DAILY MAINS NEWSLETTER FOR UPSC |17 Feb 2021| RaghukulCS

Daily Mains Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

17 FEB 2021

Index

Mains Value Addition

Mains Analysis

Topic No

Topic Name

Source

1

In telehealth, scaling up the Indian advantage.

 The Hindu

2

Looking ahead after the Ladakh walk back.

The Hindu

3

The digital bargain

Indian Express

Mains Value Addition

Leopard population tracking gets new approach

Syllabus – GS3: – Conservation

Analysis: –

  • Wildlife specialists have for long faced challenges estimating the density of leopards in areas where some of the spotted cats are melanistic or black.
  • Experts from three organisations, one of them Assam-based Aaranyak, have come up with a system that helps in properly estimating the leopard population in areas sustaining a mix of rosette and melanistic individuals.

Acute problem:

  1. This problem is acute in the tropical and subtropical moist forests of South and Southeast Asia where the frequency of melanistic leopards is high and leopards also face the greatest threat.
  2. No precise estimates of leopard population could thus be done in protected areas and non-protected areas in India except on some occasions.
  3. The population density of leopards in Manas is 3.37 per 100 sq km.
  4. In the study, about 22.6% images of the leopards were of the melanistic kind.

Sri Lanka considering India’s grant instead of China project

Syllabus – GS2: – Bilateral agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests

Analysis: –

  • In an apparent bid to displace a Chinese company that had won the contract to install renewable energy systems in three small islands off Jaffna Peninsula in northern Sri Lanka, India has offered a grant of $12 million to execute it, Colombo-based media reported.
  • The development comes less than a month after the Cabinet cleared a project to install hybrid renewable energy systems in Nainativu, Delft or Neduntheevu, and Analaitivu, located in the Palk Bay, some 50 km off Tamil Nadu.
  • The Cabinet decisions taken recently included a proposal to award the contract to Sinosoar-Etechwin Joint Venture in China, with funding from the ADB.

Massive coal use in Mumbai’s industrial clusters worsening city’s air quality: CSE study

Syllabus – GS3-  Environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

Analysis: –

  1. Mumbai is gradually losing its coastal city trait of enjoying clean air through the year and the massive use of coal by its industries could be a major culprit, found a new study by Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), a Delhi-based non-profit.
  2. The factories in the Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR) burn two million tonnes coal every year, the report released recently said.
  3. Out of the 13 industrial areas bordering Mumbai, CSE has done an in-depth assessment of four: Trans-Thane Creek (TTC), Taloja, Ambernath and Dombivali. They cover about 70 per cent of the industries operating in MMR.
  4. The study has analysed and estimated the air pollution load from various industrial sectors.

‘Sedition law can’t be used to quell disquiet: court

Syllabus – GS2: – Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability

Analysis: –

  • Sedition, which falls under Section 124A of the Indian Penal Code, is defined as any action that brings or attempts to bring hatred or contempt towards the government of India and has been illegal in India since 1870.
  • Delhi Court observed that Charges of sedition “cannot be invoked to quieten the disquiet under the pretence of muzzling the miscreants.
  • The youth was arrested for posting a fake video on Facebook about the Delhi police on the farmers’ agitation. It granted bail to a 21-year-old labourer.

Healthy rivers: How DNA tool can help keep tabs on freshwater quality

Syllabus – GS3: – Environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

Analysis: –

  1. Canada is the country which is described as a water-rich nation, and it is, with seven per cent of the world’s renewable freshwater supply. However, freshwater sources are far from endless.
  2. Many of Canada’s 25 watersheds are under threat from pollution, habitat degradation, water overuse and invasive species.
  3. For example, more than half of Canada’s population lives within the Great Lakes watershed, Ottawa basin and St. Lawrence basin, which face multiple threats that degrade water quality and undermine the ability of freshwater ecosystems to keep functioning?

Mains Analysis

In telehealth, scaling up the Indian advantage.

Why in News: –In the wake of novel corona virus pandemic and fear of transmission, there has been an upsurge in tele-health-care providers.

Syllabus: –GS-2: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

WHO Survey on COVID-19 impact on Healthcare: –

  •  A survey by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 105 countries (July 2020) pointed essential services were disrupted in the majority of countries, with immunization, antenatal and childcare services among the most widely affected.
  •  About 45% of low-income countries incurred at least partial disruption of over 75% of services, relative to only 4% of high-income countries.
  • Almost 60% of services were at least partially disrupted in South East Asian countries.
  • The blood sugar control for diabetics was at risk, increasing the chances of adverse events requiring hospitalization, including worse outcomes in the case of COVID-19 infection.
  • The Cancer care has been badly affected in many countries, as well as diagnosis and treatment of other non-communicable diseases.

 

COVID-19 impact on Indian Healthcare:

  • In India, recognition of tuberculosis cases was somewhere near half in April-December of 2020 comparative with a similar period in 2019
  • antenatal consideration visits were somewhere around 56% in the primary portion of 2020.
  • The pandemic has exacerbated imbalances in medical services individuals living in country and far-off regions were additionally impeded by not having the option to venture out to urban communities to look for expert consideration.
  • The prior lack of experts in numerous provincial territories prompted care being deferred or not occurring by any stretch of the imagination.

