DAILY MAINS NEWSLETTER FOR UPSC|10 JULY 2021|RaghukulCS

Daily Mains Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

10 July 2021 - Saturday

Index

Mains Value Addition

Mains Analysis

Topic No

Topic Name

Source

1

In defence of India’s noisy democracy

The Hindu

2

The Classroom Test

Indian Express

Mains Value Addition

‘Uniform Civil Code ought not to remain a mere hope’

Syllabus–GS 1: Society, GS2: Constitution

Analysis: –

  • Favouring the introduction of Uniform Civil Code (UCC), the Delhi High Court has said the Indian youth need not be forced to struggle with issues arising due to conflicts in various personal laws in relation to marriage and divorce.
  • The modern Indian society was “gradually becoming homogenous, the traditional barriers of religion, community and caste are slowly dissipating” and thus UCC “ought not to remain a mere hope”, Justice Prathiba M Singh stated in an order dated July 7.
  • “The youth of India belonging to various communities, tribes, castes or religions who solemnise their marriages ought not to be forced to struggle with issues arising due to conflicts in various personal laws, especially in relation to marriage and divorce,” the order said.

WhatsApp will put policy on hold till data law is enacted

Analysis: –

  • WhatsApp on Friday told the Delhi high court that it has “voluntarily agreed to put on hold” its new privacy policy till India enacts the proposed data protection law, while adding that users will not be compelled to accept new terms in a significant climbdown from its recent stance
  • WhatsApp, represented by senior advocate Harish Salve, told a bench of chief justice DN Patel and justice Jyoti Singh that it would not compel users to give consent for the new policy, but will continue to remind them about the update to the terms and conditions.
  • The policy had also caught attention of the Competition Commission of India (CCI), which launched an inquiry against which the company filed a court appeal.

Mains Analysis

In defence of India’s noisy democracy

Why in News?

In the current moment, it is important to be clear why comparisons with China are not only specious but also dangerous

Syllabus— GS 2 Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States

Background: –

  • In China, hundreds of millions been lifted out of poverty and social indicators have improved dramatically.
  • India’s developmental record has been much more mixed. Poverty has decreased, but the majority of people’s employment options remain limited to low-wage, risky positions in the informal sector.
  • Perhaps most surprising of all, progress in basic social development indices has delayed, to the point that, as Jean Drèze and Amartya Sen have shown, India has fallen behind Bangladesh and Pakistan.

The myth of overdose of Democracy –

  • Making and implementing crucial decisions about public investment and other reforms in the face of many and opposing democratic voices is impossible, unlike in China. Firmer and more autonomous modes of decision-making that are isolated from the cacophony are required.
  • Less democracy is not helpful for development, according to comparative, theoretical, and ethical analysis. Contrary to some who claim that economic management cannot be entrusted to democratic forces, comparative research clearly reveals that democratic regimes have outperformed non-democratic regimes on average.

Democracy and Development –

  • Kerala and Tamil Nadu have done more to improve the lives of all their citizens, regardless of caste or class, than any other Indian state, and it is no coincidence that both have had the country’s longest and most sustained popular democratic movements, as well as the most intense party competition.
  • On balance, democracies are superior at supporting inclusive growth, as evidenced by the comparative record.
  • The idea that authoritarianism promotes decision-making that can rise above the din of democratic demand-making to get things done assumes that individuals in power will serve the common good rather than the powerful, and that when given such autonomy, they will know what to do with it.
  • This is just arrogance. Democracies are more likely to meet the requirements for good decision-making on both of these aspects. Elected officials, no matter how venal, must win re-election, which necessitates replying to a wide range of voters.

 

 

Impact of discussions and negotiations –

  • Democracy’s conflicts and noise may make things more difficult, but having to respond to a wide range of interests and identities not only protects against disastrous decisions, but also allows for forms of negotiation and compromise that can bridge interests and even balance otherwise conflicting imperatives for growth, justice, sustainability, and social inclusion.
  • Science, profits, technocrats, or authoritarian fiat cannot and should not determine the common good, as democratic theorists have long emphasised. Only persistent societal discourse can reveal what it is and how we get there.

Comparing with China –

  • Regardless of how one measures or evaluates China’s development achievements, the human cost of the party-created great famine that killed 35 million people, a cultural revolution that turned neighbours against one another, a one-child policy that devastated families and erased a generation, or the violent, systematic repression of the Uyghur Muslim and Tibetan minorities cannot be overlooked.
  • These were not unintentional excesses or unavoidable development costs. These were and are the inexorable tendencies and predations of an authoritarian regime, one that now denounces any readings of the past that contradict the party’s official history as “historical nihilism.”
  • Individual liberties, community identities, religion and thought freedoms, all of which confer recognition on human beings, have all been protected in India.
  • To even consider a trade-off between these freedoms and the role they’ve played in building a pluralistic nation and some cold, utilitarian calculus of “development” not only goes against the very idea of human agency and dignity, but it also ignores India’s and China’s vastly different social and historical realities.

