown.
➢ No representation of colonies in§ Parliament in London
• Economic Causes – Development of trade and commerce between 13
colonies made them inter dependent – made them think of themselves
as one
➢ The liberal ideas of society affected trade and economy too
➢ Materialistic and individualism
➢ Various Navigation acts passed by Britain to serve her
mercantilist interest at the expense of Colonies : 1.1651 –
Use only British ships for trade transport
• The various unpopular ACTS
➢ Sugar Act 1764 – Sugar to be exported only to England
➢ Quartering Act 1764 – pay for English§ soldiers stationed in
America, provide them lodging if required
➢ Stamp Act 1765 All legal documents, newspapers, etc needed to
be stamped (that is – give duty) Affected lawyers, journalists and
educated people the most !! Protests began – No taxation without
• Sons of Liberty – Advocated use of violence, boycott of British goods,
trade with Britain
➢ Declaratory Act 1766 Stamp act repealed ‘The king and British
parliament have all the powers to make laws and tax the colonies
in future’
• Boston Tea Party (16 Dec 1773) – Group led by Samuel Adams
boarded the ships of EIC and dumped tea worth 10000 pounds in the
• Intolerable Acts 1774 – Public meetings in town halls banned
➢ Boston port closed
➢ Compensation demanded for the dumped tea
➢ Quebec act – extended boundaries of British ruled Quebec
➢ In response – the patriots started training§ militias for the
looming fight with British
the Americans did not fight alone. Louis XVI of France had little sympathy for
the ideals of the American Revolution. However, he was eager to weaken
France’s rival, Britain. French entry into the war in 1778 was decisive. French
trapped a British army commanded by Lord Cornwallis near Yorktown,
Virginia. Unable to escape, Cornwallis eventually surrendered. The Americans
had shocked the world and won their independence.

Answer –
the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 was announced by the Ministry of
Human Resource Development (soon to be called the Ministry of Education).
The policy is aimed at transforming the Indian education system to meet the
needs of the 21st Century.
The new policy seeks rectification of poor literacy and numeracy outcomes
associated with primary schools, reduction in dropout levels in middle and
secondary schools and adoption of the multi-disciplinary approach in the higher
education system
Key features of the draft Policy:
• The Policy recommends developing a two-part curriculum for early
childhood care and education.
• The Policy recommends extending the RTE Act to include early
childhood education and secondary school education. This would
extend the coverage of the Act to all children between the ages of 3 to
18 years.
• It recommends that there should be no detention of children till class
• The current structure of school education must be restructured on the
basis of the a 5-3-3-4 design comprising:
➢ five years of foundational stage (3 years of pre-primary school
and classes 1 and 2),
➢ three years of preparatory stage (classes 3 to 5),
➢ three years of middle stage (classes 6 to 8), and
➢ four years of secondary stage (classes 9 to 12).
• The Policy recommends that multiple public schools should be brought
together to form a school complex. Teachers should be deployed with a
particular school complex for at least five to seven years.
• For teacher training, the existing B.Ed. programme will be replaced by a
four-year integrated B.Ed. programme that combines high-quality
content, pedagogy, and practical training.
• The Policy recommends separating the regulation of schools from
aspects such as policymaking, school operations, and academic
development. It suggests creating an independent State School
Regulatory Authority for each state that will prescribe basic uniform
standards for public and private schools.
• It proposes setting up the National Higher Education Regulatory
Authority (NHERA). This independent authority would replace the
existing individual regulators in higher education, including professional
and vocational education.
• Higher education institutions will be restructured into three types:
➢ research universities focusing equally on research and teaching;
➢ teaching universities focusing primarily on teaching; and
➢ colleges focusing only on teaching at undergraduate levels.
• It recommends establishing a National Research Foundation, an
autonomous body, for funding, mentoring and building the capacity for
quality research in India. The Foundation will consist of four major
divisions: sciences, technology, social sciences, and arts and humanities.
• Recommends development of a Continuous Professional Development
programme and introduction of a permanent employment (tenure) track
system for faculty in all higher education institutions by 2030.
• It recommends creation of a National Education Commission or
Rashtriya Shiksha Aayog, as an apex body for education, to be headed
by the Prime Minister. This body will be responsible for developing,
implementing, evaluating, and revising the vision of education in the
country on a continuous and sustained basis.
• The Draft Policy reaffirmed the commitment of spending 6% of GDP as
public investment in education.
• It recommends National Mission on Education through information and
communication technology that will include virtual laboratories which
will provide remote access to laboratories in various disciplines.
A National Education Technology Forum will also be setup under the
Mission, as an autonomous body, to facilitate decision making on the
induction, deployment and use of technology.
• For vocational education it recommends:
➢ Higher Education Institutions to offer vocational courses that are
integrated into the undergraduate education programmes.
➢ National Committee for the Integration of Vocational Education.
• Establishing an autonomous Central Institute of Adult Education, as a
constituent unit of NCERT, which will develop a National Curriculum
Framework for adult education.
Conclusion: These present wide-ranging reforms in the policy are aimed
at making the Indian education system more contemporary and skilloriented.
• The NEP also renamed the HRD (human resource development)
ministry as the education ministry.
• Proper implementation of the reforms and ideas envisioned in the
NEP 2020 will fundamentally transform India.
With the emphasis on knowledge-economy driven growth in the 21st
century, this is precisely what India needs to dominate in the future
decades of growth and drive the education requirements of our young
Added feature – if Q is about the critical analysis of NEP 2020 then you have
to write these –

