Daily Mains Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

06 July 2021 - Tuesday


Mains Value Addition

Mains Analysis

Topic No

Topic Name



Crafting a unique partnership with Africa

The Hindu


Turkey in the Neighbourhood

Indian Express

Mains Value Addition

How India and China are shaped by the idea of national humiliation

Syllabus–GS 1: World History

Analysis: –

  • One striking fact about the projection of Chinese nationalism is the centrality of the idea of humiliation.
  • The century of national humiliation, from the First Opium Wars to the Nanjing massacre, is an organising principle of historiography in China.
  • It is central to education policy. Even a casual glance at public monuments shows how the Chinese state goes out of its way to remind people of sites of national humiliation.
  • The establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1949 marks the overturning of the century of national humiliation.
  • The Communist Party makes a claim for its fitness to rule, in substantial measure, on its ability to position itself as the agent that overcomes China’s humiliation.
  • President Xi Jinping’s address at the Party centenary begins by a reminder and resolve that China will never be humiliated again. Arguably, a deepening authoritarianism requires the concept even more.
  • A colleague in China once asked me how the concept of humiliation worked in Indian nationalism.
  • After the Rowlatt Bills, Gandhi declared April 6 1919 as National Humiliation Day, but that was almost a one-off event.
  • China has a continuous history of marking its humiliation.
  • At one level, all post-colonial states feel the trauma of being “Wronged by Empire,” to use the evocative title of Manjari Chatterjee Miller’s book on the subject.
  • India and China, of course, have vastly different histories. Nevertheless, the question of how humiliation works in Indian nationalism is an interesting window on how the national subject might be constituted in China and India.

Will a national judiciary work?

Syllabus – GS 2: Judiciary

Analysis: –

  • The Union government appears to be steadfast in its resolve to implement reforms in recruitment and appointment to the subordinate judicial services.
  • In 2019, it spearheaded a consultative process for the creation of the All-India Judicial Service (AIJS).
  • Initially, only four States and two High Courts supported the proposal. Eight States rejected it, five suggested changes, and 11 are yet to respond.
  • Recently, the Centre took the ordinance route to effect changes in the appointment of members to various tribunals.
  • In a single stroke, it abolished several tribunals. The manner of appointment of members to the remaining tribunals underwent a sea change.
  • It is likely that the ordinance may not pass judicial scrutiny in light of the Supreme Court’s judgment in Rojer Mathew v. South Indian Bank (2019).

Constitutional Perspective

  • Article 233(1) of the Constitution lays down that “appointments of persons to be, and the posting and promotion of, district judges in any State shall be made by the Governor of the State in consultation with the High Court exercising jurisdiction in relation to such State”.
  • The 42nd Constitutional amendment in 1976 amended Article 312 (1) empowering Parliament to make laws for the creation of one or more All-India Services, including an AIJS, common to the Union and the States.
  • However, Clause 3 of Article 312 places a restriction that such a service shall not include a post inferior to that of a district judge.
  • The amendment also brought about a significant change in the Seventh Schedule — Entry 3 of List II in its entirety was placed as Entry 11A in List III.

Mains Analysis

Crafting a unique partnership with Africa

Why in News?

The future of India-Africa cooperation is agriculture, even as the China factor looms large

Syllabus— GS 2- International Relations

Background: –

  • Foreign Minister S Jaishankar recently visited Kenya. New Delhi’s engagement with Africa has taken several forms, including projects funded by Indian lines of credit, capacity-building efforts, and cross-sector cooperation.
  • In the agricultural sector, India’s cooperation with African countries is growing.

Agriculture in Africa: –

  • Agriculture is vital to Africa’s economy, with 65 percent of the world’s uncultivated arable land, employing over 60% of the workforce, and contributing for about 20% of Sub-Saharan Africa’s GDP.
  • As this relationship transitions into the post-pandemic era, it is critical to prioritise and redirect resources into strengthening agricultural partnerships.
  • This is critical given its untapped potential, importance to global food security, financial prospects, and the need to provide viable alternatives to Chinese stakeholders’ growing involvement in the industry.


