Daily Prelims Newsletter|16 July 2021|RaghukulCS|UPSC

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

16 July 2021-Friday

Table Of Contents

Environment

  • Great Indian Bustards

Polity and Governance

  • National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC)

Security

  • Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)

Governmental Initiatives

  • Stand Up India Scheme

International Relations

  • ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations)

Environment

Great Indian Bustards:

Why in News?

Recently, a video of poaching of Critically Endangered Great Indian Bustards have surfaced from Pakistan’s Cholistan desert.

About Great Indian Bustards (GIB):

IUCN Red List

Critically Endangered

CITES

Appendix 1

WPA, 1972

Schedule 1

  • is identified as one of the species for the recovery programme under the Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats, Ministry of Environment and Forests, and Climate Change
  • Project Great Indian Bustard — aims to identify and fence bustard breeding grounds both in and out of existing protected areas.
  • GIB is the state bird of Rajasthan.
  • Natural Habitat of GIB in India:
  • Only two districts in Rajasthan : Jaisalmer and Barmer — have a breeding GIB population in the wild.
  • The bird can also be found in very small numbers in states of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh.

 

Polity and Governance

National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC)

Why in News?

Cabinet recently extended the term of commission constituted under Article 340 of the constitution to examine the issue of Sub-categorization within OBCs, as recommended by NCBC.

About National Commission for Backward Classes

  • Initially, under National Commission for Backward Classes Act, 1993; NCBC was established as a statutory body under the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment.
  • 102nd Constitution Amendment Act, 2018 provides constitutional status to the NCBC.
  • It examines complaints and welfare measures regarding socially and educationally backward classes.
  • Supreme Court had directed the government in Indra Sawhney case of 1992, to create a permanent body to entertain, examine and recommend the inclusion and exclusion of various Backward Classes for the purpose of benefits and protection.
  • Composition of NCBC:five members which include:
    • Chairperson,
    • Vice- Chairperson and
    • three other members
  • They are appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal.
  • The conditions of service and tenure of office of the members are determined by President.

Functions of NCBC:

  • Monitoring how safeguards provided to the backward classes under the Constitution and other laws for their protection are being implemented,
  • Inquiring into complaints regarding violation of rights, and
  • Recommending on socio-economic development of such classes.

Key Takeaways:

  • Both the central and state governments are required to consult the NCBC on all major policy matters affecting the socially and educationally backward classes.
  • NCBC presents annual reports (and at such other times as the Commission may deem fit) to the President, about working of the safeguards.
  • The President laysthese reports before each House of Parliament.
  • NCBC has powers of a civil court.

Security

Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)

Why in News?

Recently, CRPF was in news since they are continuously conducting anti-militancy operations in J&K.

About CRPF:

  • It is one of the premier Central Armed Police Forces of India (under the Ministry of Home Affairs) for internal security.

Important Role played by CRPF in Indian History:

  • They played a significant role during the amalgamation of the princely States into the Indian Union.
  • It helped the GoI in disciplining the rebellious princely States like that of Junagarh and Kathiawar which had declined to join the Indian Union.

Related Information:

The other Central Armed Police Forces:

  • Assam Rifles :Responsible for guarding Indo-Myanmar border.
  • Border Security Force: Responsible for guarding India’s land borders with Pakistan and Bangladesh.
  • Central Industrial Security Force (CISF): Provides security cover tospace establishments, nuclear installations, seaports, airports, power plants, sensitive Government buildings and even heritage monuments.
  • Indo Tibetan Border Police (ITBP): A specialized mountain force and responsible for guarding Indo-China border.
  • National Security Guard: Acounter terrorism unit which was raised in 1984, following Operation Blue Star.
  • Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB): Earlier called as Special Service Bureau was raised in 1960s. Their objective is to achieve ‘Total security preparedness’ in the remote border areas.

Governmental Initiatives

Stand Up India Scheme:

Why in News?

Stand Up India Scheme was in news recently.

About Stand-up India Scheme:

  • It was launched in 2016.
  • It aims to promote entrepreneurship at the grass-root level of Economy leading to economic development and job creation.
  • Objective:Facilitate bank loans between ₹10 lakh and ₹1 crore to at least one SC or ST borrower and at least one woman borrower per bank branch to set up a Greenfield enterprise.
  • The offices of SIDBI and NABARD were designated Stand-Up Connect Centres (SUCC).

Eligibility of Beneficiariesunder Stand Up India Scheme:

  • SC/ST and/or women entrepreneurs; above 18 years of age.
  • Loans are to be given only for Greenfield project.
  • Borrowers must not be a defaulter to any financial institution.

    International Relations

    ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations)

    Why in News?

    The bilateral trade with ASEAN countries saw an increase of 38.2% in the first 6 months of the year.

    About ASEAN:

    • It is a regional organization established to promote political and social stability amid rising tensions among the Asia-Pacific’s post-colonial states.
    • The motto of ASEAN: “One Vision, One Identity, One Community”.
    • ASEAN Secretariat:Jakarta, Indonesia.

    History:

    • Established in 1967 with the signing of the Bangkok Declaration (ASEAN Declaration) by its founding nations.
    • Founding Nations: Indonesia, Malaysia,Singapore, Philippines, and Thailand.

    Institution Mechanism of ASEAN:

    • ASEAN Summit: It is the supreme policy making body of ASEAN. Under the Charter, the Summit should meet twice a year.
    • ASEAN Ministerial Councils: Four important Ministerial Councilsassists the Summit.
    • ASEAN Coordinating Council (ACC)
    • ASEAN Political-Security Community Council
    • ASEAN Economic Community Council
    • ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community Council

    Other ASEAN-led Forums:

    • ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF): Established in 1993, the 27 member multilateral grouping was developed to facilitate cooperation on political and security issues.
    • ASEAN Plus Three: Established in 1997 to bring together ASEAN’s ten members, China, Japan, and South Korea.

    • East Asia Summit (EAS): Started in 2005, it seeks to promote security and prosperity in the region.It is generally attended by the heads of state from ASEAN, Australia, China, India, Japan, New Zealand, Russia, South Korea, and the United States. ASEAN plays a central role as the agenda-setter.

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