However, concerns that need to be addressed:
• Talking about the spend of the government in education sector,
“The goals of 50% Gross Enrolment Ratio in higher education and
100% in secondary school are laudable.
➢ But when you realise it’s currently 25.8% in Higher Education
& 68% in Class 9, you wonder if such targets are any more
realistic than the Govt’s solar-energy commitments at Paris.
• The NEP should have offered more tangible &realisable targets for
research. Total investment on research& innovation in India
declined from 0.84% of GDP in 2008 to 0.6% in 2018.
➢ There are currently only 15 researchers in India per 100,000
of population, compared with 111 in China.
• Knowledge-Jobs Mismatch: There is a persistent mismatch between the
knowledge & skills imparted and the jobs available. This has been one
of the main challenges that have affected the Indian education system
since Independence.
➢ NEP 2020 failed to check this, as it is silent on education related
to emerging technological fields like artificial intelligence,
cyberspace, nanotech, etc.
• Requirement of Enormous Resources. An ambitious target of public
spending at 6% of GDP has been set. Mobilising financial resources will
be a big challenge, given the low tax-to-GDP ratio and competing
claims on the national exchequer of healthcare, national security and
other key sectors

Mentorship – Modern India

Answer –
Towards the end of World War 1, various forces were at work In India and on the
international scene. This resulted into a resurgence of nationalist activities in India and in
many other colonies in Asia and Africa. With the emergence of Gandhi, the nationalist
struggle took a decisive turn.
The factors responsible for nationalist resurgence in India.
Post war economic hardship.
• India contributed in men and money towards the British War efforts. The war
expenses were met out of money raised by taxing India. When the war ended, all
section of population in India experiencing hardship on various fronts.
• Industry, the first increase in prices and then recession, brought many industries to
the Brink of closure and loss. They demanded protection from imports besides
government aid.
• Workers and artisans. They also faced unemployment and bore the brunt of high
• Peasantry faced high taxation and poverty.
• Soldiers – were returned from battlefield experienced hardship in Homeland and
less Liberty than before.
Expectation of political gains from cooperation in the ww-I
• Indians contribution to the world war 1 was enormous, but it has gone
• Gandhi and most nationalist extended cooperation to the war efforts and huge
number of soldiers sacrificed their life.
• So after war, there was huge expectation of political gain from British government
which contributed to the change in environment.
nationalist Disillusionment with imperialism worldwide.
• Allied Powers who promised colonies an era of democracy and self determination in
order to gain their support in war, did not make any such attempt.
• Paris Peace Conference and other peace treaties ignored imperialism in colonies
and rather divided them for their own Gaines.
• This resulted into a resurgence of militant nationalist activities throughout Asia and
Africa, for example in India, China, Egypt and Turkey etc.
Impact of Russian Revolution. November 7, 1917
Bolshevik Party of workers overthrew the czarist regime and founded firsts socialist state
Soviet Union.
• This revolution brought the message that immense power lying with people and
masses are capable of challenging mightiest of Tyrants , provided they were
organised, united and determined.
Hence all event culminated into a resurgence of nationalist activities like Home Rule
League program, by Lokmanya Tilak. And then Gandhis leadership in various events.
To encounter this resurgence, British restored to their old policy of carrot and stick. Here,
Carrot was Represented by Montague – Chelmsford reform. and Government of India at
1919, while majors like Rowlett Act represented the stick.
Government of India Act 1919.
• The self government as long term goal of British in 1917 August Declaration by
Montague secretary of State impacted then Home Rule League by, diverting their
mind and slowing down the movement.
• To meet the political aspiration, the Government of India Act 1919 introduced to
direct election and Diarchy at provinces, which then transferred local subjects to the
provincial government But significant subjects kept under the control.
• Expansion of provincial legislative council. For more inclusion of India to suppress
their descent For example, 70% of members were to be elected.
• The power to reject budget to the provincial councils, but final residuary power was
given to the governor.
• Central government was at place, but it was without responsibility. As Legislature
had no control over viceroy.
While stick was related with the repressive measures by British, along with carrot reforms
which included.
• Restriction on the mass protest and picket Restriction on the mass protest and
picketing or peaceful marches wherein many Home Rule League members and mass
participants were jailed.
• Rowlett act and Defence of India Regulation Act of 1915 and its extension which
was anarchical in its form as it recommended deportation of nationalist activist and
imprisonment without trial for 2 years.
• the imprisonment under Sedition Act and charges were extended.
• The law of habeas the basis of civil lover Liberty, curtailed civil rights.
Hence British through their less reformative and more repressive measures, exercise
control over nationalist resurgence, which was then further resulted into moment of
masses like non cooperation movement of 1920 and civil disobedience. Movement of

