Plassey to Partition Summary

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Plassey to Partition Summary

Transition to 18th CE

  • The roots of Mughal decline lay in institutions  and systems intrinsic to Mughal administration rather than in personalities and specific policies
  • The Mughal army was weakened as there was no military reform and no new technology
  • Abdali  invasion in  1756-57, defeated marathas in battle of Panipat in 1761
    • Because of revolt in army Abdali had to return back to Afghanistan
  • All the able statesman of Mughal Empire pre-occupied more in self-aggrandisement and had little concern for the fate of the empire
  • The Mughal Empire has been described as a War State to its Core
    • It sought to develop  a centralised system whose Vitality depended ultimately on military power
    • Akbar Organised Aristocracy around the MANSABDARI system
      • Sometimes they were paid  in cash and more often in jagirs or landed estates
      • There were 2 types of Jagirs – transferrable or Tankha jagir and Non-transferrable or Vatan Jagir
      • Most of them were tankha , only a few were Vatan which were used as a device to incorporate the locally powerful rajas into  Mughal System
    • Appointment, promotion or dismissal of mansabdars and allocation and transfers were done ONLY by Emperor
    • The entire imperial edifice stood on  Patron-Client relationship, between emperor and ruling class
    • Lineage or Ethnic background was the single most important factor in matters of appointment of mansabdars
      • A great majority of them were outsiders who came from Central Asia
      • Aristocracy was divided into IRANI , TURANI , Afghans , SHEIKHJADAS or Indian Muslims
      • Only 445 out of 8000 mansabdars controlled 61% of land revenue
    • This unequal distribution caused  JAGIRDARI crisis , where resources were few for aristocracy, to maintain their administration and lifestyle
    • Problem was also due to AURANGZEB as he is continuously expanding the size of royal land or KHALISA
  • NO one questioned the divine right of TIMURID rule but every group tried to expand their influence over the  emperors to control the distribution of patronage.
  • Recurrent Peasant revolt are also a major cause of revolt for the Mughals
  • Mughal land revenue system rested on a compromise, the peasant was left with sufficient provision for subsistence while the surplus was extracted by the state in the form of land revenue
  • MULGUJARI – Primary Zamindars who had an independent right over the land and in  many cases it was through them that revenue was collected from peasants and in return they got nankar or revenue free land.
  • KHUDAKHASHTS – Peasants with occupancy rights

 

  • PAHIKAHSHTS – Vagrant Peasants

 

  • During Bahadur Shah rule , ALL  Zamindars turned against the Mughal state with the active support of hard pressed peasentry

 

  • AMILS – Revenue Officials

 

  • IJARDARI SYSTEMMughals devised this system, through which revenue collecting rights was given to the highest Bidder
    • During the reign of FARRUKSIYAR even the KHALISA land was given to IJARDARS
  • PORTFOLIO CAPITAL
    • There were corporate groups and  social classes who enjoyed despite a supposedly obtrusive central authority, various kinds of rights
  • Mughal administration was based on balance between  shifting rivalaries and alliances, it was prepared to accommodate FITNA or Sedition and always tried to incorporate various views.
  • VATAN – Heritable rights in Deccan which could not be taken even by Kings

 

  • KHANZADAS – hereditary Mughal Nobility

 

  • Consistent Economic growth and prosperity rather than poverty and crisis, provided the context of local political turmoil
  • The 18th century is not a dark age or of complete decline, it led to decline of central authority but many other small authorities rise
  • Emergence of New States
    • They did not directly challenge the authority of Mughals, they Constantly sought their sanction  to legitimise their rule
    • Bengal became independent under when MURSHI QULI KHAN became governor of it in 1717
      • Initially Aurang appointed him as DIWAN
      • FARRUKSHIYAR reappointed him and also made him deputy governor
      • In 1717 became governor or NAZIM
      • He was the LAST governor of Bengal Appointed by MUGHALS
      • Revenue collection under him shot by 20% from 1700-22
      • The efficient collection system was operated through powerful intermediery Zamindars
      • He encouraged the development of few powerful Zamindars at the expense of smaller inefficient Zamindars
      • It was ALIVARDI’s Reign that marked a virtual break with Mughals
    • Hyderabad was founded in 1724 by Chin QULICH KHAN or NIZAM UL MULK ASAF JAH
      • He was the leader of TURANI party
      • He organized the TURANI and IRANI Noblemen against SYYID Bros and ultimately killed them in 1720
      • He acknowledged Mughal Suzerinity
      • After his death a war of succession between his son NASIR JUNG and Grandson  MUZAFFAR ZANG, the advantage of which was taken by French, MUZAFFAR emerged victorious
      • Land revenue was collected through intermediary revenue farmers but unlike Mughals strong check was not placed on them
      • The JAGIRS became hereditary
    • AWADH – SAADAT KHAN was appointed governor in 1722
      • Muhammad Shah conferred on him the title BURHAN UL MULK
      • He sided with NADIR shah, after getting frustrated of his behaviour poisoned himself to death
      • NADIR SHAH remained Emperor of India for Just 2 Months
      • After Safdar jung death his son SUJA UD DAULA was appointed governor by ALAMGIR II
      • SHUJA Joined ABDALI in 3rd Battle of PANIPAT to defeat marathas
  • MARATHAS::
    • In 1719 BALAJI VISHWANATH estb a puppet emperor in Delhi by Helping SYYED BROS, he secured for his Master a Mughal SANAD(imperial order) recognizing SAHU’s rights to CHAUTH and SARDESHMUKHI in the 6 Mughal  Provinces
    • In 1736 BAJI RAO drove Portugese out of SALSETTE , BASSEIN and CHAUL.
    • In 1737 he held MUGHAL Emperor Captive for sometime ,in 1738 he defeated NIZAM of Hyderabad and Treaty of Bhopal was signed
    • In 1761 the MARATHA Forces under SADASIB RAO BHAO were routed by ABDALI in 3rd BOP
    • Marathas could not become an alternative to Mughals because of their internal structure, its nature was that of a Confederacy where power was shared  among the chief or SARDARS, they did not like PESHWA regulating their activities
    • At the lower level there was existence of VATAN rights like MUGHALS, these were of Village Headman , MIRASDARS and DESHMUKHS (revenue officers) which could not be taken away by Kings
    • SARANJAMS – resembled Mughal JAGIRS
    • Differential Urban Tax rate system  like Mughals Continued to favour Muslims.
  • SIKHS
    • AURANG was not very hostile to sikhs; but as the community grew he was against them
    • He executed GURU TEG BAHADUR, the 9th GURU , in 1675
    • In 1715 BANDA BAHADUR surrendered to ABDUS SAMAD KHAN, in 1716 all of them were executed.
    • In 1809 by Treaty of Amritsar English Recognised him as sovereign ruler of Punjab.
    • SAHADHARISNon-Khalsa Sikhs were also incorporated in KHALSA
  • JAT
    • SURAJ MAL Supported Marathas in 3rd BOP
  • ABDALI left Delhi after 3rd BOP and  made NAJIB-UD -DAULA incharge of Delhi
  • DALWAI – Prime Minister – Mysore Context
    • HAIDER and later TIPU Introduced  the system of  imposing  land taxes directly  on the peasants and collecting them  through salaried officials and in cash
    • TIPU in 1793 launched a “State Commercial Corporation” with plans to set up factories outside Mysore
    • Unlike Other states , TIPU issued Coins without any reference to MUGHAL Emperors, he inserted his own name in KHUTBA
    • He too did not completely severed ties with MUGHALS
    • TIPU found Islam an enduring ideology of power, he was equally patronising towards the Hindu religious Institutions like SHRINGERI MATH and Other Shrines.
    • In 1785 TIPU declared an embargo  on export of pepper, sandalwood and cardamom through the ports within the kingdom
  • TRAVANCORE had always maintained its independence from MUGHAL RULE
    • It gained importance after 1729 when MARTANDA VARMA started expanding, with modern army and weapons.
    • The DUTCH were outsed, English were made to accept his terms of trade, local feudal chiefs were suppressed .
    • Under RAMA VARMA it became a centre of Art
  • BRITISH
    • EIC was founded by a  ROYAL CHARTER in 1600
    • EIC formally started trading in India in 1613 after settling scores with Portugese
    • FIRST FACTORY WAS SET UP AT SURAT .
    • In 1690 AURANG farman gave them rights to duty free trade in Bengal
    • The foundation of Calcutta in 1690 and its fortification in 1696 were followed by grants of ZAMINDARI rights to 3 villages  in 1698
    • After AURANGZEB death FARRUKSIYAR gave them FARMAN in 1717 for duty free trade
    • The French and English did not fought in Bengal Because ALIVARDI KHAN kept them in check.
    • BO PLASSEY
      • In 1755 the English began renovating the fort without NAWAB Permission
      • Immediate issue was grant of ASYLUM to KRISHNA BALLABH who was charged with fraud by NAWAB
      • DADAN means Advance
    • BOB
      • After BOB company treated Mughal Emperor with Respect  due to his Symbolic Importance
      • By  TREATY of ALLAHABAD the Emperor granted the company DIWANI rights of Bengal , Bihar and Orissa
      • As per treaty SHUJA has to pay compensation, a BRITISH resident to be posted to his court at AWADH and the Company would enjoy duty free trade in AWADH – this was later used for annexation of AWADH later
  • FRENCH
    • They supported CHAND SAHIB for Carnatic Throne and MUZAFFAR JANG for HYD, both of them won
    • Why they lost
      • Rashness and arrogance of LALLY
      • NAVY superiority of BRITAIN
      • Financial support was less
    • In 1801 NAWAB of Carnatic signed Subsidiary Alliance system
  • SIKH
    • Lord Hardinge Started First ANGLO-SIKH WAR – SARDARNI in 1845
    • The Humiliating treaty of LAHORE resulted in annexation of JALANDHAR DOAB
    • KASHMIR was given to DOGRA
    • DALIP singh on Throne but was guided by an ENGLISH Resident
    • Second war by DALHOUSIE in 1849, after which PUNJAB became a province of EIC empire
  • BURMA
    • The BURMESE monarchy subjugated   PEGU ,, ARAKAN , MANIPUR , ASSAM , CACHAR
    • The internal enemies of empire were drawing inspiration from BURMA , so LORD AMHEREST attacked them in 1824-28
    • In 1834 COORG was annexed by LORD BENTICK
  • AFGHAN
    • Lord AUCKLAND fought first Afghan war due to Russia fear in 1838-42
    • LORD Ellenborough took over Sind in 1843
  • DALHOUSIE ::SSUNJ
    • SATARA – 1848
    • SAMBHALPUR and BAGHAT – 1850
    • UDAIPUR – 1852
    •  NAGPUR – 1853
    • JHANSI – 1854

 

 

 

 

 

