ETHICS Terminology |Ethics Keywords |UPSC |UPSC Mains

ETHICS Terminology

Terms

Definition

Consistent display of ethical Behaviour. /Coherence in thoughts & action, conscience

Integrity

& belief

Honesty

Being truthful. / standing by what one say

Justice

Dealing with others in fair manner

Prudence

Follow own conscience

Temperance

Trait of avoiding excess

accountability

Formal Responsibility./ Answerability for one’s action, conduct and outcome

Dhamma –

principles of righteousness that governs actions of people in society. consists of

Pradnya – perfection through knowledge and Karuna – compassion which is essential

Buddhist Ethics

for growth of society

Transparency international-

• Transparency is about shedding light on rules, plans, processes and actions.

Transparency

• It is knowing why, how, what, and how much.

Transparency international- The abuse of power for personal gain or specific group

corruption

interest.

Accountability

Answerability supplemented with sanctions.

commitment

Obligation towards a task through a formal agreement.

diligence

virtue of hardwork

wisdom/sapience

The trait of utilizing knowledge and experience with common sense and insight

Absolutism

The holding of absolute principles in political, philosophical, or theological matters

Accountability

The fact or condition of being accountable; responsibility

Act-utilitarianism

Agent-neutral

Answerability

responsibility for explaining or justifying one’s actions.

Aptitude

A natural ability to do something.

Attitude

A settled way of thinking or believing about a thing

Autonomy

Freedom from external control or influence; independence.

Awareness

knowledge or perception of a situation or fact.

Beneficence is a concept in research ethics which states that researchers should have

the welfare of the research participant as a goal of any clinical trial or other research

Beneficence

study.

Benevolence

Desire to do good to others; goodwill; charitableness; kindness

Caring

Displaying kindness and concern for others.

Citizen’s charter is a document which represents a systematic effort to focus on the

commitment of the organisation towards its citizens in respects of standard of

services, information, choice and consultation, non-discrimination and accessibility,

Citizen Charter

grievance redress, courtesy and value for money.

A code of ethics and professional conduct outlines the ethical principles that govern

decisions and behaviour at a company or organization. they give general outlines of

how employees should behave, as well as specific guidance for handling issues like

Code of Ethics

harassment, safety, and conflicts of interest

Cognitivism is the study in psychology that focuses on mental processes, including

how people perceive, think, remember, learn, solve problems, and direct their

Cognitivism

attention to one stimulus rather than another.

Commensurable

Measurable by the same standard.

Commitment

The quality of being dedicated to a cause, activity, etc.

Communal

Communal harmony means that people of different religions, castes, creeds, sex and

Harmony

different background live together in the society with love and peace amongst them

Compassion

Sympathetic pity and concern for the sufferings of others

Complacency

An instance of usually unaware self-satisfaction.

Faith that, with proper encouragement and cultivation, people can learn to think for

themselves, to form rational viewpoints, draw reasonable conclusions, think

coherently and logically, persuade each other by reason and become reasonable

Confidence In

persons, despite the deep-seated obstacles in the native character of the human

Reason

mind and in society as we know it.

Conflict of

A situation in which a person is in a position to derive personal benefit from actions

interest

or decisions made in their official capacity.

A person’s moral sense of right and wrong, viewed as acting as a guide to one’s

Conscience

behaviour.

Consequentialism

The doctrine that the morality of an action is to be judged solely by its consequences.

Considerations

A fact or a motive taken into account in deciding something.

Contentment

A state of happiness and satisfaction.

Contract theory is the study of how people and organizations construct and develop

Contract Theory

legal agreements.

Convenience

The state of being able to proceed with something without difficulty. ease. comfort

The quality of mind or spirit that enables a person to face difficulty, danger, pain, etc.,

Courage

without fear

Courage

Polite, respectful, or considerate in manner.

Deontology

The study of the nature of duty and obligation.

Desire

A strong feeling of wanting to have something or wishing for something to happen.

Determination

The quality of being determined; firmness of purpose.

Devotion

Love, loyalty, or enthusiasm for a person or activity.

Dexterity

Skill in performing tasks, especially with the hands.

Dignity

The quality of being worthy of honour or respect.

A situation in which a difficult choice has to be made between two or more

Dilemma

alternatives, especially ones that are equally undesirable.

Diligence

Careful and persistent work or effort.

