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UPSC Online News Analysis


Context: PM for integrated fight against climate change – India exceeding Paris accord targets, Modi tells G20 event.

Topic in the syllabus: MainsConservation, environmental pollution and degradation (GS-3)

What did our PM say? (We can quote PM & can use these point in our answers.)

  • Climate change must be fought not in silos but in an integrated, comprehensive and holistic way.
  • He asserted that the entire world can progress faster if there is greater support of technology and finance to developing nations.
  • India is not only meeting its Paris Agreement targets, but also exceeding them.
  • Inspired by our traditional ethos of living in harmony with the environment, and the commitment of my government, India has adopted low carbon and climate resilient development practices.
  • For humanity to prosper, every single individual must prosper. Rather than seeing labour as a factor of production alone, the focus must be on the human dignity of every worker.
  • In times of COVID­19, when everyone is focused on saving citizens and economies, it is equally important to focus on fighting climate change.
  • The country has made LED lights popular, which, he said, saves 38 million tonnes of
    carbon dioxide emission per year.
  • We will meet our goal of 175 gigawatts of renewable energy well before the target of 2022. Now, we are taking a big step ahead by seeking to achieve 450 gigawatts by 2030.

Some examples of ancient India which highlights our traditional ethos of living in harmony with the environment: (Use this in your answers as well as in essay)

  • The Vedas quote माता भूमि पुत्रो अहं पृथिव्या which means “Earth is my mother and I am her son”.
  • The seers of Rig Veda speak on behalf of earth for its principle of replenishment “You give me and I give you”. They look at every entity of Nature with the eyes of a friend and sympathiser: “Mitrasyaaham chakshushaa sarvaani bhootaani sameekshe.”
  • There are many hymns seeking the blessings of the five basic gross elements or the pancha mahabhoota of Nature: akashor firmament, vayu or air, agni, tejas or fire, apah or water, and prithvi or earth.
  • The Rig Veda venerates deities like Mitra, Varuna, Indra, Maruts and Aditya, that are responsible for maintaining the requisite balance in the functioning of all entities of Nature whether the mountains, lakes, heaven and earth, the forests or the waters.


Context: Since the Ladakh stand­off between the Indian and Chinese armies in May, Arunachal Pradesh has been pushing for the ambitious Frontier Highway project along the “India Tibet border” for facilitating faster movement of troops if a warlike situation arises.

Topic in the syllabus: Prelims – Places in news, Infrastructures | Mains – Security challenges and their management in border areas (GS-3)

Why the CM of Arunachal has been pushing for the ambitious Frontier Highway project along the “India Tibet border”?

  • If one goes by the history of conflicts since 1962 and unfounded claims over Arunachal Pradesh, it is imperative to protect our homeland.
  • Many stretches of the border are indeed inaccessible.
  • This is why he is pushing for the Frontier Highway along the 1,100­km LAC to facilitate faster movement of troops.

Frontier Highway project location:


Context: Over 2,000 representatives from 132 countries attended the virtual 4th Global Conference on Criminal Finances and Cryptocurrencies organised by the Interpol, Europol and the Basel Institute on Governance from November 18 to 19.

Topic in the syllabus: Prelims – International organisation, Science & technology

About Global Conference on Criminal Finances and Cryptocurrencies:

  • The conference is an initiative of the Working Group on Cryptocurrencies and Money Laundering established in 2016 by the three organisations, launched with an objective of strengthening knowledge, expertise and best practices for investigations into financial crimes and intelligence on
    virtual assets and cryptocurrencies.
  • The conference’s agenda included trends and investigations on cryptocurrency related offences, exploring criminal flows and operations in the dark markets, ransomware and sextortion case studies, money laundering involving virtual assets, and the transfer of drug proceeds using cryptocurrencies.

What is cryptocurrency?

  • A cryptocurrency is a digital or virtual currency that is secured by cryptography, which makes it nearly impossible to counterfeit or double-spend.
  • Many cryptocurrencies are decentralized networks based on blockchain technology—a distributed ledger enforced by a disparate network of computers.
  • These digital coins are recorded in digital ledgers using strong cryptography to keep them secure. The ledgers are distributed globally, and each transaction made using cryptocurrencies are codified as blocks.