British Empire

  • EIC Functioned like Mughal Emperor in the sense that it recognized the authority of Mughal as an emperor, used Persian as the court language , Struck coins in his name, administered Hindu and Muslim laws in  the court.
  •  Lord Clive’s Double Govt
    • Criminal Jurisdiction system was in the hands of NAWABI officials
    • Civil and Fiscal matters by Company
  • ORIENTALISM
    • The beginning of the ORIENTALIST tradition led to the founding of the institutions like CALCUTTA madrasa(1781), Asiatic Society of Bengal (1784) and Sanskrit college in Banaras (1794), all of which were meant to promote Indian language and scriptures
    • Orientalism produced a knowledge of past to serve the needs of present, to serve Colonial needs in better administration
    • In its early phase it can be seen in the policies of Warren Hastings
    • The fundamental principle of this tradition is that the  conquered people were to be ruled by their own laws, British Rule had to legitimise  itself in an indian idiom
    • It was with this vision that FORT William was estb in Calcutta in 1800 to train Civil Servants in indian language and tradition
    • One purpose of the Fort William College was to prevent the spread of ideas of French Revolution
    • It produced a knowledge about a society, which ultimately prepared the ground for rejection of Orientalism as a policy of governance.
    • They highlighted the classical glory of India crafted by ARYANS and the kinship ties between them and Europeans.
  • Hastings policy was abandoned by Cornwallis who went for greater ANGLICISATION of administration and imposition of WHIG principles of British Govt.
    • Wellesley Supported these moves, the aim of which is to limit the govt interference , and  ensuring a separation of powers between Judiciary and executive.
    • The states role would only be the protection of individual rights and pvt property.
    • The conservatism , of which Edward Burke was the chief exponent, was related to domestic politics in England facing threat of JACOBIANISM. The process of Anglicisation and the regulative administration under Cornwallis and Wellesley reflected this conservative nature of the time
  • Lord CORNWALLIS introduced Permanent Settlement with the hope that rule of law and pvt property would liberate individual enterprise from the shackels of  customs and tradition, and would bring in modernisation to the society
    • Munro , Elphinstone , Malcolm and Metcalfe  were not happy with Permanent Settlement as it did not pay heed to indian tradition.
    • MUNRO introduced RYOTWARI settlement in MADRAS
      • Idea was borrowed from MILITARY FISCALISM of Tipu Sultan
    • Both system based on safeguarding private property, centralised sovereignity
  • After industrial revolution EVANGELICALISM and  UTILITARIANISM brought the fundamental change in the nature of the company’s administration in india
    • Both these schools asserted that conquest of india had been by acts of sin and crime
    • But instead of abolishing it they clamoured for its reform so that indians could benefit from good governance.
    • EVAN  started its crusade against indian barbarism and advocated the permanence of British Rule with a mission to change the very nature of HINDOSTAN.
      • In india Spokesperson of this idea were  Missionaries
      • Charles Grant was its chief Architect in india, his ideas were publicized by William Wilberforce in Parliament before passing Charter Act of 1813 which allowed christian missionaries to enter India
      • Fundamentally there was no difference EVAN and free-trade merchant positions as regards the policy of assimilation and Anglicisation
        • It was Charles grant who presided over the passage of 1813 act m which ended Company’s monopoly over India trade
  • UTILITARIANISM and LIBERALISM
    • Jeremy Bentham, Thomas Maccualay etc – Liberal
    • Good laws , efficient administration was the most effective agent of a change as per JEREMY
    • James Mill – UTILITARIANISM
      • In “The History of British India” in 1817, he busted the myth of india’s Cultural and Economic Riches
      • What india needed was an effective schoolmaster , he said
    • It was on these lines that MACCUALAY drew up IPC
    • Liberals and Utilitarians differed on the question of Medium of education
      • While Liberals like MACCAULAY presented a strong case for ENGLISH as medium , UTI like MILL argued for Vernacular language
    • BENTICK and DALHOUSIE also  followed MILL
  • PARLIAMENT and the EMPIRE
    • Right from the beginning the British State participated and benefitted from Empire , thus it is difficult to say that India was captured in a fit of absentmindedness.
    • Pitts india Act 1784
      • BOC was set UpCivil , military and revenue  of the British territorial possessions in india
      • COD retained control over Commerce and Patronage
    • The Amending act of 1786 gave the GG the right to override his council in extraordinary situation and authorised the COD to combine the 2 offices of GG and Commander in Chief, resulting in Warren hastings enjoying  it for first time
    • The Charter Act of 1793 introduced the concept of Civil Law
    • Charter act of 1813, asserted ” Undoubted sovereignity of the Crown of the UK over the Indian territories”
      • Company was deprived of its Monopoly with India , but China k sath Continue for another 20 years
    • Charter Act of 1833
      • Company’s Monopoly with China was also Abolished and henceforth it was only meant to have political Functions
      • BOC was empowered to Superintendent all Affairs of administration in India
      • GG In Council was empowered to legislate to whole of india and these laws were to be applicable to all, british , Indian etc
      • Law member was added to the Council, MACCUALAY
      • The Company Service in india were thrown open to Natives, but  no provision for being nominated to COVETED Services
    • Charter Act of 1853
      • Provided for separation of the Executive and legislative functions of the governor general in council, by adding new legislative members
      • Nomination by company was curtailed by making OPEN Competetion for recruitement to ICS
    • 1858
      • Viceroy was answerable ONLY to SOS
  • Land REVENUE
    • In 1772 Warren Hastings Introduced FARMING system
    • EU district collectors were to be incharge of revenue collection, while the revenue collecting rights were given out to Highest Bidder
    • In 1784, Cornwallis was sent with a specific mandate to streamline revenue administration
  • PERMANENT SETTLEMENT
    • ADWABS – Extra legal Charges
    • AMLAS – Zamindari Officials
    • Permanent settlement was made  with the Zamindars
    • JOTEDARS – Powerful Rich Peasants
  • RYOTWARI
    • It was started by ALEXANDER REED in BARAMAHAL in 1792 and was continued by MUNRO
    • It created individual proprietary rights  in land, but it was vested in the peasants, rather than in the Zamindars unlike PS
    • MUNRO believed that by eliminating intermediaries both Peasants and Company would benefit
    • PUTCUT SYSTEM – the revenue to be  paid by a ryot was fixed on his entire farm, not on each field
    • The ryotwari S did not eliminate village elites as intermediary between them and peasants
    • It promoted differentiation within the peasantry, Peasant- Bourgeoisie was created which controlled large farms
    • In Bombay it began in GJ in 1803, it was under ELPHINSTONE
      • Initially the British had been collecting taxes via deshmukhs and PATILS or Village headman
  • MAHALWARI settlement
    • In N and NW india
    • RM Bird provided a detailed survey to assess the land revenue of a MAHAL or Villages fiscal Unit
    • It was started by Bird but completed by James THOMASON
  • Area covered ::
    • PS – 19%

 

    • RS – 52%
    • MS – 29%

 

  • JUDICIAL System
    • Between 1765-1772 , Mughal system was followed in both civil and criminal system
    • Mughal System was never centrally organised  and depended to a large extent on the Local Faujdars and their Executive discreation
    • WARREN Hastings in 1772 decided to take full control of the Judicial System
      • Each DISTRICT was to have 2 courts –
        • Civil Court or Diwani Adalat
          • They were to be presided over by EU District Collectors
          • They were to be assisted by MAULVIS , BRAHMANS, PANDITS etc interpreting indigenous laws
        • Criminal Court or faujdari Adalat
          • Under KAZI and a Mufti
          • They were to be supervised by European Collectors
      • APPEAL Court in Calcutta
        • It was known as SADAR NIAMAT ADALAT
        • It was moved from MURSHIDABAD to CALCUTTA, in 1774 again moved to MURSHIDABAD
        • Presided over by president and 2 members
      • New changes from 1784-1791
        • In response to revenue collection and also in response to WHIG Principle of separating executive functions from the administration of justice
        • District collectors were to be divested of their judicial duties
        • In the area of civil justice instead of civil courts , provincial courts, later replaced by 18 MOSUFFILS court were created, presided over by ONLY the European coveted  officers of Company known as JUDGES
        • For some time the new SC created in 1773 acted as an appeal court but later its jurisdiction was confied to calcutta and to matters related to Fort Williams
        • In its place SADAR DIWANI adalat was constituted  to serve as an appeal court, with ELIJAH presiding over it too
        • The code of 1781 prescribed rules to be followed by all courts, problem was interpretation by MAULVIS and PANDITS !
        • To reduce this HASTINGS appointed a committee of Pundits to compile a digest of Hindu Laws in 1775, a code of Muslim Laws was compiled in 1778
        • In 1787 collectors again were given duty to administer civil justice
        • It was by Cornwallis Code in 1793 that finally set the rule for separating revenue collection from administration of civil Justice
          • The new code provided a hierarchy of courts – ZILLA , City , Provincial (4) and a SADAR DIWANI ADALAT with appelate jurisdiction
          • All the Courts were to be headed by EU judges
          • FAUJDARI adalats were abolished and replaced by Circuit Courts
          • SADAR Nizamat ADALAT was brought back to Calcutta  and placed directly under GG
          • The jurisdiction of these criminal courts did not extend to British Born Subjects, they were under SC
        • Charter Act of 1833 , threw open the judicial position to Indians
        • Code of Civil Procedure introduced in 1859, IPC in 1860, CrPC in 1862

 

      • Laws applicable
        • Muslim laws in Criminal adjudication
        • Muslim or Hindu law in personal matters such as inheritance , marriage etc
      • The division of topics of law was as per English System
  • POLICE::
    • When EIC took over in 1765, the Mughal Police system was under the control pf FAUJDARS, incharge of rural districts, KOTWALS in charge of towns, Village watchmen paid and controlled by ZAMINDARS
    • The FAUJADRI system continued with minor modification till 1781, after that FAUJDARS were replaced by English magisterates
    • The Zamindars retained their Police duties but were made subservient to magisterates
    • In 1793 CORNWALLIS decided to divest the Zamindars of their Police duties, divided districts into THANAS each placed under DAROGAS
    • TEHSILDARS were incharge of police units in BANARAS,
    • CORNWALLIS system was scrapped in few years and TEHSILDARS were divested of their duties in 1807, DAROGA system was abolished in 1812. all powers now vested in COLLECTOR
    • NEW MODEL of Charles Napier was first Experimented in Sind in 1843
      • He created a separate police dept with its own officers on the model of ROYAL Irish CONSTABULARY
    • The police Commission was appointed in 1860 and provided for basic structure of Police establishment.
  • ARMY
    • EIC started recruiting its own ARMY came to be known as SEPOY army
    • The french has first initiated this tradition in 1721-29
    • It was renewed by Clive after 1757
    • It was dominated by high caste in Bengal , more Hetrogeneous in Madras
    • The PEEL Commission which was appointed to look into the military affairs of India , recommended that the native army should be composed of different nationalities and caste
    • Charter Act of 1793 gave the ultimate control of war and peace to BOC
      • Commander in Chief was made subservient to GG
    • Training and appointement of Indian OFFICERS started after RTC in 1931
  • ICS::
    • The method of recruitment as outlined by Charter Acts of 1793 and India Act of 1784 was through NOMINATION by COD
    • Wellesley estb Fort William in Calcutta in 1800, but soon it was closed bue to pressure from COD and the college was shifted to  HERTFORD near London and later to HAILEYBURY in 1809
    • After 1830s , in the newly conquered territories- the so called “Non-regulation provinces” such as Punjab and Assam, the powers and responsibilities of the officers were even greater
    • Charter Act of 1833 introduced the competetion for recruitement , but it was limited competetion among those nominated by COD
    • Charter Act of 1853 introduced Open Competetion ,Civil servant were henceforth be recruited by an open examination to ” all natural Born subjects of her majesty”
      • Exam held annually in England
      • Technically it opened gate to Indians
    • Under WARREN Hastings , gradually the process of indianisation  of the subordinate service began, mainly in judiciary
      • Later BENTINCK argued for the Indian inclusion in Administration
      • Lord Ripon preferred a simultaneous examination  in India, which would allow the entry of educated indians of merit and ability into the Covenanted Civil Services
      • The structure of Civil Services was ultimately reformed in 1892 on the basis of recommendation of PSC
      • The GOI act 1919 provided for a separate not simultaneous examination of ICS to be held in india, first exam held in ALLAHABAD in 1922
  • PARAMOUNTCY
    • Michael Fischer has identified 3 phases of  Evolution of Indirect rule in India::
      • 1764-97 – initial placement of Company Resident in courts
      • 1798-1840 –  role of residents changed from maintaining diplomatic relations to indirect control
      • 1841-1857 –  consolidation of empire
  • DRAIN ::
    • India was a field for British capital investment in  railways and agency houses, the GOI had to ensure payment of inerest on guaranteed railway stocks and debt bonds and mett its annual home charges
    • Indias export trade with other countries helped Britain overcome its own problems of BOP

Reforms and rebellion

  • During Orientalist there was respect for indian Culture, as shown in Warren Hastings Policies
    • The establishment of Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta madrasa and Sanskrit College at banaras are a result of this
  • Utilitarians began talking about appropriate social  engineering and authoritarian reforms
    • Imparting Education to natives is our Moral Duty
  • EVANGELISTS argued about the necessity of Govt Intervention to liberate Indians from their religions that were full of superstitions, idolatry and tyranny of priests
  • The real beginning of english education started after Charter Act of 1813
  • RR Roy  sent a memorandum to Governor general protesting against the foundation of SANSKRIT College in Calcutta. He represented a generation of Indians who believed that modernisation  would come through English Education and dissemination of knowledge of Western Sciences
  • In 1854 Charles wood’s Education Dispatch signalled a shift away from Downward Filtration Theory and recommended extension of Vernacular Education, which was endorsed by Dalhousie Administration
  • In 1857 3 new Universities were opened – Bombay , calcutta , madras , on the model of University of London
  • DEROZIO::
    • He developed among his pupils a free thinking attitude
    • The group known as “YOUNG BENGAL” became notorious for their Social Rebellion, manifested through winning and dining in Forbidden Meat
    • They posed an intellectual Challenge to the religious and social orthodoxy of  Hinduism
    • They formed in 1838The Society for Acquisition of General Knowledge
    • Their TOTAL faith in British and English Education and their dependence of Western science set them apart from Indian masses and they never succeeded in organizing a social movement
    • They left little impact on the plane of religion and philosophy
  • WELLESLEY in 1803 banned the custom of Child Sacrifice at Sagar Island in the bay of Bengal
  • In 1870 Female Infanticide Act was passed
  • SATI ::
    • The practise was more prevalent where DAYABHAGA school of Personal Hindu law was applicable, it allowed the widow the greater right to inherit the Husband Property
    • In 1829  it  was abolished by William bentinck
    • In 1987 – SATI of ROOP KANWAR at Village in rajasthan , nice read
  • WIDOWS ::
    • The Hindu Widow Remmariage Act 1856, could not make this practise socially acceptable
      • The legislation was conservative, as on remarriage it disinherited the widow of Her Husband Property
    • VIDYASAGAR ::
      • He continued his reforms later for POLYGAMY, Child Marriage
      • He finally secured  Age of Consent Act in 1860,  fixed the age of marriage at 10 years
    • In 1866 VISHNUSHASTRI PANDIT started a society for Widow Remmariage
    • JYOTIRAO PHULE also was a reformer
    • In south VEERSALINGAM PANTULU, founded Society for Social Reform for this Purpose in 1878
      • The first widow remariage was  officiated by him in the region in 1881
    • In Haryana the practise of widow remmariage was already in Vogue at that time, so spatial variations
  • SLAVERY ::
    • Slavery in  Britain was abolished in  1820 but they continued it in india
    • The Charter Act of 1833, instructed the GOI to abolish slavery, after pressure from various fields it was abolished in 1843
  • RRR wanted to reform Hinduism in the light of reason and going back to the VEDAS
    • He condemned idolatry, priestcraft, polytheism
    • After Roy’s death in 1833 the Brahmo Samaj was taken over by DEBENDRANATH TAGORE
    • The movement was taken to districts by KESABCHANDRA SEN and KRISHNA GOSWAMI
    • GOSWAMI bridged the gap between BRAHMOISM and VAISHNAVISM
  • SEN ::
      • He was against caste system
      • He promoted Widow Remmariage
      • Promoted Inter-caste Marriages
      • This radicalsim led to rift in Brahmo Samaj
      • For sen Social Progress and reforms were more Important, whereas for Tagore’s Followers their identification with Hindu Society was more important
      • So SEN Formed BRAHMO SAMAJ OF INDIA  in 1866 and TAGORE’s now called ADI BS
      • He later came Closer to RAMKRISHNA PARAMHAMSA, this led to another schism in BSOI
      • When Sen arranged marriage of his Minor Daughter with MAHARAJA of Cooch BEHAR his follower parted ways and formed  SADHARAN BS
      • In 1881 Sen Formed his NABA BIDHAN ( New Dispensation)  and moved towards UNIVERSALIST Religion