Discipline

To obey rules or a code of behaviour, using punishment to correct disobedience

Discretion

The freedom to decide what should be done in a particular situation.

Dissonance

lack of agreement or harmony between people or things.

Diversity

A range of different things.

Divine command theory (also known as theological voluntarism) is a meta-ethical

Divine Command

theory which proposes that an action’s status as morally good is equivalent to

Theory

whether it is commanded by god.

Dominance

Power and influence over others.

This principle aims to provide specific guidelines for determining when it is morally

Double effect

permissible to perform an action in pursuit of a good end in full knowledge that the

Principle

action will also bring about bad results.

Duty

A moral or legal obligation; a responsibility.

Dynamism

The quality of being characterized by vigorous activity and progress.

Eagerness

Enthusiasm to do or to have something; keenness.

Effectiveness

The degree to which something is successful in producing a desired result; success.

Efficiency

The state or quality of being efficient.

Egoism

The fact of being excessively conceited or absorbed in oneself.

Elation

Great happiness and exhilaration

Elegance

The quality of being pleasingly ingenious and simple; neatness.

Emotional

The capacity to be aware of, control, and express one’s emotions, and to handle

Intelligence

interpersonal relationships judiciously and empathetically.

An ethical theory which regards ethical and value judgements as expressions of

feeling or attitude and prescriptions of action, rather than assertions or reports of

Emotivism

anything.

Empathy

The ability to understand and share the feelings of another.

Enthusiasm

Intense and eager enjoyment, interest, or approval.

Equality

The state of being equal, especially in status, rights, or opportunities.

Equity represents fairness with consideration for weaker sections. it focuses on

equality of outcomes. this involves factoring in aspects of the system that have put

Equity

particular groups at a disadvantage.

The practice of spying or of using spies, typically by governments to obtain political

Espionage

and military information.

Ethics

Moral principles that govern a person’s behaviour or the conducting of an activity.

The painless killing of a patient suffering from an incurable and painful disease or in

Euthanasia

an irreversible coma

Evolutionary

Relating to the gradual development of something.

Excellence

The quality of being outstanding or extremely good.

The quality of being convenient and practical despite possibly being improper or

Expediency

immoral; convenience.

Expressiveness

The quality of effectively conveying a thought or feeling.

Having a consciousness of the need to treat all viewpoints alike, without reference to

one’s own feelings or vested interests, or the feelings or vested interests of one’s

friends, community or nation; implies adherence to intellectual standards without

Fair mindedness

reference to one’s own advantage or the advantage of one’s group.

Fairness

Is the quality of making judgments that are free from discrimination.

Faith

Complete trust or confidence in someone or something.

The practice of giving unfair preferential treatment to one person or group at the

Favouritism

expense of another.

Faithfulness to a person, cause, or belief, demonstrated by continuing loyalty and

Fidelity

support.

Firmness

Resolute determination and strength of character.

Forgiveness

The action or process of forgiving or being forgiven.

Fortitude

Courage in pain or adversity.

Fraternity

friendship and mutual support within a group

Freedom

The power or right to act, speak, or think as one wants.

Friendliness

The quality of being friendly; affability.

Frugality

the quality of being economical with money or food; thriftiness.

Generosity

The quality of being kind and generous.

Eagerness

Enthusiasm to do or to have something; keenness.

Effectiveness

The degree to which something is successful in producing a desired result; success.

Efficiency

The state or quality of being efficient.

Egoism

The fact of being excessively conceited or absorbed in oneself.

Elation

Great happiness and exhilaration

Elegance

The quality of being pleasingly ingenious and simple; neatness.

Emotional

The capacity to be aware of, control, and express one’s emotions, and to handle

Intelligence

interpersonal relationships judiciously and empathetically.

An ethical theory which regards ethical and value judgements as expressions of

feeling or attitude and prescriptions of action, rather than assertions or reports of

Emotivism

anything.

Empathy

The ability to understand and share the feelings of another.

Enthusiasm

Intense and eager enjoyment, interest, or approval.

Equality

The state of being equal, especially in status, rights, or opportunities.

Equity represents fairness with consideration for weaker sections. it focuses on

equality of outcomes. this involves factoring in aspects of the system that have put

Equity

particular groups at a disadvantage.

The practice of spying or of using spies, typically by governments to obtain political

Espionage

and military information.