How Blockchain works?


Context: A drastic amendment to the Kerala Police Act, 2011, to give the local law enforcement more teeth to curb defamation has sparked outrage, with Opposition parties, journalists’ bodies and civil rights activists seeing a threat to the freedom of the press and free speech in the State.

Topic in the syllabus: Mains – Polity- Fundamental rights (GS-2)

About the new amendment:

  • Kerala Governor Arif Muhammad Khan recently signed an ordinance amending the law to give the police more powers to prosecute persons who exploit various communication platforms to slander fellow citizens.
  • The ordinance has introduced a new provision, Section 118­A, to the Act. The amendment proposes three years of imprisonment and a fine of up to ₹10,000 for those convicted of producing, publishing or disseminating derogatory content through any means of communication to intimidate, insult or defame any person.

Views of B.G. Harindranath, former Law Secretary, Kerala:

  • The amendment had resurrected the “same legal vices” the Supreme Court had “trashed” by scrapping Section 66 A of the IT Act.
  • “Conferring power on the police to gauge mental injury, loss of reputation and such matters due to dissemination of information would result in widespread abuse. The amendment could curtail the freedom of speech and expression guaranteed under Article 19 (1) of the Constitution.



  • India will soon launch an ambitious ‘Deep Ocean Mission’ that envisages exploration of minerals,
    energy and marine diversity of the underwater world, a vast part of which still remains unexplored, a top official of the Ministry of Earth Sciences said.
  • The mission, which is expected to cost over ₹4,000 crore, will give a boost to efforts to explore
    India’s vast Exclusive Economic Zone and Continental Shelf.

Topic in the syllabus: Prelims – Geography, Science & technology

Stakeholders of the project:

  • The multi­disciplinary work will be piloted by the MoES and other government departments like the Defence Research and Development Organisation, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) will be stakeholders in this mission.

What is EEZ (& related terms)?

About polymetallic nodules:

  • Polymetallic nodules (also commonly called manganese nodules) are probably the most likely commodity to be developed into a commercial operation.
  • As well as containing commercially attractive (though variable) levels of metals such as nickel, copper and cobalt, their occurrence on the seafloor surface presents a relatively straightforward engineering challenge in terms of their extraction when compared to some other metal deposits in the deep sea.
  • Polymetallic nodules are rounded accretions of manganese and iron hydroxides that cover vast areas of the seafloor, but are most abundant on abyssal plains at water depths of 4000-6500 metres.
  • They form through the aggregation of layers of iron and manganese hydroxides around a central particle (such as a shell or small rock fragment), and range in size from a few millimetres to tens of centimetres.
  • Growth of these nodules is extremely slow, at a rate of millimetres per million years, and they remain on the seafloor surface, often partially buried in a thin layer of sediment.

Important one liners:

  • The Maldives and Japan on Sunday signed an agreement for a Japanese grant of $7.6 million to be extended to the Maldives Coast Guard and the Maritime Rescue and Coordination Center, an official press release from Male said. Coming less than three months after the signing of the ‘Framework for U.S. Department of Defence Maldives Ministry of Defence and Security Relationship’, the “grant aid” is the Maldives’s second major pact with a member of the ‘Quad’.
  • The second edition of the India, Thailand and Singapore trilateral naval exercise, SITMEX­20, concluded in the Andaman Sea on Sunday. The 27th edition of India Singapore bilateral maritime
    exercise, SIMBEX­20, is scheduled to be held in the same area from November23 to 25.
  • The contracting envelope of the defence budget makes it all the more imperative to create dual use infrastructure through civil military fusion, Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS) Gen. Bipin Rawat
    said, calling for integrating civil and military ecosystems to optimise resource utilisation.
  • An accused cannot move for anticipatory bail once his regular bail has been cancelled by court, the Supreme Court has held in a recent order. The accused is in the “constructive custody of
    law” even while out on bail, a Bench led by Justice Navin Sinha said.

[There are no Ethics related examples in today’s newspaper.]

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