 

 

  • In 1872 BRAHMO MARRIAGE ACT was passed which legalised BRAHMO MARRIAGEs – inter-caste and widow remarriage, but ONLY if Contracting Parties declared them as Non- Hindu
  • PERSON INVOLVED ::
    • Widow Remarriage in Western Indian – MEHTAJI DURGARAM, DADOBA PANDURANG , KARSONDAS MULJI
    • PRATHNA SAMAJ ::
      • Followed the radical  tradition of DEROZIANS in Bengal
      • It operated like a secret society
      • Formed as a consequence of visit if SEN in BOMABY in 1864 and 1867
      • Founder ATMARAM PANDURANG in 1867 , real spirit was of MG RANADE
      • Assisted by BHANDARKAR , CHANDVARKAR , TELANG – attended regularly but never became a member
      • It also preached Monotheism , denounced idolatry, caste distinction, priest etc
      • It connected itself to MH Bhakti tradition
      • It was Dominated by MH Brahmins
      • SCHISM :
        • When DAYANAND SARASWATI visited Bombay in 1875, a group in them was attracted to radical ideology of the DAYA
          • SP KELKAR Broke away from PS
    • ARYA SAMAJ ::
      • DAYA founded it in 1875
      • He invoked the authority of VEDAS as the most authentic religious text, he sought to purge HINDUISM of all its Post-Vedic rituals
      • He tried to project HINDUISM as a religion of Book like Islam or Christianity, west influence
      • He fully appropriated  the western Intellectual  Discourse of reason and science
      • He claimed that VEDAS ALONE contained Scientific Truths and therefore the religion based on these text was more superior to the Christianity and Islam
      • He attacked Idolatry, Polytheism, ritualistic religion dominated by Brahmins
      • He condemned Child marriage , stood for Widow Remarriage, inter-caste marriage , Female Education
      • He denounced Untouchability and repudiated caste System but at the same time he upheld the 4 VARNA division
      • His aggressive reformism failed to convince ORTHODOX Hindus  or even BRAHMOS and remained confined to NW and W India, marginal in EAST
      • DAYANAND was from KATHIAWAR
      • It combined  sharp criticism of many existing Hundu Practises with that of strong Superiority of it over all FAITHS
      • VEDAS are infalliable
      • It was famous among the trading castes
      • Leaders associated – LALA LAJPATH RAI, LALA HANSRAJ , LALA MUNSHI RAM (swami SHRADDHANAND), GURU DUTT
      • SCHISM
        • The MODERATES  among his disciples who chose to focus on Education and Community work were gradually margianalised after 1893
          • Led by LALA LAJPATH rai and LALA HANSRAJ
          • Founded DAYANAND ANGLO-VEDIC Colleges
          • More involved in SWADESHI
        • A Militant Group under PANDIT GURU DUTT and PANDIT LEKH RAM  launched a militant campaign for preaching the Religion of VEDAS, attacking Muslims, SUDDHI of Sikh Muslim  Christians etc
          • Led by LEKH RAM and MUNSHI RAM
          • Started the HARDWAR GURUKUL in 1902
          • LEKH RAM was assassinated due to  his PLOMICS with AHMADIYA group
        • Within both factions however there was a general trend towards “from ARYAN  DHARM to HINDU Consciousness
        • Cow Protection movement
        • In 1893 it split into 2 issues of::
          • Meat eating vs veg
          • Anglicized vs Sanskrit  based Education

 

  • GENERAL FEATURES OF REFORMS ::
    • Confined to a small elite  group, who were primarily the economic and Cultural beneficiary of the Colonial Rule
    • In Bengal it involved only a small western Educated locally known as BHADRALOK (gentlefolk)
    • Socially they were mostly Hindus , though cast was not  a major criteria
    • The reformers never tried to take the movement to the masses
    • Their language was also of Elite, the Chaste Sanskrit of RRR remained incomprehensible to masses
    • In west too for eg the members of Prathna SAMAJ were educated  CHITPAVAN and  SARASWAT BRAHMANS, Some GUJRATI MERCHANTS and PARSIS
    • For more critique refer page 156-157 of P2P
  • PEASANT and TRIBAL UPRISING ::
    • During the first century of British Rule there were a series of Uprising, ” restorative rebellions”
    • Religion played an imp role in them
    • SANYASI REBELLION::
      • In N bengal and Bihar between 1763-1800
      • The DASNAMI SANYASIS known for their Martial tradition, were involved in  landholding, trade, moneylending
    • FAKIR REBELLION
      • Same time
      • The MADARI FAKIRS who traced their origin from SUFI Order initiated by SHA-i-MADAR, enjoyed rent free tenures and maintained armed followers since Mughal days
      • BOTH These groups of armed Wandering Monks were affected by High revenue  demands of British and commercial Monopoly
      • The problem was aggravated by famine of 1769-70
      • The FAKIR and SANYASI with the rebel ZAMINDARS, Soldiers , Poor organized rebellion
      • Company was unwilling to tolerate such wandering armed monks and it wanted order
    • PAGALPANTHI MOVEMENT ::
      • In East Bengal in 1800s
      • KARIM SHAH and TIPU SHAH started a new religious movement among the HINDUISED TRIBES like GARO, HAJONG, HADIS
      • The peasants were affected by new Permanent Settlement , high ADWABS of Zamindars
      • In these circumstances TIPU’s PAGALPANTHI sect held out a promise of new regime and just rents
      • It spread like a wildfire and had to be crushed by ARMY in 1833
    • TARIQAH-I-MUHAMMADIYA
      • It was developing under the leadership of TITU MIR
      • Started his career as a hired Muscleman for a ZAMINDAR
      • Went to MECCA and was initiated by SYYED AHMED BARELWI
      • He came back to preach Islam, his followers were mainly poor Muslim peasant and weavers who were organized into a distinct community with beard and dress
      • It challenged the established order and therefore Zamindars tried to curb it by imposing a TAX on BEARD
      • TITU MIR defied them and started collecting taxes on his own and struck terror in the region
      • In 1831 ARMY crushed the rebellion
      • It owed its origin to SUFI saint SHAH WALLILULAH of Delhi and draw inspiration from SYYED AHMED OF RAI BARELEY
    • FARAIZI Movement ::
      • In east BENGAL , in Peasants
      • Leadership of HAJI SHARIATULLAH
      • Unlike TARIQAH it was indigenous in origin in Bengal
      • It sought to purify Islam by Purging all un-Islamic Beliefs and practises and KURAN as the sole source
      • The rural Muslim peasants united under it and revolted against ZAMINDARS, INDIGO PLANTERS, BRITISH
      • Both HINDU and MUSLIM LANDLORDS faced Brunt, Hindu thoda zyada
      • When SHARITULLAH died in 1839 his son DUDU MIAN took Over
      • He said land belonged to GOD and therefore tax free
      • He held Local courts as alternative to British Judicial System and collected taxes for his movement
      • After DUDU death in 1862 , it was revived by his successor in 1870s, NAYA MIYAN
    • MOPLAH ::
      • 1840-1850 in MALABAR
      • MOPLAH were descendents of ARAB traders, many lower caste Hindus Converted to it
      • They were dependent on  agri and turned to tenants, laborers, fisherman etc
      • When British took over in 1792 they sought to revive the land system creating individual ownership
        • The traditional system stipulated an equal sharing of benefits by JANMI( holder of JANMAN tenure) and KANAMDAR (tenant) and the cultivater
        • British disturbed this system by recognizing the JANMI as the Sole owner of Lnad with right to evict tenants which were not there earlier
        • Most of the JANMIS were high caste Hindus
      • Riots broke out in MANJERI in 1850s, 1870s
    • TRIBALS ::
      • RAMOJI –  MH
      • BHIL – MH
      • KOL – CHOTA NAGPUR
      • SANTHAL
        • In 1855-56, in CHOTA
        • Driven from their Homeland the SANTHALS cleared the area around RAJMAHAL Hills and called it DAMAN-I -KOH
        • Tribal land were leased out to non-tribals
        • Local police and British were engaged in rail-Road Construction
        • Penetration of OOUTSIDERS or DIKUS completely destroyed their World
        • They launched an attack on unholy nexus of – ZAMINDAR , MONEYLENDER and BRITISH
        • They were also helped by low caste non tribals
  • 1857
    • The mutiny mainly affected BENGAL Army, MADRAS and BOMBAY remained quiet, Punjabi and GURKHAS actually helped British
    • AWADH
      • Many small ZAMINDARS and local TALUQDARS after Summary settlement participated
    • MARX – it is  a  national revolt
    • VD SAVARKAR – INDIAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE, was fought for SWARAJ