Ethics

Moral principles that govern a person’s behaviour or the conducting of an activity.

The painless killing of a patient suffering from an incurable and painful disease or in

Euthanasia

an irreversible coma

Evolutionary

Relating to the gradual development of something.

Excellence

The quality of being outstanding or extremely good.

The quality of being convenient and practical despite possibly being improper or

Expediency

immoral; convenience.

Expressiveness

The quality of effectively conveying a thought or feeling.

Having a consciousness of the need to treat all viewpoints alike, without reference to

one’s own feelings or vested interests, or the feelings or vested interests of one’s

friends, community or nation; implies adherence to intellectual standards without

Fair mindedness

reference to one’s own advantage or the advantage of one’s group.

Fairness

Is the quality of making judgments that are free from discrimination.

Faith

Complete trust or confidence in someone or something.

The practice of giving unfair preferential treatment to one person or group at the

Favouritism

expense of another.

Faithfulness to a person, cause, or belief, demonstrated by continuing loyalty and

Fidelity

support.

Firmness

Resolute determination and strength of character.

Forgiveness

The action or process of forgiving or being forgiven.

Fortitude

Courage in pain or adversity.

Fraternity

friendship and mutual support within a group

Freedom

The power or right to act, speak, or think as one wants.

Friendliness

The quality of being friendly; affability.

Frugality

the quality of being economical with money or food; thriftiness.

Generosity

The quality of being kind and generous.

Good

Good governance is an approach to government committed to creating a system that

Governance

protects human rights and civil liberties.

The quality of being thankful; readiness to show appreciation for and to return

Gratitude

kindness.

Happiness

The state of being happy.

Harmony

The state of being in agreement or concord.

Hedonism

The pursuit of pleasure; sensual self-indulgence.

Helpfulness

The quality of giving or being ready to give help.

Honesty

Quality of being free of deceit; truthful and sincere.

A rationalist outlook attaching prime importance to human rather than divine or

Humanism

supernatural matters.

Humanity

The quality of being humane; benevolence; compassion

Humility

The quality of having a modest or low view of one’s importance.

A tendency for people of a particular religion, race, social background, etc., to form

Identity Politics

exclusive political alliances, moving away from traditional broad-based party politics.

also called even-handedness or fair-mindedness) is a principle of justice holding that

decisions should be based on objective criteria, rather than on the basis of bias,

Impartiality

prejudice, or preferring the benefit to one person over another for improper reasons.

Wanting to discover as much as you can about things, sometimes in a way that

Inquisitiveness

annoys people

Instrumental values can be defined as specific methods of behaviour. instrumental

Instrumental

values are not an end goal, but rather provide the means by which an end goal is

Value

accomplished

Integrity

The quality of being honest and having strong moral principles.

Having rational control of one’s beliefs, values, and inferences, the ideal of critical

thinking is to learn to think for oneself, to gain command over one’s thought

processes. it entails a commitment to analysing and evaluating beliefs on the basis of

Intellectual

reason and evidence, to question when it is rational to question, to believe when it is

Autonomy

rational to believe, and to conform when it is rational to conform.

Having a consciousness of the need to face and fairly address ideas, beliefs or

viewpoints toward which we have strong negative emotions and to which we have

not given a serious hearing. this courage is connected with the recognition that ideas

considered dangerous or absurd are sometimes rationally justified (in whole or in

part) and that conclusions and beliefs inculcated in us are sometimes false or

misleading. to determine for ourselves which is which, we must not passively and

uncritically “accept” what we have “learned.” intellectual courage comes into play

here, because inevitably we will come to see some truth in some ideas considered

dangerous and absurd, and distortion or falsity in some ideas strongly held in our

Intellectual

social group. we need courage to be true to our own thinking in such circumstances.

Courage

the penalties for non-conformity can be severe.

Having a consciousness of the need to imaginatively put oneself in the place of others

in order to genuinely understand them, which requires the consciousness of our

egocentric tendency to identify truth with our immediate perceptions of long-

standing thought or belief. this trait correlates with the ability to reconstruct

accurately the viewpoints and reasoning of others and to reason from premises,

assumptions, and ideas other than our own. this trait also correlates with the

willingness to remember occasions when we were wrong in the past despite an

Intellectual

intense conviction that we were right, and with the ability to imagine our being

Empathy

similarly deceived in a case-at-hand.

