Daily Prelims Newsletter|31 July 2021|RaghukulCS|UPSC

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Daily Prelims Newsletter|31 July 2021|RaghukulCS|UPSC

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

31 July 2021-Saturday

Table Of Contents

Environment

  • Earth Overshoot Day, 2021

Science and Technology

  • FASTags

Polity and Governance

  • National Green Tribunal (NGT)

Society

  • Kendu Leaves

Governmental Initiatives

  • National Commission for Women (NCW)

Environment

Earth Overshoot Day, 2021

Why in News?

Earth Overshoot Day 2021, as released by Global Footprint Network, happened on July 29, almost a month earlier than in 2021.

About Earth Overshoot Day:

  • The date is announced annually by the Global Footprint Network, a global organisation which calls for urgent climate action and sustainable consumption.
  • The day marks the date when the humankind has used all the biological resources that the Earth can renew during the entire year.
  • This means humanity has used up all biological resources which our planet regenerates during the entire year by 29thJuly, 2021.
  • At the current rate, we’re using around 7 Earths every single year. From now until the end of this year, we’re operating on Ecological deficit spending.
  • Our spending for 2021 is among some of the highest since we entered the overshoot territory in the 1970s, based on UN data.

Science and Technology

FASTags

Why in News?

GoI in a written reply to Lok Sabha stated that FASTags reached 96% penetration in the country.

About FASTag:

  • A FASTag device employs Radio Frequency Identification or RFID technology for payments directly from the prepaid wallet or savings account linked to it.
  • It is affixed on the windscreen, to enable the vehicles to drive through toll plazas without stopping.
  • It is has unlimited validity, and can be recharged as and when required.
  • FASTag payment method is a part of the National Electronic Toll Collection (NETC) programme.
  • The National Payments Corporation of India or NPCI collects the payments.

Related Information:

  • RFID uses radio waves to read and capture the information stored on the tag attached to any object.
  • A RFID enabled tag can be read from up to several feet away.
  • Also, it doesn’t need to be within direct line-of-sight of the reader to be tracked.

Polity and Governance

National Green Tribunal (NGT)

Why in News?

Recently, NGT ordered immediate demolition of a luxury project near Bengaluru since it was constructed on illegal vicinity of Kaikondarahalli lake.

About NGT:

  • It is an statutory body set up under the National Green Tribunal Act, 2010.
  • It was created for effective and expeditious disposal of cases pertaining to environmental protection, conservation of forests and of other natural resources.
  • With the establishment of the NGT, India became the third country in the world to set up a specialised environmental tribunal, after Australia and New Zealand.
  • NGT is mandated to dispose of the applications or appeals finally within 6 months of their filing.
  • The NGT has five places of sittings:
    • New Delhi (Principal place of sitting)
    • Bhopal, Pune, Kolkata and Chennai

Composition of NGT

  • NGT comprises of the
    • Chairperson,
    • the Judicial Members, and
    • Expert Members.
  • They hold office for term of five years and are they are not eligible for reappointment.
  • The Chairperson of NGT is appointed by the GoI in consultation with the Chief Justice of India (CJI).
  • There are to beat least 10 and maximum 20 full time Judicial members and Expert Members in the NGT.

Powers & Jurisdiction of NGT:

  • It has jurisdiction over all civil cases involving substantial question relating to environment (including enforcement of any legal right relating to environment).
  • It also has appellate jurisdiction to hear appeal as a Court (Tribunal).
  • It is not bound by the procedure laid down under the Code of Civil Procedure (CrPC)1908, butare be guided by principles of natural justice.
  • While passing any order/decision/ decree, it applies principles of sustainable development, the precautionary principle and the polluter pays principle.
  • It is empowered by an order, to provide relief and compensation to
    • the victims of pollution and other environmental damage.
    • for restitution of property damaged, and
    • for restitution of the environment for such area or other areas, as the it may think fit.
  • The order/decision/award of NGT is executable as a decree of a civil court.
  • The NGT Act also empowers NGT to enforce a penalty for non-compliance.
  • An appeal against order/decision/ award of the NGT lies directly to the Supreme Court, generally within ninety days from the date of communication.

The NGT deals with civil cases under the following seven laws related to the environment:

  • The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974,
  • The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977,
  • The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980,
  • The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981,
  • The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986,
  • The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991 and
  • The Biological Diversity Act, 2002.

Society

Kendu Leaves

Why in News?

Recently, several children were found to be collecting Tendu leaves in Odisha’s Kalahandi district.

About Kendu/Tendu Leaves:

  • It is referred to as the green gold of Odisha. It is among the nationalised products like bamboo and sal seed.
  • It is one of the most important non-wood forest products in Odisha.
  • These leaves are used to wrap bidis, a popular smoke among the locals.

Other States Producing Kendu Leaves:

  • MP, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, Gujarat, Maharashtra.
  • Odisha is the third-largest producer of kendu leaf, after MP and Chhattisgarh.

Governmental Initiatives

National Commission for Women (NCW)

Why in News?

Recently, NCW launched a 24X7 hours helpline to help the women facing sexual violence and harassment.

About NCW:

  • It is a statutory body established in 1992 under the National Commission for Women Act, 1990.
  • It aims to strive towards enabling women to achieve equality and equal participation in all spheres of life through suitable policy formulation, legislative measures, etc.

Composition of NCW:

  • A Chairperson,
  • Five Members having experience in law or legislation, trade unionism, women’s voluntary organizations, administration, economic development, health, education or social welfare;
  • At least one Member shall be from amongst persons belonging to the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes
  • All these are nominated by the Central Government.

Key Functions:

  • Review the constitutional and legal safeguards for women.
  • Recommend remedial legislative measures.
  • Facilitate redressal of grievances.
  • Advise the Government on all policy matters affecting women.

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