Emergence of nationalism

  • Challenge of nationalism in Colonial India was 2 fold ::
    • To  forge a national unity and to claim its right to self-determination
  • The early nationalist school focussed primarily on the supremacy of a nationalist ideology and a national conciousness  to which all other forms of conciousness seems to have been sub-ordibnated , it ignored the inner conflict within the indian society
  • NEHRU  recognized  that  India was not  a structured nation but  a NATION in the making
  • AGRARIAN SOCIETY and PEASANT Discontent ::
    • The post 1857 peasants and tribal movements acquired some new features
      • Greater awareness of colonial policies, laws and institutions among the peasantry, both tribal and  non-tribal
      • Some of them even embraced those institutions
      • Growing involvement of the educated Middle Class intelligentia as spokesperson of peasants and tribals
      • They occurred in all parts of the country but they remained isolated
      • It was community and not class which was the main focus of the peasants
      • It was their religious or caste identity which defined their position in the world
      • Rarely middle class leaders exhibited the same RADICALISM as that of the peasentry  except V PHADKE::
        • In 1879 he gave leadership to the armed revolt of the peasants in POONA
      • See page 192-93 for mains
    • INDIGO REBELLION ::
      • 1859-60, in NADIA, MURSHIDABAD and PABNA
      • Both new and old features were visible
      • The village headman, rich peasants and even Zamindars provided leadership
      • The peasants went to courts to establish their rights granted under RENT ACT X of 1859 , after INDIGO REBELLION
      • EDUCATED masses involvement ::
        • DINBANDHU MITRA’s play NEELDARPAN, depicted the attrocities of Indigo planters
        • HINDOO PATRIOT and SOMPRAKASH took up the cause of Indigo
        • British India Association came to their help as well
    • In 1832 TITU MIR had given a strong fight to Indigo Planters .  The FARAIZI movement under DUDU MIAN also targeted INDIGO Planters
    • AGRARIAN LEAGUE was formed in PABNA in 1873
      • Oppression by landlords pushed peasants to limits, high rents and ADWABS
      • Landlords were destroying their Occupancy rights granted under RENT ACT X
      • The PABNA Movement was largely non-violent and within the bounds of law, with a faith in British Justice System
      • The peasants wanted to become the true subjects of the Queen
      • They raised  money to take landlords to the courts
    • Further movements by FARAIZIS under NAYA MIAN and other agrarian  leagues led to the passage of  BENGAL TENANCY ACT of 1885
      • It provided for a greater protection of the  occupancy rights of the substantial peasants who leased the land in the same village continuously for 12 years
      • Lesser peasentry – nothing done
    • The same HINDOO PATRIOT and AMRIT BAZAR PATRIKA took an overtly landlord position and condemned the act
    • KUKA REVOLT 1872 – to purify Sikh Religion
    • MH case ::
      • They clashed head on with the money lenders
      • These riots are referred to as DECCAN Riots of 1875
      • It took place because of the redistribution of power in villages
      • The introduction of RYPTWARI settlement created the problems
      • The GUJRATI moneylenders used to take the land if peasants failed to pay
      • Govt increased the revenue rates in 1867
      • The Cotton Boom has crashed after American Civil war
      • No tax  campaign against revenue hike
      • The POONA SARVAJANIK SABHA tried to influence govt for the peasants cause
      • Riots broke out in 1875 at a village called SUPE in BHIMTHADI taluka
        • GUJRATI and MARWARI moneylenders were attacked
        • Very little violence against local Sahukars, only debt bonds were Burned
      • DECCAN AGRICULTURE RELIEF ACT 1879 – protected peasants from LAND GRABS
    • ANTI-BRITISH Peasants Movements ::
      • Particularly in RYOTWARI Areas
      • KHEDA , SURAT , BAROCH- refusal to pay land taxes
      • Punjab 1907 – CHENAB CANAL COLONY disputes
        • LALA LAJPATH RAI , AJIT singh were involved
        • ARYA SAMAJ also
      • MUNDA REBELLION – 1899-1900
        • Against DIKUS, Missionaries , Moneyenders etc
        • The aim was not merely to drive out DIKUS but to establish the MUNDA RAJ
      • FOREST REBELLION ::
        • Due to Indian Forest Acts of 1878
        • In 1864 the forest Dept was started, Govt Forest Act was passed in 1865
        • Need for railway , navy , woods were needed
        • It restricted Tribal Rights, abolished JHUM
        • Tribes affected – BAIGAS of Central india, REDDIS of HYD, MARIAS of BASTAR
          • They openly attacked police stations, killed foreigners
        • KUMAON ::
          • TEHRI GARHWAL region in 1896-1904
          • The tribals were against the tree cutting
          • Most of the protest was non-confontational like theft of timber, burning of forest etc
      • RAMPA REBELLION ::
        • In March 1879
        • Major targets were MANSABDARS , British , police Stations and  traders , contracters from plains
        • The elite participation was secured by mass pressure and arm-twisting
        • By 1920s it tried to connect to GANDHIAN mass movements
  • THE NEW MIDDLE CLASS and the emergence of NATIONALISM ::
    • The rise of nationalism was favored by industrialisation , capitalisation, urbanisation, print capitalism
    • The IMPERIAL DURBAR of 1877, where QUEEN VICTORIA assumed the title of the EMPRESS of INDIA
      • Lord LYTTON organised a great SPLENDOR and POMP despite famine in BENGAL and other parts
      • It gave a place of precedence to princes in the new imperial Social Order
      • Big ZAMINDARS began to  play a leading role in the administration
    • BIA was the first major Voluntary organisation founded in Calcutta in 1851, representing primarily the local landlords interests
      • It began to play a prominenet role after Indian Council Act of 1861, which provided for a limited representation in Councils
      • Members of its were usually nominated to councils ,  and they dominated untill 1892 which introduced limited electoral system
      • It was EXCLUSIVELY indian in membership unlike its predecessor LAND HOLDERS SOCIETY which had many ANGLO INDIANS
      • It was created on the eve of renewable of Charter of EIC
      • It initially tried to coordinate the work in 3 presidencies by opening branches but there are already associations like MADRAS NATIVE  ASSOCIATIOn and  BOMBAY ASSOCIATION (1852)
    • RRR started a modest constitutional agitation on demands such as separation of  powers, freedom of press, trial  by Jury and Indianization of Services, many of these issues were later taken by YOUNG BENGAL
    • BLACK ACTS :::
      • It put the British Born Subjects  under the criminal jurisdiction of ordinary courts from which they were earlier Expemt
      • It was passed in 1850 but was put on hold for fear of a white rebellion
    • LEX LOCI ACT ::
      • In 1850, the govt passed it , it gave the Christian Converts the right to inherit Ancestral property
      • It may further increase Conversion
    • The HINDU REVIVALISM , which tried to create pride among locals, was mostly based on Pre Mughal Era  and thus isolated MUSLIMS and is the cause of COMMUNALISM
    • The Indian Council Acts of 1861 provided for the inclusion of a very limited number of Non-official Indian memebrs in the GG Council
      • They could not introduce any bill without the previous sanction of GG
      • He can VETO anything
    • In 1870, the ANGLO INDIAN Press started a propanganda that higher Education only Bred Discontent, the govt cut funding to higher education and started promoting VERNACULAR Education
    • Municipal Reforms of 1870 introduced a system of  limited election
    • In 1876 the age of ICS was reduced to 19 from 21 years
    • In 1878 LORD LYTTON passed the VERNACULAR PRESS ACT
      • It provided  to deposit from all printers and publishers of regional language newspapers
      • They can be Forfeited and their machinary taken over if they published anything objectionable
    • In 1878 LORD LYTTON also passed Arms Act ::
      • It introduced a licensing system throughout India
      • It EXEMPTED EU and Eurasians from it
    • In 1882 , VPA was repealed by RIPPON ::
      • In 1882 he introduced Local self Govt by resolution
      • ILBERT BILL was proposed in 1883
        • It proposed to give Indian District magistrates and session judges the power to try European offenders in the MOSUFFILS or small towns, as they already did in Presidency Towns
        • In 1884 under pressure he withdrew it
    • In 1886 a new organisation  called INDIAN ASSOCIATION came under SURI BANNERJEE as BIA is mostly a zamindar org
    • In BOMBAY the BA got a new lease of life when DADABHAI took over it
      • It too faced challenge from younger generation of P MEHTA, MG RANADE, KT TELANG
    • In 1870 POONA SARVAJANIK SABHA was estb by the younger lot to represent the masses
    • MADRAS :::
      • After MADRAS NATIVE ASSOCIATION there was an ebb in it from 1862
      • A new life after 1884 with the estb of MADRAS  MAHAJAN SABHA
    • DHARMA SABHA – RAJA RADHAKANTA DEB
      • They were opposed to sati
      • Supported female education
    • AGE of CONSENT BILL – 1891
  • FOUNDATION of CONGRESS ::
    • First session in BOMBAY under WC BONNERJEE, secy AO HUME
    • The meeting was initially supposed to be at PUNA, but the outbreak of CHOLERA shifted the venue to BOMBAY
    • SAFETY VALVE THEORY – WILLIAM WEDDERBURN’s autobiography of HUME
  • In 1877 after the DELHI DURBAR , journalist  formed  NATIVE PRESS ASSOCIATION
    • The elected SN BANNERJEE as its first secy
    • It resolved to meet 1 or 2 times a year and  discuss issues related to press in the country
    • Weakness ::
      • Exclusion of non-elite groups
      • BOMBAY overrepresented, Bengal minimum
    • SURI BANNERJEE could not attend first session and other bengalees too because at the same day SURI ki IA ki bhi meeting thi