Having a consciousness of the limits of one’s knowledge, including a sensitivity to

circumstances in which one’s native egocentrism is likely to function self-deceptively;

sensitivity to bias, prejudice and limitations of one’s viewpoint. intellectual humility

depends on recognizing that one should not claim more than one actually knows. it

does not imply spinelessness or submissiveness. it implies the lack of intellectual

Intellectual

pretentiousness, boastfulness, or conceit, combined with insight into the logical

Humility

foundations, or lack of such foundations, of one’s beliefs.

Recognition of the need to be true to one’s own thinking; to be consistent in the

intellectual standards one applies; to hold one’s self to the same rigorous standards

of evidence and proof to which one holds one’s antagonists; to practice what one

Intellectual

advocates for others; and to honestly admit discrepancies and inconsistencies in

Integrity

one’s own thought and action.

Having a consciousness of the need to use intellectual insights and truths in spite of

difficulties, obstacles, and frustrations; firm adherence to rational principles despite

the irrational opposition of others; a sense of the need to struggle with confusion and

Intellectual

unsettled questions over an extended period of time to achieve deeper

Perseverance

understanding or insight.

Intelligence

The ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills.

Intrinsic Value

Underlying, essential, inherent value.

Inventiveness

The quality of being inventive; creativity.

Involvement

Participating

Jingoism

Extreme patriotism, especially in the form of aggressive or warlike foreign policy.

Justice

Conformity to moral rightness in action or attitude; righteousness

Juvenile

For or relating to young people.

Kindness

The quality of being friendly, generous, and considerate.

Knowledge

Awareness or familiarity gained by experience of a fact or situation.

Lawfulness

Being in harmony with the law

Is a process of social influence, which maximizes the efforts of others, towards the

Leadership

achievement of a goal

Willing to respect or accept behaviour or opinions different from one’s own; open to

Liberal

new ideas.

The state of being free within society from oppressive restrictions imposed by

Liberty

authority on one’s way of life, behaviour, or political views.

Love

An intense feeling of deep affection.

Loyalty

A strong feeling of support or allegiance.

Meta-ethics is the branch of ethics that seeks to understand the nature of ethical

Meta-ethics

properties, statements, attitudes, and judgments.

Modesty

The quality or state of being unassuming in the estimation of one’s abilities.

Moral Attitude

Moral Turpitude

(also called moral objectivism or universal morality) is the meta-ethical position that

some system of ethics, or a universal ethic, applies universally, that is, for “all

Moral

similarly situated individuals”, regardless of culture, race, sex, religion, nationality,

universalism

sexual orientation, or any other distinguishing feature.

Principles concerning the distinction between right and wrong or good and bad

Morality

behaviour.

An ethical bank, also known as a social, alternative, civic, or sustainable bank, is a

bank concerned with the social and environmental impacts of its investments and

Morality Bank

loans.

Motivation

A reason or reasons for acting or behaving in a particular way.

The term ‘natural law’ is derived from the belief that human morality comes from

Natural law

nature. everything in nature has a purpose, including humans.

A natural right is a right that is not conferred upon a person and cannot be withdrawn

Natural rights

or taken away though, of course, it can be violated.

The practice among those with power or influence of favouring relatives or friends,

Nepotism

especially by giving them jobs.

Non-partisanship

Lack of bias, especially towards any particular political group.

Non-violence

the use of peaceful means, not force, to bring about political or social change.

Striving (as far as possible or practicable) to reduce or eliminate biases, prejudices, or

Objectivity

subjective evaluations by relying on verifiable data.

an act or course of action to which a person is morally or legally bound; a duty or

Obligation

commitment.

Is an overarching concept or philosophy that is characterized by an emphasis on

transparency and free unrestricted access to knowledge and information as well as

collaborative or cooperative management and decision making rather than a central

Openness

authority.

Passion

An intense desire or enthusiasm for something.

The capacity to accept or tolerate delay, problems, or suffering without becoming

Patience

annoyed or anxious.

Patriotism

the quality of being patriotic; devotion to and vigorous support for one’s country.

Is an occurrence of harmony characterized by lack of violence, conflict behaviours

Peace

and the freedom from fear of violence.

Perseverance

Continued effort to do or achieve something despite difficulties, failure, or opposition

The fact of continuing in an opinion or course of action in spite of difficulty or

Persistence

opposition.