China’s Role –

  • China is one of Africa’s most important trading partners. It is also Africa’s most important creditor.
  • Its businesses dominate the region’s infrastructure market, and they’re now branching out into agri-infrastructure.
  • While access to Africa’s natural resources, undeveloped markets, and backing for the “One China Policy” are the key motivations of Chinese engagement with the continent, there are also other reasons at work.
  • Low-cost, labor-intensive manufacturing units are shifting from China to African industrial parks and economic zones developed by the Chinese.
  • Engineers from China who were interviewed stressed the importance of their activities in Africa in gaining worldwide experience in management, risk, and capital investments.
  • Chinese tech corporations are constructing vital telecommunications infrastructure, and venture capital funds are investing in African fintech companies.
  • Chinese companies are leveraging agri-tech in Zambia to fight conventional issues, such as using drone technology to combat the fall armyworm infestation.
  • Over 20 Agricultural Technology Demonstration Centers (ATDCS) have been established across the continent, where Chinese agronomists are working on generating new crop types and raising crop yields.


 India’s China challenge in Africa –

  • Governments and heads of state are recalibrating their strategies, media outlets are allocating more resources to on-the-ground reporting, and artists such as Kenya’s Michael Soi are employing satirical paintings to spark a conversation.
  • Simultaneously, with a rising, insular diaspora, unequal trade, impending debt, competition with local firms, and a negative reputation followed by stronger political and economical interlinkages, Africa-China ties are getting more complex.
  • The Chinese and African experts in ATDCs appear to work in silos. There appears to be a disconnect between talents transferred in China and the realities in Africa on occasion.
  • In some circumstances, the technology taught in China is not available locally, and in others, due to a lack of supporting resources, it is impossible to put lessons learned into practice.
  • Socio-cultural tensions are exacerbated by larger commercial farms run by Mandarin-speaking managers and the presence of small-scale Chinese farmers in local markets.

 Takeaways for India –

  • Institutional and individual capacity-building initiatives such as the India-Africa Institute of Agriculture and Rural Development in Malawi, soft loan extensions, machinery supply, farmland acquisition, and the presence of Indian entrepreneurs in the African agricultural ecosystem are all examples of India-Africa agricultural cooperation.
  • Over 6,00,000 hectares of land in Africa have been purchased by Indian farmers for commercial cultivation.
  • Another kind of collaboration in agriculture is provided by subnational entities. Consider the Kerala government’s attempt to meet its high demand for raw cashew nuts, which totals 8 lakh tonnes per year, with imports from Africa to supplement its existing production capacity of 0.83 lakh tonnes.
  • Incentivizing Indian enterprises to tap into African agribusiness value chains, as well as connecting Indian technology firms and startups with African partners, has promise.
  • The African agri-tech sector has seen the transformative potential of innovative and disruptive technologies, with the continent’s startup ecosystem growing by 110 percent between 2016 and 2018.

Way Forward: –

  • For India to be successful, a detailed impact assessment of existing agricultural capacity-building projects is required.
  • While India’s Africa strategy is self-contained, it is crucial to be aware of China’s growing presence in the region. If Beijing’s strategy succeeds here, it might serve as a model for the rest of the world.
  • It’s worth noting, though, that notable African voices have stated that their own agency is frequently disregarded in global discussions on the matter.
  • In this regard, India has made a persistent effort to emphasise the development partnership’s alignment with African priorities.
  • As a result, it is critical that we work together to create a distinctive modern cooperation with Africa.

Question: –

The exponential rise of China-Africa economic links, as well as Beijing’s emergence as a viable alternative to conventional western powers, has prompted a shift in opinions among many groupsComment.

Turkey in the Neighbourhood

Why in News?

C Raja Mohan writes: With Ankara set to play a major role in Afghanistan, Delhi needs to vigorously challenge Turkey’s positions where it must, and, at the same time, prepare for a more intensive bilateral engagement.

Syllabus—GS 2- International Relations

  • As a new round of geopolitical jousting begins on India’s north-western frontiers, India must deal with several new actors that have carved out a role for themselves in the region such as Turkey, Qatar & China.
  • These three have become critical players in post-America Afghanistan, but Turkey will be the most important concern for India.
  • Turkey’ Regional ambitions & their implication for India:


Turkey’s Role in Afghanistan:

  • Turkey is not a new regional actor in India’s northwest, recently Afghan-Turkey diplomatic relations completed 100 years.
  • During this period, Turkey has engaged purposefully with Afghan over a wide domain.
  • After the ouster of Taliban in 2001, Turkey joined the NATO military mission in Afghan.
  • However, it avoided any combat role & differentiated itself from western powers.
  • Turkey has contributed to the Afghan military & police forces training.
  • It has also undertaken much humanitarian & developmental work.
  • Turkey’s good relations with both Afghanistan & Pakistan have also given space for Turkey to present itself as a mediator between the warring South Asian neighbors.
  • Turkey’s “Heart of Asia” conference or the Istanbul process has been a major diplomatic vehicle for attempted Afghan reconciliation in the last few years.
  • Turkey’s widespread goodwill in Afghan has come in handy for US-Turkey in managing Afghan key areas.
  • Currently, Turkey which is running Kabul airport security, is in negotiations with the US on taking charge of Kabul airport which is critical for an international presence in Afghan.
  • Turkey’s growing role in Afghan opens a more difficult phase in India-Turkey relations.


  • After the Second World War, India’s opposition to alliances & Turkey’s alignments reflected divergent international orientations of both.
  • Further, Turkey’s deepening bilateral military-security cooperation with Pakistan made it more difficult for both.
  • Turkey & Pak since 1955 are remained close partners in several organizations & forums like OIC.
  • The shared secular values between India & Turkey in the pre-Erdogan era were not enough to overcome the strategic differences between both in the Cold war.
  • There were moments during Rajiv Gandhi & Vajpayee’s tenure where both nations seemed poised for a more productive relationship.
  • While Turkey’s Islamist internationalism under Erdogan has inevitably led to
    • its deeper alliance with Pak,
    • greater meddling in South Asia &,
    • A sharper contraction with India.
  • India’s narrow prism of seeing Turkey has prevented it from fully appreciating the growing strategic salience of turkey.
  • Erdogan’s active claim for leadership of the Islamic world has seen a more intensive Turkish outreach to the Subcontinent’s 600 million Muslims.
  • Turkey has become the most active international supporter of Pakistan on the Kashmir issue.
  • Even the Pak PM has rallied behind Erdogan’s ambition to seize the leadership of the Islamic world from Saudi Arabia.
  • With Bangladesh, Turkey has a rough start, Erdogan in 2016 condemned Bangladesh govt’s hanging off a Islamic leader.
  • But soon enough he offered strong political support for Dhaka on the Rohingya refugee crisis.
  • Also as Bangla emerges as an attractive economy, Turkey is now stepping up its commercial cooperation with Dhaka.

Turkey’s Internationalism:

  • Turkey that hosted Caliphate in the Ottoman era had natural spiritual resonance among the South Asian Muslims.
  • The Abolition of the Caliphate in 1924, Turkey’s Westernization under Ataturk reduced its religious significance.
  • Currently, Erdogan’s Islamist politics are about regaining that salience.
  • Erdogan’s strategy marks the declining relevance of the old antinomies that so resonate with the traditional Indian foreign policy discourse.
  • Turkey has been a NATO member since the 1950s, but today in its own interests, it is capable to break away from NATO.
  • Turkey has learned to take advantage of the alliance without sacrificing its strategic autonomy.
  • Turkey collaborates as well as competes with Russia.
  • It buys S-400 missiles from Russia in defiance of NATO but also challenges Russia’s Caucasus primacy.
  • It was the 1st Muslim-majority nation that has established full diplomatic relations with Israel.
  • But today it mobilizes the Arab & Islamic world against Israel without breaking relations with Tel Aviv.
  • However, many experts question the sustainability of Erdogan’s adventurism because of Turkey’s economic vulnerabilities at home & growing regional backlash from several countries.

Way Forward: –

  • Many Arab leaders reject Erdogan’s policies that remind of Ottoman imperialism.
  • India that has been at the receiving end of Erdogan’s internationalism has multiple options in pushing back.
  • Recently, India & Greece conducted a Joint naval exercise in the Mediterranean Sea.
  • India’s Lesson from Erdogan’s regional ambitions:
  • The new fluidity in geopolitics in India’s extended neighborhood to the west.
  • The agency for regional powers is growing as the influence of great power weakens.
  • Religious ideology such ass more secular ones is a cover for the pursuit of power.
  • Finally, carefully modulated confrontation with major powers without a breakdown of the relations.

Question: –

India needs to vigorously challenge Turkey’s positions where it must seize the opportunities opened by regional sentiments against Erdogan’s adventurism & at the same time prepare for more intensive bilateral engagement with Turkey.Discuss.

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