Discontent

  1. The moderates and Economic Nationalism ::
    • The early moderates were primarily  influenced by UTILITARIAN Theories like Edmund Burke, John Stuart Mill and John Morley
    • The Govt should  be guided by Expediecy, they believed and not by any Moral and Ethical Laws.
    • The Constitution was considered inviolable and hence they repeated complained to British Parliament
    • British rule to most of them seemed to be an act of Providence destined to bring in Modernisation
    • Absolute faith could be placed in British Parliament and People till India becomes ready for Self-Govt
    • They were secular in their attitudes
    • They never wanted clinical separation  from British Empire but a limited self-Govt within its framework
    • They wanted abolition of Indian Council which prevented SOS to implement Liberal  Policies
    • Their  immediate demand was not for full self-govt or democracy but for democratic rights of educate members of the Indian Society who would substitute for the masses
    • They hoped to get similar status like that of colonies of Canada and Australia but what they got was ICA of 1892 or Lord Cross’s Act!
      • These council were to be filled by selection and not election:: the local bodies would send their nominees from whom the Viceroy will Choose
      • The Budget can be discussed but not Voted upon
      • The opposition could not bring in any resolution nor demand a vote on any resolution proposed by GOI
      • The GOI was given power to legislate without even referring to LEG
    • Reforms in services demands ::
      • Indianization of ICS
      • It was a measure against racism and would also stop drain of money
      • They demanded simultaneous exam in London and India and raising age limit
      • Charles wood the president of Board of Control opposed it on the Ground that there was no institution to train in india
      • The PSC under CHARLES AITCHISON recommended the raising of maximum age, but not simultaneous Exam
      • The House of Commons passed a resolution to conduct exam in india, though SOS was opposed to it
      • It further lowered the age of exam
    • Other demands ::
      • Extension of Permanent Settlement
      • Repeal of arms act
      • Abolition of salt tax
      • Trial by jury
      • Campaign against exploitation of indentured labor in ASSAM  tea gardens
    • Economic Critique::
      • DADABHAI
      • MG RANADE
      • RC DUTT’s the Economic History of India
      • Main thrust of them was on Indian Poverty created by Drain of Wealth
      • The burden also became heavy because of falling Exchange Rates
      • Naoroji calculated Per Capita Income of Indians at Rs 20 for 1899
      • The FOWLER Commission artificially fixed Exchange rate of Rupee at 1 Shilling and 4 Pence
      • The economic Theory tried to corrode the moral authority of British that it was benefical to India
      • The strategy of MENDINANCY (prayers and petitions)  failed to achieve its goals
    • Composition of Congress ::
      • Between 1892 and 1909
        • 39% – lawyers
        • 19% – landlords
        • 15% – Traders
        • 3% – teachers
        • 3%- Doctors
        • 90% – Hindus, among them 40% Brahmans
      • They were opposed to Factory reforms, Bengal Tenancy Act etc
      • The Silence of Congress during the 1893 Cow Killing Riots further alientaed the Minorities
  2. HINDU REVIVALISM and POLITICS ::
    • An attempt to define Indian Nation primarily in  terms of Hindu Religious symbols, myths and History
    • The reform movements tried to bring changes in Hindu Society from within to bring them in conformity with rational western Ideas, the Creation of National Social Conference  as an adjunct body to the INC in 1887 is an indication of this mentality
    • The reformist movement was both influenced by West and also opposed to it and it is the second aspect which gave rise to revivalism!
    • Nationalism and reformism were contradictory ideas as CHARLES HEIMSATH had argued and this led to the growth of anti-reformism based on a sense of pride in everything Indian
    • This led to revival of Glorious indian past which was degraded by MUSLIMS and then British
    • RAMKRISHNA ::
      • He was completely untouched by Western Ideas
      • He gave simple interpretation of Hinduism
      • There is hardly any direct reference to Colonial rule but there was an open rejection of Western Education
      • It was VIVEKANANDA who used this platform, he condemned other reform movements as ELITIST and invoked the ideal of Social Service
      • He founded the RAMKRISHNA Mission in 1897 as a Philatrophic Org
      • He drew inspiration from VEDANTIC tradition
        • Followed some of the ORTHODOX hindu Rituals
        • Exhibited an intrinsic faith in glories of Hindu Civilization
      • His teachings were then used by revivalists, they highlighted the glories of Indian past but hided the Condemnation that he did
    • REVIVALIST :
      • They tried to show that everything west has claimed to invent was already known to Indian Long Ago
      • They believed that this was the ONLY way to evoke respect for Hinduism among a Western Educated Middle Class
      • There were 2 trends , one is that of agrresive school like that of ARYA SAMAJ, other more moderate and Intellectual like that of BANKIM CHANDRA CHATTERJEE
      • In MH the RANADE-TELANG School of Prathna SAMAJ took a cautious policy of social reform along the least resistance line
        • BEHRAMJI MALABARI’s Note of 1884 on Child Marriage to Forced Widowhood sparked a debate in whole Country
      • Age of Consent Bill (Amendment ) 1891 raised the marriage age of girls from 10 to 12
        • Age of Consent Bill 1860 fixed it at 10
      • TILAK ::
        • He was opposed to Govt intervention and believed that education rather than legislation is a method of eradicating evils
        • TILAK was not opposed to reforms per se, his own daughter remained unmarried till 13!
        • GANPATI FESTIVAL ::
          • It used to be a local festival, but after 1893  RIOTS Tilak decided to  organize it as an Annual function
          • He wanted to use it to Bridge the divide between Brahmans and Non-Brahmans  as GANPATI was imp for Both
          • Alleging Govt Partiality for MUSLIMS he urged the Hindus of Poona to Boycott MUHARRAM and participate in GANPATI festival
        • RANADE’s National Social Conference which used to meet every year at the Congress Session was Finally taken over by TILAK in 1895
        • He 1896 he introduced SHIVAJI Festival, to commemorate corronation of SHIVAJI
        • The CHAPEKAR BROS who killed RAND were associated with GANPATI festival and with TILAK
        • GANESH and VINAYAK SAVRAKAR wrote songs ate NASIK for festival
      • MADRAS ::
        • In 1820 VIBHUTI SANGAM was formed as a reaction to CHRISTIAN MISSIONARIES
        • In 1840s came DHARMA SABHA mainly by BRAHMANS
        • The THEOSOPHICAL Society in 1882 also led to Hindu Revivalism
      • Prof RG BHANDARKER after meticulous research showed that marriage after puberty was allowable in DHARMSASHTRA and not opposed under it
      • ARYA SAMAJ ::
        • They began to preach ARYA DHARMA, ARYA BHASHA  and ARYAVARTA
        • Their propaganda was mainly directed against MUSLIMS, CHRISTIANS
        • As a reaction to Missionaries they developed SUDDHIS which aimed at converting Christian, Muslims and Sikhs!
        • The Hindus clearly lacked Organisation and therefore it took place around the SYMBOL of Cow!
          • It was the KUKAS who first took it in 1871
        • 31 riots took place in BIHAR and NWFP!
      • Cow itself was not imp but its symbolism was Imp
      • The ZAMINDARS with the GAURAKSHINI Sabhas tried to reassert their Social Power that had been slipping away!
      • Many Sanskriticized communities tried to legitimize their status by projecting their HINDUNESS
      • The Congress reamined Silent on the issue and this alientaed MUSLIMS
    • HINDU- URDU Controversy ::
      • The Controversy began in NWFP and Awadh in 1860s, it was revived in 1882
      • Since URDU was recognized as Official language, there were serious efforts from NAGARI Pracharika SABHA to get NAGARI recognized
      • BHARTENDU HARISHCHANDRA uphold the classical Sanskrit Heritage of Hindi Language and emphasized its high status
      • This way Hindi came to be identified with HINDUS and  Urdu with Muslims, though there are significant speakers on both sides
      • Association of leaders like MMM gave it a political color and passing of NAGRI Resolution in 1900  gave NAGRI an equal  status with URDU
    • CENSUS ::
      • In 1881 in Column of religion instead of Hindu many mentioned their caste or sect
      • The idea of a HOMOGENISED Hinduism was constructed as ASHISH NANDY has argued by the ” Cultural Arrogance of Post Enlightened Europe which sought to define not only the TRUE west but also TRUE East
      • The revivalism was mainly to counter alien Culture
      • There was only a selective absorption of PAST and  it was used  for Nation Building
      • The early nationalist invoked the past as an  alternative to colonial rule so that this could provide a Viable foundation for nationhood
      • This discourse of Nationhood failed to appeal to lower caste and folk tradition as the nationalist tried to define Hinduism as a text based religion like that of Christians and Muslims – VEDAS for DAYANAND and BHAGVATGITA for  VIVEKANANDA
      • This not only alienated Muslims but sikhs also, the SINGH SABHA Movement of late 19th Century was Directly a result of ARYA SAMAJ
        • First SINGH SABHA started in AMRITSAR in 1873
        • It was to revive the image of TAT KHALSA or Pure Sikh
        • It emphasized on 5 K, rituals as mentioned in RAHIT NAMA
        • Refraining from participation in other religious festivals and pilgrimages
        • Making the GURMUKHI Script the PUNJABI language
  3. RISE of EXTREMISM and SWADESHI ::
    • Factional fighting at almost every level in Public Life ::
      • In Bengal there was Division in Brahmo Samaj
      • Bitter Journalistic rivalary between newspapers  Bengalee of SURi and Amrit Bazar Patrika of Motilal Ghosh
      • Between A Ghosh and Bepan C PAL over the editorship of BANDE MATRAM
      • Between GOKHLE and TILAK for Controlling Poona SARVAJANIK SABHA
      • In ARYA SAMAJ after death of DAYANAND in 1893
    • Frustration with Moderates ::
      • After repeated attempts by TILAK a new constitution was drafted for INC in 1899 but it was never given proper trial
      • The proposal to set up a separate national Social Conference  in 1895  was ultimately dropped , TILAK opposed as it would divide Congress
    • CURZON Policies ::
      • Reconstitution of Calcutta Corporation through the Calcutta Municipal Amendment Act of 1899
        • It reduced the number of elected representitives in it
      • The Indian Universities Act of 1904
        • It placed calcutta University  under Govt Control
      • The indian Official Secrtes Amendment Act of 1904 further restricted Press Freedom
      • Partition of Bengal
    • SWARAJ ::
      • The Goal of Extremist was SWARAJ which different leaders interpreted differently
        • For Tilak it meant Indian Control of Administration but NOT a total Severance with Great Britain
        • B PAL believed that there was no Self Govt Possible under British Rule
        • A Ghosh also visualized SWARAJ as Complete independence
        • For most it meant self-rule within British Rule
      • The Extremist were opposed to Colonial Rule and Modernization being a western Concept was opposed too, they looked for  Indianess for Modernization
        • Their Hinduism was purely a Political Construct for nationhood
        • As 19th Century Englishmen claimed Ancient Greece as their Classical Heritage, the English Educated Indians also felt proud in the achievement of VEDIC Civilization.
        • They  believed that it was the best means to reach the masses and mobilize them in support of their Politics
          • The Moderates refused to accept the trend and led to a Split in 1907 at SURAT
  4. BENGAL PARTITION ::
    • As an administrative Unit Bengal Presidency was increasing in Size due to conquest and annexation as a result its boundaries extended from to Sutlej in NW, Assam in NE and ARAKAN in SE
    • The partition was discussed since the time of Orissa Famine of 1866
    • In 1874 Assam was actually separated with 3 million people, while the Bengali speaking areas like SYLHET, GOALPURA, CACHAR were also added to it
      • Safeguarding the interest of ASSAM rather than weakening Bengal was a major criteria at that time
    • In 1892 there was a proposal to transfer the entire CHITTAGONG Division to Assam
    • In 1896 William Ward , the Chief Commissioner of Assam proposed the transfer of DACCA and MYMENSINGH District to Assam so that it could become a Lt Governor province with a separate Civil Service Cadre and  no politicians as no assembly
      • Only LUSHAI hills was transferred in 1897
    • After Curzon’s arrival ::
      • The Assam tea planters demanded a Maritime Outlet nearer so as to reduce their dependence on Assam -bengal railway
      • Census in 1901 revealed that the population of Bengal reached 78 million!
      • It was proposed to transfer CHITTAGONG , DACCA, MYMENSINGH to Assam , Chotanagpur to Central Province and addition of feudatory states from Central Province and VIZAG to Calcutta!
      • The partition was formally announced on 19th july and implemented on 16 oct 1905
      • The eastern would have Muslim majority and West would have Hindu majority but bengalis would be In minority in both!
      • But more logical division would be linguistic and not religious, it showed British Intent!
      • Herbert Rishley said that ” Bengal United is Power , Bengal Divided will pull in several different ways
      • Curzon believed that Congress was manipulated from Calcutta
      • Lord Minto said that it would destroy the Rule of Bengalee Bhadralok
      • MUSLIMS ::
        • There was a clear divide along river BHAGIRATI, east Muslim Dominate
        • 90% of them belong to agri and low services
      • The partition further united BENGAL ::
        • Economic conditions
        • Famines of 1890s and shattered faith In British Administration
        • Narrowing opportunities of educated Bengalees
        • Inflation
  5. SWADESHI ::
    • For the first time moderates tried to  mobilize non-literate section
    • Initially the movement was moderate like opening of schools, factories , it took violent turn after 1906 when leaders like A GHOSH , B PAL and BRAHMOBANDH UPADHYAYA argued that without freedom no real life regenaration was possible
    • SWADESHI items were often more expensive and schools were not adequate in number
    • Labor and plantation workers largely remained untouched
    • TILAK was not for ALL Show down to British , it was AJIT SINGH who was  against any Compromise
    • The moderates shifted the Venue from POONA to SURAT!
      • The Extremist wanted LALA LAJPATH RAI to be the President while Moderates wanted RASH BEHARI GHOSH
      • RAI did not want a split so he refused to accept the leadership
      • The question ultimately boiled  down to the acceptance and rejection of the 4 Calcutta Resolutions ( Swaraj, Education, Swadeshi, Boycott)
  6. REVOLUTIONARIES ::
    • The shift was due to failure of mass mobilization
    • In 1876-77 , PHADKE had gathered around him a band of RAMOSHIS and OBCs and engaged them in DACAITY to collect money for a greater armed revolution against English
      • He was caught in 1879 and was deported to ADEN
    • In 1897 the CHAPEKAR BROS Killed RAND the PLAGUE Commissioner
    • ANUSHILAN SAMITI was formed in 1902 by SATISCHANDRA BASU
    • The DACCA ANUSHILAN SAMITI was formed in 1906 through the initiative of PULIN BEHARI DAS
    • The first SWADESHI DACOITY was organized in RANGPUR in 1906 and a BOMB Manufacturing Unit was set up in MANIKTALA in Calcutta
    • KHUDI BOSE and CHAKI attempted to Murder kingsford at MUZZAFARPUR
      • It led to arrest of them and also  A Ghosh and B Ghosh
      • A Ghosh was defended by CR Das and rest were jailed for lifetime, KHUDIRAM hanged
    • After 1911 the Centre of activities moved to PUNJAB and UP
      • GHADARITES tried to Murder HARDINGE in 1912   (RBB, SS)
  7. MUSLIM POLITICS ::
    • In 1881  they were 19%, majority in Punjab and Bengal (east)
    • The Colonial Census made religion its ETHNOGRAPHIC category
      • The break up of literacy,  employment, income etc further created differences
    • Religion no longer means a set of  Ideas but an aggregate of Individals united by a formal Official Definition
    • ARYA SAMAJ , COW etc
    • In 1874-75 they constituted only 29% of the school going population in BENGAL as against 70% hindus
    • They represented 5.8% of college students
    • WW HUNTER’s ” The Indian MUSALMAN” presented them as a Homogenous BACKWARD Community
      • It is not so , in UP they held 35 % of Job in 1881
    • The first association in BENGAL was MOHAMMEDAN ASSOCIATION or ANJUMAN I ISLAMI established in 1855 with 2 fold objective of promoting the interest of community and preaching loyalty to British
    • Some org ::
      • MOHAMMEDAN Literary Society – Abdul Latif Khan 1863
      • Central national Mohammedan Association – SAYYID  AMIR ALI 1878
    • The policy of protection of Muslim Representation was first initiated in 1885 Resolution, it was institutionalised in Partition of Bengal
    • Sir SYYED founded MOHAMMEDAN ANGLO ORIENTAL COLLEGE in 1875
      • His idea of being a Muslim was not opposed to being Indian but he does not visualized India as a   nation state based on individual citizenship for it was an agglomeration of QUAMS
      • He also Organized MOHAMMEDAN EDUCATIONAL CONFERENCE which met every year since 1886
    • THEODORE BECK the EU principal of ALIGARH College who formed in 1888 the Indian Patriotic Association to oppose INC and to plead to Govt for patronage of MUSLIMS
    • In 1893 MOHAMMEDAN ANGLO ORIENTAL DEFENCE ASSOCIATION was formed once again with BECK’s Encouragment to check INC
    • In 1887 B TYABJI Became the first Muslim President
    • Many MUSLIMS rejected ALIGARH POLITICS,
    • SIMLA DEPUTATION of 1906 ::
      • In the context of INC , with LORD MINTO by MUSLIM LEADERS
      • NO BENGALI MUSLIM Joined it
      • Leader was MOHSIN UL MULK , Secy of Aligarh College
      • The VICEROY assured that east Bengalees and their rights would not be JEOPARDISED
      • The 35 delegates ate SIMLA decided to form an independent political association to org the community and to secure for themselves recognition from Govt as Nation  within nation
      • In the next MUHAMMEDAN Educational Conference in DACCA in 1906 new party was launched
      • It represented the next stage of political life that first blossomed at ALIGARH
      • It’s LONDON Branch was inaugrated in 1908 under SYYED AMIR ALI and it played a role in shaping GOI 1909

 

 

 

Gandhi

The carrots of limited self -government::