Way Forward: –

  • In the name of nationalism and progress, the government has not only pushed to centralise, insulate, and personalise decision-making, but has also aggressively attacked democratic institutions’ independence and repressed and imprisoned Opposition voices.
  • However, the development trajectory is bleak at best. While corporate interests and the billionaire elite have prospered, the entire economy has sputtered, with the worst recession of any large economy in the globe since COVID-19.
  • Rather than looking to China, it is time to safeguard India’s democratic noise.

Question: –

On the social front, Hindutva — a prototype strain of authoritarian ethnic nationalism — has shattered India’s democratic norms and institutional foundations, weaponizing a politics of polarisation and demonization that threatens to tear the country apart.Discuss.

The Classroom Test

Why in News?

Governance must shift from control of resources to learning outcomes; learning design, responsiveness, teacher management, community relationships, integrity, fair decision making, and financial sustainability.

Syllabus—GS2: Issues related to Education

Background: –

  • Currently, the proportion of India’s children attending a govt school has now declined to 45%.
  • This proportion is 95% in Japan & 85% in the USA.
  • The new minister of Education must deal with this crisis because it is the fundamental duty of the state to provide a quality, free & regular school education which represents India’s most potent infra of opportunity.
  • Despite higher teacher salaries, teacher qualifications & govt spending, the decline in enrollment happened.

India’s State of Education & Dropouts:

  • R M Lohia once suggested that powerful people have caste, wealth & English instruction.
  • This observation is based on the Wooldridge idea that suggested meritocracy became the world’s ruling ideology by the end of the 20the century.
  • However, India’s meritocracy is sabotaged by flailing govt schools.
  • The 25% confiscation of private school capacity is in a way acceptance of school failure & parents revealed preference.
  • Without a market response to demand, the post-1947 policy errors in primary education would have been catastrophic for India’s human capital.
  • Due to COVID, Haryana state witnessed 25% private school student’s dropouts due to parent’s financial challenges.

Need for overhauling:

  • India’s 100% plus school enrolment masks challenges:
    • A huge dropout ratio,
    • Poor learning outcomes
    • India also faces too many schools but with fewer students,
  • For instance in States like Rajasthan, Karnataka, etc some schools have less than 50 students.
  • The new world of work redefines employability to include reading, writing & arithmetic & also relationships.
  • This cannot be taught in 3 months or years it needs a min of 10 years.
  • India’s farm to non-farm is happening to sales & customer services that need above 4 competency & English awareness.
  • Due to the increasing mechanization of work, future jobs require dynamic learners.

 

What to do in this regard: The 3 Difficult Reforms:

  • Harvard expert suggests that COVID accelerates the overdue move by schools from the factory model (static model) to a medical model(dynamic model).
  • Recent govt school actions such as Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan Spending etc need supplementing with difficult reforms.

Performance management:

  • Performance management needs evaluation of scores, skills competence & classroom management.
  • Continuous assessment of scores has to take place.
  • Teacher competence needs judging on child interaction, knowledge & communication, etc.
  • Classroom management needs assessment by classroom observation of learning, physical set-up, instructional differentiation & communication.

Governance:

  • Governance must shift from control of resources to learning outcomes.
  • Governance must enable performance to be substantive & replace the current system.

English Instruction:

  • English instruction is about Bilingualism, Higher education pathways & Employability.
  • Because in a county like India English is a operating system & vocational skill.
  • Employment outcomes are 50% higher for persons with English familiarity.
    • Because of higher geographic mobility,
    • Sector mobility,
    • Role eligibility
    • Entrance exam ease.
  • Yet states like Bengal has banned English teaching in primary schools in 1981.
  • The poor have been at the receiving end of the elite favoring dichotomy between govt provided regional language & professional courses in English.
  • However recently Andhra Pradesh govt made a good move in making English has the medium of instruction for 1 to 4 classes.
  • Indian constitution fragmented Education policy across three lists, which needs to be revisited because it tends to concentrate decisions that should be made locally.
  • For instance, block-level recruitment minimize teacher absenteeism.

Way Forward: –

  • The challenges of getting school education right are not uniquely Indian or contemporary, many developed nations faced it.
  • However, India missed her tryst with destiny for many reasons but one of them was weak govt schools.
  • The policy is a choice but not fate & it is high time for Indian policymakers to drive difficult reforms of governance, performance management & English instruction.

Question: –

Without a systemic overhaul, Indian education will fail its Children just like socialism failed its poor.Explain.

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