Persuade

Induce (someone) to do something through reasoning or argument.

The action or process of persuading someone or of being persuaded to do or believe

Persuasion

something.

A condition or system in which two or more states, groups, principles, sources of

Pluralism

authority, etc., coexist.

It is more specifically a type of wisdom relevant to practical action, implying both

good judgement and excellence of character and habits, sometimes referred to as

Practical wisdom

“practical virtue”. Also known as phronesis

An approach that evaluates theories or beliefs in terms of the success of their

Pragmatism

practical application.

Privacy

A state in which one is not observed or disturbed by other people.

Probity

The quality of having strong moral principles; honesty and decency.

Prudence

The quality of being prudent; cautiousness.

Public administration is the implementation of government policy and also an

Public

academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for

Administration

working in the public service.

Public shaming is a judicial punishment imposed on a convicted criminal that includes

Public Shaming

humiliation in public instead of imprisonment

Is the characteristic of being able to complete a required task or fulfil an obligation

before or at a previously designated time. “punctual” is often used synonymously

Punctuality

with “on time”

Rationality

Is the quality of being reasonable, based on facts or reason.

Reason

The power of the mind to think, understand, and form judgments logically

Rectitude

Morally correct behaviour or thinking; righteousness.

A feeling of sadness, repentance, or disappointment over an occurrence or something

Regret

that one has done or failed to do.

The doctrine that knowledge, truth, and morality exist in relation to culture, society,

Relativism

or historical context, and are not absolute.

Reliability

The quality of being trustworthy or of performing consistently well.

Resilience

The power of the mind to think, understand, and form judgments logically

Respect

Regulating itself without intervention from external bodies.

Responsibility

A moral obligation to behave correctly towards or in respect of.

Righteousness

The quality of being morally right or justifiable.

Rights

A moral or legal entitlement to have or do something.

Rule utilitarianism is a form of utilitarianism that says an action is right as it conforms

Rule-

to a rule that leads to the greatest good, or that “the rightness or wrongness of a

utilitarianism

particular action is a function of the correctness of the rule of which it is an instance

Sacrifice

Give up (something valued) for the sake of other considerations.

Scientific temper

Scientific temper refers to an attitude of logical and rational thinking.

Secular

not connected with religious or spiritual matters.

Secularism

the principle of separation of the state from religious institutions.

Self-discipline

The ability to control one’s feelings and overcome one’s weaknesses.

Having little or no concern for oneself, especially with regard to fame, position,

Selflessness

money

Self-regulating

Regulating itself without intervention from external bodies.

Self-righteous

Opening your heart, your mind, your resources to the needs of others

Sexual

Behaviour characterized by the making of unwelcome and inappropriate sexual

Harassment

remarks or physical advances in a workplace or other professional or social situation.

Simplicity

The quality or condition of being easy to understand or do.

Social influence refers to the way in which individuals change their behaviour to meet

Social Influence

the demands of a social environment.

Solidarity

Mutual support within a group, especially among individuals with a common interest

Spirit of Service

Opening your heart, your mind, your resources to the needs of others

Sycophancy

Obsequious behaviour towards someone important in order to gain advantage.

Sympathy

Feelings of pity and sorrow for someone else’s misfortune.

Temperance

control of your own behaviour

The ability or willingness to tolerate the existence of opinions or behaviour that one

Tolerance

dislikes or disagrees with.

Transparency

Operates in such a way that it is easy for others to see what actions are performed

The doctrine that actions are right if they are for the benefit of a majority. the

doctrine that an action is right in so far as it promotes happiness, and that the

Truth

greatest happiness of the greatest number should be the guiding principle of conduct.

Unity

The state of being united or joined as a whole.

Uprightness

The condition or quality of being honourable or honest; rectitude.

The doctrine that actions are right if they are for the benefit of a majority. the

doctrine that an action is right in so far as it promotes happiness, and that the

Utilitarianism

greatest happiness of the greatest number should be the guiding principle of conduct.

Virtue

A quality considered morally good or desirable in a person.

Vision

The ability to think about or plan the future with imagination or wisdom.

Work culture is a combination of qualities in an organization and its employees that

Work Culture

arise from what is generally regarded as appropriate ways to think and act.

Work Life

Balance

The division of one’s time and focus between working and family or leisure activities.

Zeal

Great energy or enthusiasm in pursuit of a cause or an objective.

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