    • The period after the suppression of Revolt of 1857 is considered to be the high noon of British Imperialism in India
    • John Stuart Mill believed that Democracy was a Check on Despotic govt but it was meant only for Civilized people, therefore India had to be governed Despotically
    • JS Mill’s Disciples like Maccualay and Rippon believed that Indians could be given self governing rights but at an appropriate time, when they would be more educated
    • The Indian Council Act of 1861 estb limited self govt in Bengal, Madras and Bombay and it was extended to NWFP in 1886 and to Punjab in 1897
    • Why Devolution of power ?
      • To buy Indian Support
      • The elected Indian representatives would be able to raise more revenues and would spend judiciously
    • The ICA of 1909  provided for limited self-govt and therefore satisfied none of the Indian Political groups
      • It was the most short lived of all Constitutional reforms in British India and had to revised within 10 years
      • It introduced limited elections but under constrains
      • Details of seat allocation and electoral qualification were left to be decided  by the local govt and this left enough space for bureaucratic manipulation
      • Special  provisions were made for special representation of professional classes, landholders, Muslims, European and Indian Commerce
      • Official majority was retained in Imperial LC, which would have only 27/60 and out of these 8 were reserved for MUSLIMS
      • Non-official majority was provided in provinces but many of these non officials were nominated by Govt
      • The Bengal Provincial leg was given Elected majority, but 4 of the elected members  were to represent European Commercial interest who were always expected to vote with Govt
      • Income qualifications for Muslims were lower than Hindus
      • GOI can disallow ANY candidate to contest elections
    • CHELMSFORD Vision ” Indian Self Govt within the Empire
      • But no definite timetable was provided, which means it could be infinite
    • MONTAGU was the most liberal SOS after Rippon
      • He in 1917 made a Historic declaration at the House of Commons that henceforth British Policy in India would have an overall Objective of gradual  development of Self-Govt, with a view of responsible govt within Empire
      • No definite time
    • The GOI Act 1919 provided for a Bicameral legislature at Centre
      • Assembly would have an elected Majority but no control over ministers
      • Communal representation was extended to non-Brahmans in Madras and depressed classes were offered Nominated seats in all Legislatures, (Muslims and Sikhs already got it)
      • New feature of DYARCHY ::
        • Certain functions of Provincial govt were to be transferred to ministers responsible to LA
        • Other subjects to be reserved for Bureaucratic control
        • Governor had VETO over all matters

Arrival of BAPU ::

    • Judith Brown described his politics as that of studied limitations while Ravindra Kumar as a Movement representing the Classes
    • B4 him Congress was run by Microscopic Minority of  Chitpavan Brahmans, Bengali Bhadralok etc
    • The moderates after SURAT Split demanded Self Govt within British Rule while Extremist wanted Complete Independence
    • Bothe groups lost their credibility as they failed to achieve their Goals
    • In an age of moral Vaccum  and Physical  despondency  he promised a political programme that was so spiritually Noble
    • WWI ::
      • Huge debt of War, Burden of Poor,  High taxes
      • Underproduction of Crops due to 2 crop failure in 1918-19 and 1920-21 affecting large areas of N india
      • Export of food to feed the army while Indians are starving
      • As per census of 1921 nearly 13 million lost their lives due to famine and epidemic
      • Between 1914-23 forced recruitment for army was going on leading to resentment in youth
      • Decline in Export caused trouble for richer peasentry
      • The british indirectly helped local capitalist by imposing high tariffs to save local market and flooding of foreign goods
      • Due to economic necessity and political compulsions related to another war and open a safe base in India, it led to a shift in Policy related to industrialization
      • While Jute Industry developed with British Capital, the textile Industry was mainly due to Indian Capital
      • Big Industrialist remained Loyal to British as they were dependent on Export and  on Govt assistance to keep Cotton prices low and in dealing with labor unrest
      • It brought in Social and Economic dislocation for nearly all  the classes of Indian Population, accomplishing the necessary social mobilisation for mass upsurge
    • Gandhi’s ideology as Judith Brown has said appealed to few Wholly but to many Partially, as everyone could find it something to identify with
    • The earlier politicians wanted a hegemony of a nationalist ideology built on a western ideology base while Gandhi rejected West and argued that the ideology must be based on India and its ancient Civilization
    • He believed that religion had a strong influence on Popular mind, but this was not REVIVALISM as he was not referring to history but to religious Morality (use it in how earlier revivalist were wrong)
    • He talked about SWARAJ as his goal but never defined it and therefore united different communities as each interpreted it as per his  wish and could associate with it
    • He drew Inspiration from Various sources like ::
      • Henry David Thoreau
      • John Ruskin
      • Ralph Waldo Emerson
      • Leo Tolstoy
      • Vaishnavism and Jainism
    • As per Ashish Nandy he was like TAGORE ” a counter modernist critique of British” which he thought had become diseased because of its disproportionate spread and Power and by this GANDHI threatened the very legitimacy of the rule
    • HIND SWARAJ ::
      • He offered a Civilizational Concept of the Indian nation
      • The Indians Constituted a nation since the pre-islamic days
      • The Ancient Indian Civilization” unquestionably the best” was the fountainhead of Indian nationality as it had immense assimilative power of absorbing foreigners who made this country their  own
      • This civilization had nothing to learn from the godless modern civilizations that only propagated immorality
      • Indian Capitalism was held responsible for all conflicts as it divorced economic activities from moral concerns and thus provided imperative for imperial aggression
      • He said ” The English have not taken India, we have given it to them”
      • For him Independence was not the ultimate goal, he does not want “English rule without Englishmen“, it was also essential to evolve Indian alternative to western liberal Political Structures
      • He wanted popular sovereignity where each individual controls his or her own self.  To achive this the weapon was SATYAGRAHA ::
        • In practical terms it meant CDM but it is  more than that
        • It rest on the premise of the superior moral powers of the protestants capable of changing the heart of the oppressor
      • The Home rule League prepared the ground for initial success of Gandhi’s Satyagraha
        • The HRL had a simple goal of promoting Home Rule for India and an educative programme to arouse In the Indian masses a sense of Pride in Motherland
        • Many of GANDHI’s Local leaders came from HRL
      • While BESANT Failed Gandhi succeeded in Uniting both moderates and Extremists, he tactically combined goals of Moderates with means of Extremists!
      • GANDHI aligned himself with the goal of Younger Muslims in Khilafat Issue and thus also brought them under his umbrella
        • Thus for the first time he united Hindus and Muslims in a Common Platform
      • His own personality ::
        • His simple attire, simple language appealed to masses
        • In Popular imagination he was a MESSIAH with Supernatural power who could heal wounds , turn bullets to water. He represented what MUNDA and earlier peasants did in many tribal revolts but at an ALL INDIA SCALE
        • He wanted not just any MASS Upsurge but a controlled mass upsurge
      • CHAMPARAN ::
        • Discontent with TINKATHIA System –  which bound peasants to grow Indigo in 3/20 of their land
      • ROWLATT
        • It gave the govt coercive power to deal with political violence
        • One of the Bill was passed by ILA with unanimous opposition from Indian members
        • After GANDHI’s arrest in 9 April 1919 there was nationwide Hartal and Violence
        • JALLIANWALA BAGH took place on 13th April
        • By mid April the movement was losing  momentum and Gandhi withdrew it
        • It failed to secure the repeal of Rowlatt Act
        • GANDHI admitted to have committed a HIMALAYAN Blunder by offering a weapon of SATYAGRAHA to a people insufficiently trained in the discipline of Non-Violence
        • It was the first NATIONWIDE popular agitation
        • The strength of the movement was more due to local grievances, while masses had little awareness about ROWLATT Act
        • The effectiveness of the movement was in linking local issues to national issues by leaders
        • Gandhi still had no Control over Congress and therefore to organize the movement he Organized SATYAGRAHA SABHA in Bombay helped by Home Rule Leaguers
        • The Failure made GANDHI realise the need of Congress

KHILAFAT and NON COOPERATION ::

    • In the early 20th century, there emerged a new generation of Muslims which moved away from Loyalist politics of Sayyed Ahmed Khan and Elitist politics of Aligarh School, they looked for support of Entire Community behind them
    • The Bengal partition was annuled in 1911 and Muslim League in its 1912   Session regretted it
    • In 1911-12 the Balkan Wars appeared as European Conspiracy to weaken OTTOMAN Empire
    • A Turkish relief  fund was raised and a medical mission was sent to Turkey in March 1912
    • 2 institutions DAR UL ULUM and FIRANGI MAHAL were instrumental in the rise of Muslims
      • The DEOBANDIS formed in 1910 the JAMAT AL ANSAR or old students association and in 1913 a QURANIC School in Delhi to reach masses
      • ABDUL BARI of FIRANGI MAHAL worked with ALI Brothers to protect all Muslim Holy places
    • JINNAH became a bridge between League and Congress
      • The LUCKNOW Pact demanded  representative govt and dominion status for India
      • The separate electorates was accepted and proportional representation in both provincial and  imperial leg was agreed upon
    • In 1917 Muslim League Supported the HRL of Besant
    • KHILAFAT Committee was formed in Bombay in March in 1919, it had 3 main demands ::
      • The KHALIFA must retain control over Muslim  Holy Places
      • He must be left with his pre-war territories
      • JAZIRAT UL ARAB (Arab, Syria, Iraq, Palestine) must not be under Non-Muslim Sovereignty
      • It was thus a PAN ISLAMIC Movement and had nothing to do with India till Gandhi took it
      • It was used as a Symbol by Muslim Leaders to Unite the fractured Muslim Community
      • Mohammed ALI was in  favor of Constitutional Methods not mass agitation
    • Treaty of SEVRES and Hunter Commission report further ignited the masses
    • The ALLAHABAD Conference of Central Khilafat  Committee on june 1920, decided to launch a 4 stage Non -Cooperation movement ::
      • Boycott of titles
      • Civil Services
      • Police and Army
      • Non Payment of Taxes
    • Hartal of August 1 Coincided with death of TILAK
    • GANDHI now persuaded Congress to adopt a campaign for 3 issues ::
      • Punjab Wrong
      • KHILAFAT Wrong
      • SWARAJ
    • GANDHI said that through this he would achieve SWARAJ in a Year!
    • Congress was initially hesistant to take up the cause, a SPECIAL SESSION was convened at CALCUTTA on 9 Sept 1920 where GANDHI’s resolution on NON COOPERATION was approved, it was amended by BIPAN CHANDRA PAL
      • It was passed despite stiff opposition from CR DAS , JINNAH, BC PAL
      • It provided for ::
        • Surrender of Govt titles
        • Boycott of Schools, Courts and Councils
        • Boycott of Foreign goods
        • Encouragement of nationalist schools, arbitration courts and KHADI
        • It also provided for a radical restructuring of Congress through the constitution of Village and district level Units
      • It was ENDORSED at the regular session of Congress at NAGPUR in DEC 1920
    • Both GANDHI and Congress needed each other, Gandhi’s mass base and org skills and Congress as an Organization with popular leaders
    • The period was also  saw the rise of trade Unionism and emergence of KISAN Sabhas, which alinged local issue with Congress
    • Gradually the movement grew violent::
      • A nationwide Hartal on 17 NOV due to visit of Prince of Wales
        • Bombay witnessed first riot of the movement
        • PARSIS and others were attacked
    • Middle class participation was not much but peasant and working class participation was impressive
    • EXCEPT in MADRAS Council Election Boycott was successful
    • Import of foreign cloth dropped from 1020 million to 570 million in a year
    • The BIG INDUSTRIALIST remained Anti-Non-cooperation and pro-Govt, while small traders favored it
    • Hindu -Muslim alliance was strong except in MALABAR region
    • It was marked by uneven geographical spread ::
      • In S India KARNATAKA  remained unaffected
      • Many violent movements also took place with culmination at CHAURI CHAURA on 4 Feb 1922
        • The protestors had gathered against Police oppression and against sale and high prices
    • NCM was withdrawn on 11 FEB 1922, followed by BARDOLI resolution, on 10 March he was sent to Prison
    • KHILFAT issue also died , TURKEY abolished Monarchy in 1924
    • In all the regions the movement was initially confined to cities and small towns where it was primarily dependent on middle class participation that gradually declined
    • The development of national schools , Khadi and arbitration failed::
      • Schools were not sufficient
      • Lawyers were returning to practises
      • KHADI was too costly for poor to afford
    • AKALIS ::
      • They also alinged their issue with NCM
      • AKALIS came head on at Govt when it took keys of Golden Temple and appointed a new manager
      • GANDHI and Congress supported the Campaign
    • GANDHI maintained that harmonious relation between Capital and Labor should be maintained

CDM ::

    • In UP between 1923-27 there were 88 riots which completely shattered Hindu-Muslim Unity
    • In the  elections Communal speeches were made and leaders such as MMM defeated secularist like Motilal nehru
    • The untouchables too were frustrated, they were frist organized under an Exclusive banner in 1926 by RAO BAHADUR MC RAJAH
      • In 1930 AMBEDKAR organized them into All India Depressed Class Congress with a clear  anti-Congress agenda
    • Great Economic depression
    • Emergence of Capitalist Class ::
      • FICCI was formed in 1927
      • They were coming in conflict with British over many issues
      • A general agreement developed that they would do better if they sided with Congress
    • LABOR Movement::
      • Labor unrest in India
      • In 1928-29 there were 203 strikes
      • Emergence of Worker’s peasant’s party
      • Emergence of Socialists and Communists
    • Simon Commission ::
      • Both Congress and League Boycotted it
    • BARDOLI::
      • It brought back gandhi into active politics
    • Lord Irwin assured Congress that Dominion status was the Ultimate goal and offered talks at RTC
    • At Lahore Session in Dec 1929, PURNA swaraj was adopted and AICC was authorized to start the CDM at an apt time
    • Muslim Leaders of the Congress were unhappy as they wanted Hindu Muslim unity
    • Muslim league described it as an effort to estb Hindu RAJ
    • HINDU MAHASABHA and Justice   party too opposed, even Sikhs went away
    • GANDHI’s 11 point ultimatum::
      • Reduction of military expenditure and civil servants salary
      • Discharge of political prisoners not convicted of Murder
      • Reform of CID
      • Changes in ARMS Act
      • Lowering of Rupee Sterling Exchange ratio
      • Protective tariff on foreign cloth
      • Reservation of coastal traffic for indian Shipping
      • 50% reduction of land revenue
      • Abolition of salt tax and govt monopoly
    • 12 March 1931 began gandhi’s Dandi March and completed on 6 April
    • No Hindu-Muslim unity
    • No labor participation
    • No intelligentia participation
    • Massive Business Support
    • Massive Women Participation esp of upper caste
    • Middle class was not much enthusiastic and youth was attracted to violence
    • RTC ::
      • The separate electorates were proposed not just for depressed classed but for Indian Christians, Europeans,
    • After office acceptance in 1937, DA LOW has argued that in fighting RAJ the Congress was itself becoming the RAJ