Answer –
During, 1919 to 22 the British were opposed by 2 mass movements – The Khilafat and
Non cooperation movement. Though these 2 movements emerged from separate issues
,They adopted a common program of action, that of non violent non cooperation.
Non cooperation movement has its origin in Khilafat.
• Khilafat movement may be said to have begun on October, 1919, when Khilafat
Day , all over India were celebrated.
• First Khilafat conference on 23rd November 1919 at Delhi. Considered feasibility of
non cooperation as a means of compelling the British government to redress
Khilafat wrong.
• On the 10th March 1920 at Calcutta Conference, they decided upon non
cooperation as a weapon to further the objective of their agitation.
• As non cooperation movement commenced on first August 1920, quiet later than
Khilafat, were utilising main weapon as non cooperation against British it can be
said to that its origin from Khilafat movement.
• Khilafat was led by Ali Brothers and non Cooperation movement by Indian National
Congress under Gandhis leadership.
Techniques used in these moments?
In order to Attain the 3 demands – Favourable treaty for Turkey and restoring Khalifa to
its position, redressal of Punjab’s wrongs – Jallianwala Bagh massacre, sedition provisions
and anarchical Act like Rowlett Act and demand of Establishment of swaraj by Indian
National Congress. They used techniques such as.
• Boycott the government run schools – there thousands of students left,
government run schools and colleges and joined Nationalist School and colleges
like National College of Calcutta, Gujarat Vidyapeeth, etc.
• Boycott of Court of law and municipalities and government services – the many
imminent Lawyer gave up their practices like CR Das, Motilal Nehru, Jawaharlal
Nehru, Asif Ali etc.
• boycott of foreign clothes, liquor at many places for includes clothes burnt publicly
and their impact fell by half the shops selling foreign close liquor picketed.
• Setting up national schools and colleges and panchayats.
• Giving Preferences to using khadi.
• In a second stage civil disobedience by means of non payment of taxes.
These all measures saw the participation of students, lawyer peasants, business classes,
women’s and middle classes. But sudden withdrawal of movement when it was at its peak
on February 1922, after Chauri Chaura, violent incident and British ending problem – back
at Turkey over Khalifa left the movement unsuccessful to large extent.
Evolution of Khilafat and non cooperation movement.
• The movement brought the urban Muslims into the nationalist movement, but at the
same time it communalised the national politics to an extent.
• The nationalist leader failed to raise the religious political consciousness of the
Muslims to a level of secular political consciousness.
• Wider reach of movement as large section of artisans, peasants, student urban.
Poor women traders Were participants of these Movements.
• It was this politisation & activation of millions of men and women which.Imparted
a revolutionary character to the national movement.
Hence, these moments awakened masses into large section of masses in the freedom
struggle which then strengthen the future political moment.