THE Act of 1935, the PAPER FEDERATION ::

    • The Act of 1919 neither impressed Indians Nor Conservatives in London
    • In Oct 1929 Lord Irwin announced that Full Dominion status would be the natural goal of India’s Constitutional Progress
    • The Simon Commission report was released in 1930::
      • It suggested replacement of DYARCHY with FULL RESPONSIBLE govt in Provinces, with the provision of some emergency powers In the hands of Governors
      • No Change was suggested in the Constitution of Central Govt
      • The proposal satisfied none of the Indian Groups and could not be implemented due to CDM
      • Irwin Again offered RTC
    • RTC ::
      • PS discussed the need of a federal govt in India free of British Control
      • Gandhi was persuaded to participate in the 2 RTC on the basis of 3 Vague Principles of federation ::
        • Responsible govt
        • Reservation
        • Safeguard.
      • In August 1932 RAMSAY announced Communal Award
      • Some of the depressed class leaders like MC RAJAH and Ambedkar favored the separate Electorate
      • After POONA Pact, number of seats reserved for depressed classes were increased and a  two tier system of election was proposed
    • The 1935 Act was opposed by LEAGUE as well as Congress!
    • In Province instead of DYARCHY responsible govt was introduced in ALL Dept
    • Discreationary powers were given to Governor regarding giving assent to bills, summoning legislatures, administering tribal areas etc
    • Governor had special power to safeguard ::
      • Minority Rights
      • Privilege of Civil Servants
      • British Business Interest
      • They could take over and run the administration indefinitely
    • At the Centre Provided for a federal structure
      • It would come into effect ONLY if 50% of the Princely states formally acceded to it by signing Instrument of Accession, which would override their previous treaties with British Crown
      • The Act introduced DYARCHY at Centre but with various safeguards like
        • Foreign affairs , defence and internal security remained under complete control of Viceroy
    • Another feature of this Act was transfer of Financial Power from London to Delhi
    • The Electorates was enlarged to 30 million but the high Property qualification made ONLY 10% of the population eligible
    • In Rural India it gave Voting Rights to rich and Middle Peasants as they were the main constituency of Congress
    • Bicameral Central Leg would constitute 30-40% of the seats by Princes
    • Separate electorates for MUSLIMS and reserved seats for SC STs in Province and Centre
    • The ACT did not mention the granting of DOMINION Status promised during CDM
    • The VICEROY now enjoyed much power earlier excercised by SOS
    • MUSLIMS who were in Minority in all but 4 provinces, they did not OPPOSE federation openly but preferred decentralization with weak Centre
    • The CONGRESS too did not like the idea of federation where 1/3 of the seats were filled by Princes
    • Princes were also reluctant to join it ::
      • The act did not resolve the issue of PARAMOUNTCY, the GOI can still intervene in their internal matters and throw them
      • Joining a Democratic Govt where Congress would have little sympathy for them
      • Larger states do  not want to surrender their Fiscal Autonomy whereas Smaller one complained of their poor representation
    • Story of Princes ::
      • They helped GOI during WWI, therefor after it they wanted return
      • They demanded for a Chamber of Princes and Direct access to GOI
      • The ACT of 1919 provided for a 120 member Chamber of Princes, to advice the RAJ on all matters relating to states and their relation with RAJ
      • All princes with 11 Gun salutes were directly represented in it
      • Smaller princes would elect 12 representative among them
      • It was inaugrated at RED FORT in 1921 FEB
      • It broke the isolation of Princes
    • The VISIST of Prince of WALES was welcomed by PRINCES
    • MYSORE and TRAVANCORE – Congress ahd significant presence
    • Congress maintained isolatary policy wrt the Princely states, except in 1928 where the Congress resolution urged the Princes to introduce responsible Govt
    • CDM – Princes suppressed the movement in their states
    • THE INDIAN STATES COMMITTEE
      • Formed in 1928 under Sir HARCOURT BUTLER
      • It gave them a concession that PARAMOUNTCY would not be transferred without their consent to any democratically elected Govt
      • At the same time it reaffirmed the paramount power of BRITISH
    • DELHI DECLARATION ::
      • Signed by MAHARAJA of PATIALA on behalf of some Prines who wanted to go with Congress
      • They accepted the demand for federation and projected it as a constitutional goal
    • They also wanted right to secede, protection of their existing treaty rights etc
    • In JAN 1935, the Cahamber adopted a resolution which was highly critical of FEDERATION
    • The 1935 Act not satisfied the PRINCES too
    • They have not rejected federation but bargaining for a better deal
    • In 1938 the CONGRESS policy of NON INTERFERECE was fiven up at HARIPURA Session

Partition and freedom

QIM ::

  • In May 1934 CSP was formed  by JP Narayan, A PATWARDAN, ASHOK Mehta , YUSUF MEHRAULI, NARENDRA Dev and MINOO MASANI
    • Nehru never really formally joined the group
    • CSP was meant to operate within Congress
  • Election issue of 1936::
    •  V Patel and Prasad came around the view that participation in elections and subsequent acceptance of office in the province under Act of 1935 would help boost the morale of Congress
    • The AICC in Bombay in Aug 1936 decided in favor of Contesting the election, but postponed the decision to accept the office post election
    • Both the Right and Left Wingers Campaigned jointly for elections
    • The AICC sanctioned office acceptance despite objections of Nehru and other CSP leaders
    • Gandhi took a compromise position and endorsed the decision
  • Kisan Sabha Movement ::
    • Started in Bihar under the leadership of Swami SAHAJNAND SARASWATI who had formed in 1929 the Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha in order to mobilize peasant grievances against the Zamindari attacks on their occupancy rights
    • Initially it was meant to promote class harmony, so that landlord-tenant conflict  do not jeopardize the the nationalist broad front
    • When it was revived in 1933 it increasingly came in influence of Socialists so that by 1935 it adopted  abolition of Zamindari as one of its programme
    • Kisan SM also gained momentum in Andhra under the leadership of the CSP activist NG Ranga
    • In 1935 NG ranga along with MS NAMBOODRIPAD tried to spread the peasant movement to  other linguistic regions of Madras Presidency, organized a South Indian federation of Peasants and Agricultural labor
    • In 1938-39 a powerful movement for the restoration of BAKSHAT land started in Bengal, Bihar
      • The movement sought to restore some pre-existing rights and did not take recourse to any radical action such as No-rent campaign or withholding of debt repayment
      • In UP and bengal Kisan Sabha Activist were disillusioned with Congress Ministry
    • In OCT 1937 the AIKS adopted red flag as its official banner
      • In 1938 it denounced the gandhian Principal of class cooperation
      • A resolution at haripura prohibited Congressmen from Becoming its members
  • AIKS ::
    • Formed in 1936 at the Lucknow session of Congress with SAHAJNAND SARASWATI as the first President
    • The Kisan Manifesto which was adopted in August contained radical demands such as abolition of Zamindari, graduated income tax on agri Income, Granting of tenancy rights and scaling down of Interest rates and debts.
    • It was also because of its CSP members that AIKS maintained close contacts with Congress
    • In the FAIZPUR session in Dec 1936 the Congress finally accepted adopted an Agrarian Programme
  • AISPC ::
    • Formed in 1927 to coordinate nationalist movement  in the native states
    • In 1934 the Bombay Congress had specifically resolved to follow a non-interventionist policy in the states
    • This began to change after 1936 when Nehru attended the 5 session of AISPC
    • GANDHI did not like this
    • Throughout the 1920-30s the Congress chose not to intervene in the affairs of Princely states, respecting the rights of traditional rulers over their subjects
    • NEHRU and Bose wanted greater integration and intervention in Princely states
    • At HARIPURA Session in 1938 a resolution was adopted to support the people’s movement in the states although no organizational assistance was to be provided, individual  members can participate in it
    • In Feb 1939 Nehru accepted the Presidency of AISPC and the Tripuri Congress endorsed the scheme of Joint Action
  • BOSE-BAPU::
    • Bose  resigned at AICC meeting in Calcutta in April 1939, replaced by Prasad
    • Why Congress removed him ?
      • He protested against the AICC decision to ban  congressmen from participating in CDM without prior permission of PCC
  • When Congress Ministries resigned in 1939 the ML celebrated it as DELIVERANCE DAY
    • Ambedkar supported them
    • Home Govt thought of Capitalizing on the issue
  • AUGUST Offer of LINLITHGOW ::
    • It offered Dominion status at an unspecified date
    • Post war constitutional consultative  body
    • Expansion of Viceroy’s Executive Council to include some Indians
    • Provision of War Advisory Council
  • Japanese aggression
    • A&N, Java, manilla, Singapore, Rangoon, Sumatra fell into their small hands
    • Colombo  was bombed on 5 April, followed by Bombing of two Indian Coast of COCONADA and VIZAG
  • On the Insistence of ROOSEVELT and CIANG KI SHEK, Churchill finally sent CRIPPS to India
  • QIM ::
    • Rajagopalachari still insisted on Constitutional means
    • Gandhi was ambivalent
    • Nehru not ready
    • At the RAMGARH Congress in 1940 ultimately BAPU agreed to launch CDM, but as Individual Satyagraha
    • In 1942  GANDHI changed to a remarkably militant mood
    • As Japanese came closer Gandhi refused to accept Japanese as Liberators and that India in the hands of Indians is still the best Guarantee
    • From May 1942 American and Australian Soldiers began to arrive in India and soon became the Central figures of rape and racial harassement of civilian population
    • In July the CWC approved  Mass CDM
    • The  “Quit India” resolution adopted by the AICC in Bombay on 8 August 1942 proposed to begin this mass CDM under gandhi’s direction
    • GANDHI described it as a fight to Finish
    • He said that every men or women should chose his course of action
    • The August revolution was describe as by far the most serious rebellion since 1857
    • It was violent and totally uncontrolled from beginning, it was not unplanned ::
      • Congress and other org had already prepared the ground for such a showdown
      • The Congress leaders before 9 Aug had already drafted a 12 point programme which not only included  the usual gandhian methods of Satyagraha, but a plan to promote Industrial strike, holding up of railway and telegraph, setting up of parallel Gov etc
      • Gandhi said  I trust whole of India to-day to launch upon a Non-Violent struggle but even if people deviated from the path he shall not Swerve and Shall not FLINCH
    • Sumit Sarkar defined 3 Phases of QIM ::
      • It initially started as an Urban Revolt, marked by strikes, Boycott and picketing
      • Then it shifted to countryside which witnessed violence destruction of property
      • Finally the formation of isolated Govt in pockets
      • The Third phase was characterized by Violence and underground activities like USHA Mehta’s radio
    • Not only Educated Youth participated but peasants too, they organized themselves and performed Subversive action by Night, which came to be Known as KARNATAKA Method
    • UNDERGROUND NETWORK ::
      • Under JP NARAYAN Guirella warfare was organized on Indo-Nepal Border
      • Centrist group led by Aruna Asaf Ali ,mobilizing volunteers throughout India for Sabotaging activities
      • Gandhian group led by S Kriplani with focus on Non-Violence and Constructive programme
    • There was use of Violence at unprecedented scale and Govt used it as an Excuse for repression
      • In Bihar AZAD dastas or GURIELLA bands were formed which operated mainly in Bihar, conducting raids on ammunition , depots, treasuries and other govt offices
      • Some like JP tried to maintain control over DASTAS but later they developed contacts with dacoits and indulged in Social Crimes
    • Parallel Govt ::
      • In CONTAI the Swaraj Panchayat was started
      • In TAMLUK the JATIYA Sarkar started
        • It had a trained volunteer corps or BHAGINI SENA and a mouthpiece BIPLABI
      • PRATI SARKAR in SATARA ::
        • Base created by Non-Brahman Movement
        • Formally estb in June 1943
        • It had  Volunteer Corps or SEWA Dal and  Village Units of TUFAN Dal
        • NANA PATIl was an Imp Leader
        • NYAYADAN mandals or people’s courts were run
        • Unlike AZAD dastas it fought local dacoits
        • When GANDHI gave a call to Surrender, unlike Midnapur Counterparts, most members defied Bapu and parallel govt continued to function till election of 1946
  • Different groups ::
    • RAJAGOPALACHARI was opposed to Movement
      • Believed in Constitutionalism
      • Opposition of Kerala Communist
      • Strong Southern Challenge to a Movement dominated by North
    • Muslims and ML remained aloof, they did not opposed QIM actively
      • No major incident of Communal Conflict
    • DALITS and Ambedkar did not support it
      • Ambedkar was a member of Viceroy’s Executive Council as Labor member
      • Some dalita did participated
    • Hindu mahasabha Condemned it
      • VD SAWARKAR, SPM. BS MUNJE wholeheartedly supported British war efforts
      • RSS remained Aloof
    • Communist Party did not supported it

The Turbulent 40s::

  • Bose forged a link with Muslim League in bengal , and decided to launch CDM to destroy HOLWELL monument that stood in Calcutta as a reminder of Black Hole tragedy
  • B4 he could start he was arrested on july 3 1940 under Defence of India Act
  • Bose travelled to Kabul, then Russia ,  the berlin and finally to Japan
  • He met Hitler, but did not receive much help. He was allowed to start Azad Hind radio and was handed over the Indian POWs captured in N Africa to start an Indian Legion
    • But he couldn’t get an Axis declaration in favor of Indian Independence
  • India Did not figure initially in the Japanese policy of Greater East Asia Co-prosperity sphere, under which Japanese proposed to help  Asians gain independence from Western Imperialism
  • But in 1940 it developed an India Policy
  • Indian men associated – Pritam Singh. Mohan Singh, Rash bhari Bose
  • In 1942 an United Indian Independence League  was formed representing all Indians in SEA
    • To Chair this body Rash behari Bose, living in japan was invited
  • Japanese PM general TOJO made a declaration in DIET supporting Indian Independence
  • INA Prisoners ::
    • Those who appear to have been persuaded or mislead by JAPAN were classified as Whites and Greys and were released
    • Most committed ones were classified as BLACKS– they were to be court martialled
    • Red Fort Trial :: PK SEHGAL, GS DHILLON, SHAH NAWAZ KHAN – charged of treason and abetment to Murder
    • Lawyers who helped –  SAPRU DESAI ALI NEHRU
    • All parties united
    • INA week was celebrated from 5-11 Nov and on 12 the INA day
    • Punjab refrained from Diwali
    • American and British Military establishment were attacked in calcutta
    • They were set free by Commander in Chief
  • RIN ::
    • It all started In Bombay on 18 feb by HMIS TALWAR, they went on Hunger strike against bad food and racial discrimination
    • British realized that Army was nor longer the sharp SWORD of repression
    • Gandhi condemned the Violence and Patel persuaded them to surrender
  • Communists ::
    1. They were prepared for another battle and had been working in the rural areas reletlessly for it
    2. Once the ban on CPI was removed in 1942 the activities further gained momentum
    3. The Bengal man made famine took a toll on the lives of 3 million (Sen) see page 432
    4. Communist play an active role and gained popularity among the poor and this gradually prepared th ground for TEBHAGA movement
    5. In MAHRASHTRA VARLI Revolt took place ::
      1. The main grievance was against forced labor or VETH
      2. In 1944 a demand was made for minimum daily wages of 12 anas for agri  work
      3. In 1945 a demand for abolition of Forced labor and fixing minimum wages was made
    6. TRAVANCORE ::
      1. The growth of COIR Industry after WWI saw the emergence of Working class and their Unity under CPI
      2. In 1946 the Princely started asserted Independence and set up a Constituition on American Lines
    7. Hyderabad ::
      1. Feudal organization dominated by Jagirdars, PATTADARS, SAHUKARS, etc
      2. Forced Labor or Vetti continued
      3. Scarcity of food and water created ground
      4. Communist started organizing peasantry via Andhra MAHASABHA
      5. The movement started in 1946 in NALGONDA district
      6. In 1947 the Nizam announced its independence after British left

Towards Freedom with Partition ::

  • Weather freedom was seized or is it deliberately transferred by British ?
    • The Act of 1919 and 1935 were meant to secure British hegemony over India
    • Even in 1950s the British Foreign office and Colonial Office were contemplating ways and means of protecting economic and strategic interests in  Asia and Africa against the recent upsurge of Nationalism.
    • So it is highly Unlikely that British Voluntrily left India in 1947
    • When WWII broke out India was considered to be the  most important strategic point for the defence of British Empire in the Middle East and SEA
    • The British policy during 1940s was struck between  Churchill negativism and Cripps Constructiveness
      • In a meeting with Nehru in 1938 the Laborite Cripps and ATTLEE had agreed on the idea of CA on the UAF basis
      • But when Cripps offer came Churchill Dominated the show
    • Outside Role ?
      • American Public opinion was in favor of India and Roosevelt was constantly forcing Churchill to deal with the rising Communist Tide in European Colonies
      • Since the land lease Act Britain became too dependent on USA for conducting  War
      • The Atlantic Charter which Britain Signed acknowledged the right to self determination of all people of the world
      • But Churchill interpreted it the way he wanted and the right of self determination was only for EU subjugated by germany
      • The rapid progress of Japanese shattered the British prestige, Roosevelt and CHIANG wanted to solve Indian problem at the earliest
      • CRIPPS MISSION ::
        • It promised self-determination after the war
        • India can opt out of Commonwealth but had to enter into a treaty to safeguard British interest
        • There would be an elected CA to which Princes would NOMINATE their representitives
        • The province could secede from the union if  they wished, thus a tactical recognition to ML demand
        • Indians would become members of Viceroy’s Executive council to prop up war efforts
        • Congress rejected
        • The Mission marked an important shift in British poicy, it now explicitly  announced Indian Independence after the War within or outside the Empire
        • It also said that Unity would no longer be a pre-condition for Independence
    • The QIM , bengal famine, INA trial further eroded the British base in India
    • Military weakness ::
      • The INA and RIN mutiny showed the same
      • Since 1930 London had little control over Indias monetary and Fiscal Policies
        • Protective Tariff  had already been imposed
        • Wartime procurement policies led to an evaporation of Indias Sterling Debt, replaced by Britain’s Ruppee Debt to India
      • In 1938 it was found that Indian Army needed modernization and GOI could not bear expenses , so Under an agreement in 1939 the expenses were borne by British Govt
      • By 1946 Britain’s debt to India was 1300 million pounds
      • Labor Victory was another major factor for transfer of power
  • MUSLIMS ::
    • The LAHORE resolution lifted the status of Muslims from that of a Minority to that of a nation and JINNAH emerged as sole spokesperson
    • Jinnah rejected Cripps proposal because it did not recognize the Muslims right to self determination and Equality as a nation
    • CHURCHILL said that Hindu-Muslim Feud is the Bullwark of British Rule in India
    • In 1944 RAJAJI proposed a solution ::
      • A post war commission will be formed to demarcate the boundaries of contiguous districts where Muslims were in majority
      • A plebicite of adult population will then decide whom they want to Join
      • In case of partition there would be a mutual agreement to run certain essential services like defence and communication
      • The border states could chose to join either
      • The implementation of scheme could wait till full transfer of power
      • In short it accepted Pakistan
      • JINNAH rejected, he want complete sovereignity
    • WAVELL PLAN ::
      • Simla Conference was convened to discuss the formation of an entirely Indian Executive Council, with the Viceroy and CIC as the only British members
      • Caste Hindus and Muslims would have Equal representation, SC would also be separately represented
      • Doors would be open for the discussion of a new constitution
      • JINNAH wanted that all Muslim leaders to be appointed by League
      • Congress rejected it
    • Unionist party ::
      • Sir Sikander Hyat Khan and his party was systematically pulled down and politically margianalized
    • In the 1946 election league swept 93% of the votes in the provinces, though franchise was limited to 10% but it legitimized ML agenda
    • In the 1946 election, in Punjab, the Unionist party got 18 setas, congress 51, Akalis 22, and ML 75
      • Govt was formed by first 3  coalition
    • The election result also margianalised other communities like dalits, Ambedkar’s AISCC won just 2 of 151 seats reserved for such castes
    • CPI won only 8 and Hindu Mahasabha Only 3
    • The situation particularly due to INA issue led to the sending up of CMP ::
  • CMP ::
    • Members – Lord Pethick Lawrence SOS, Stafford Cripps , Lord Alexander
    • It was to discuss 2 issues::
      • The principles and procedures for setting up a new constitution for granting independence
      • The formation of an Interim Govt
    • It rejected the proposal of separate Pakistan
    • It proposed a 3 tier structure of a loose federation for the Union of India, including both the province and princely states
    • Union would be responsible for defence, foreign affairs and communication and the right to raise revenue for those functions
    • All residual powers would be vested in the Provincial govt, which would be free to form groups
    • Each group could also  have their  own leg and exe and could decide what provincial subjects to take on
    • A CA was to be constituted by the  recently elected Provincial assemblies  to draft constitution for whole of India
    • It would first meet at the Union level and then would split into 3 sections , hindu majority, Muslim majority and Bengal-Assam
    • The princely states would be given adequate representation in the central CA through negotiations
    • After the constitution was settled for all the 3 groups, the provinces would have the right to opt out of any particular group but not from Union
    • They could also reconsider reconstituion after 10 years
    • Meanwhile an Interim Govt would look after administration
    • The final independence to be given weather within or without British Commonwealth, India can choose
    • ML accepted it on 6 June on the assumption that the provision that Pakistan was inherent in the provisions
    • Congress did not want Assam and NWFP where it recently won Majority to be grouped with other Muslim majority areas
    • The AICC announced the Conditional approval for the plan, Nehru said Congress ahd Agreed to  Nothing else other than participation in CA
    • On 29 July League withdrew its approval and gave a call for Direct Action
      • 16 Aug 1946 was chosen as DAD, riots broke out in Calcutta
      • Muslim national Guards and RSS clashed
    • In Punjab the Unionist Govt on the advice of Governor banned Muslim National Guard and RSS, this led to CDM in Mrch 1947
    • Indian Interim Govt was formed without League on 2 Sept 1946 by Wavell, League was persuaded to join in Oct
      • But the league decided to Boycott CA
  • WAVELL’s Breakdown plan ::
    • In 1946, in case of disagreement, the British should withdraw to the 6 Pakistan provinces, leaving the rest of Indian to congress
    • Plan was rejected,, as it is dishonorable for British
    • Mountabatten Arrived on March 22
  • Mountabatten ::
    • His forced march further heightened communal  tension and made partition inevitable
    • Plan Balkan ::
      • It proposed Partition of Punjab and bengal and handing over Power to the provinces and sub-provinces, which would be free join one or more of groups of CA on the basis of self-determination
      • Interim Govt would remain untill 1948 June
      • Nehru rejected it as it would increase disruptive tendencies
      • Jinnah cast them aside too as he was not prepared for partition of bengal and Punjab yet, which would give him a mutilated or Moth-eaten Pakistan
    • The Alternative plan proposed by Mountbatten was to transfer th power to 2 Dominion of India and  Pakistan
      • Nehru who was opposed to the idea of Dominion accepted it as ot can lead to early transfer of power
      • On 3 June Mountbatten announced his new plan and proposed to advance the date of transfer of power from June 1948 to 15 Aug 1947
      • It provided for partition of bengal and Punjab
      • The Hindu majority provinces which had already accepte existing CA would be given no choice
      • The Muslim majority provinces of Sind Baluchistan, NWFP, Bengal, Punjab would decide whether to join existing or a new CA for Pak
        • This was to be decided by Provinces
        • Refrendum in case of NWFP
      • Nehru , Jinnah and baldev Singh endorsed the plan the following day
      • Both plan Balkan and 3 June plan gave the impression that Princes can join either Union or remian independent, nothing was done  about it
      • When Mountbatten realised that Patel and Nehru ain’t happy, he started persuading Princes to Join India
    • Partition still remained a contentious issue as neither Jinnah nor ML ever defined the rights of Non_muslims in future

 

KHALISTAN ::

    • Demand for separate land of Sikh was reiterated after lahore reolution of ML in 1940
    • Sikh identity took various shapes in the form of AZAD Punjab in 1942 or Sikh State in 1944
    • After resignation fo Khizr ministry, the Sikhs were mobilized into JATHAS by Maharaja of Patiala to defend Sikh life Property and Shrines
    • A group was prompted by British for a separate Sikh land, as many of them were about to lose their property and Shrines too

BENGAL ::

    • In Bengal SUHARWADI began to advocate for a  United Sovereign Bengal Since 1947 and received support fo local congress
  • The bengal Assemble and Punjab Assembly favored Partition in June, NWFP against the Wishes of Gaffar Khan joined Pakistan
  • The India Independence Act was ratified by Crown on 18 July and was implemented on 14/15 August

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