Use of digital Technologies in Healthcare: –

  • The increasing speed in the utilization of computerized advancements has alleviated the effect of COVID-19 somewhat.
  • Virtual counsels stay away from the danger of COVID-19 transmission and are assisting with spanning this financial gap.
  • The Indian government’s e-Sanjeevani stage offers both supplier to-understanding associations and supplier to-supplier collaborations.
  • Its place where patients visit Smartphone-prepared local area wellbeing officials in provincial wellbeing and health focuses; these thusly interface with general experts and expert specialists through a center point and-talked model.
  • The Private suppliers and non-legislative associations (NGO) have additionally extended virtual admittance to underserved populaces. 

The dire need to build the effectiveness:

  • The size of neglected interest, there is a pressing need to expand the productivity and adequacy of consistently spent in virtual consideration cooperation.
  • There are exercises we can gain from the pandemic that can be applied helpfully to how we convey medical services.
  • Remote-shared medical appointments in which different patients with comparable clinical requirements meet with a clinician on the double and each gets singular consideration can significantly increment telehealth limit by disposing of reiteration of regular counsel.

 Utilizing shared arrangements:

  • Distant shared clinical arrangements basically virtualise in-person shared clinical arrangements (SMAs) which have been offered effectively in the United States for more than 20 years.
  • Patients get additional time with their clinician, but not in private.
  • SMAs empower peer backing and shared learning.
  • Suppliers who have offered SMAs have discovered them to improve both profitability and results for some conditions, outstandingly diabetes.
  • SMAs could help tackle India’s inescapable “sugar” issue.
  • The eye emergency clinic found that in shared arrangements, patients spike each other to connect more and pose more inquiries.
  • Such virtual companion communication could be welcome in the current worldview of social separating. 

The e-Sanjeevani and substitute telehealth stages:

  • The eSanjeevani is a telemedicine administration which is actualized under Ayushman Bharat wellbeing activity for specialist to-specialist collaboration.
  • It plans to interface all 1.5 lakh wellbeing and health focus which has been set up under Ayushman Bharat. This help is likewise accessible to Android clients,
  • The medical clinic give e-sanjeevani opd, OPD is an online specialist interview framework that is thoroughly free.
  • The e-Sanjeevani and other telehealth stages could think about contribution virtual shared clinical arrangements.
  • Patients in various towns, with comparable conditions can be seen on the double distantly by a generalist or trained professional, during the pandemic.
  • When transmission hazard dies down, seeing patient gatherings inside every town community will help assemble strong securities, empower sharing of nearby information, and likely draw in advantageous suppliers.

The significance of data access instruments:

  • Suppliers can offer virtual gathering data meetings available through cell phone in which a medical services specialist clarifies the advantages of COVID-19 testing and immunization and answers questions, contacting conceivably very huge crowds.
  • Participating progressively with a consideration supplier in an intuitive organization will probably urge safe practices to a more noteworthy degree than if a similar data is given without collaboration.
  • In changing to profoundly extraordinary consideration conveyance models requires thorough testing joined with coaching, preparing and conduct change for the two patients and suppliers.
  • The remarkable telehealth limit emergency which COVID-19 has made is attracting interest to virtual SMAs.
  • The Training stages, for example, ECHO, which train essential consideration suppliers in numerous States through an online stage can quicken reception and ought to likewise control implementers on the most proficient method to assemble information that can be utilized to experimentally approve this consideration model. 

The favourable position for India:

  • Comparative with different countries, India is all around ready to increase telehealth. Information plans are less expensive in India than anyplace.
  • It is conceivable to get 1.5GB of information daily for a couple hundred rupees per month, and Indians from all financial gatherings consistently appreciate bunch video visits with companions and family members.
  • Having a gathering communication with a consideration supplier on a properly secure stage is absolutely possible.
Limitations to telehealth from COVID-19?
  • Telemedicine can be a tool for managing COVID19.
  • However, there is one glaring disconnect that must resolve, said John Nosta, president of Nosta Lab, a digital health think tank.
  • The linchpin of management of a pandemic is widespread testing and conventional telemedicine today may not offer that.
  • Perhaps a ‘crisis-based’ evolution of telemedicine can help find local testing centers and also manage the flow of patients seeking a test.”
  • With respect to COVID19, the data suggests that most people will have a mild infection and the clinical course will be unremarkable.
  • In these instances, telemedicine may not really be all that necessary.
  • The reality might be that for COVID19, telemedicine, as it exists now, needs to be modified to help manage early testing, diagnosis and triage for those who may require in-patient care.

 

Way forward:
  • WHO’ s Global Strategy on Digital Health, embraced by the World Health Assembly, is a source of inspiration giving a guide to countries to quickly extend advanced wellbeing administrations.
  • With development in frameworks thinking, learning and variation, new computerized apparatuses carry a chance to jump into a truth of ‘Wellbeing for All’.
  • All administrations were influenced, due to Coronavirus including fundamental administrations for transferable infections, no transmittable sicknesses, psychological wellness, conceptive, maternal, infant, youngster and juvenile wellbeing, and nourishment administrations, presently gradually improving through telehealth.
  • The Emergency administrations were the most un-disturbed, albeit 16 nations detailed interruptions across all crisis administrations. The most seriously influenced administration conveyance stages were portable administrations, regularly suspended by government, and missions, for instance as utilized for intestinal sickness counteraction or vaccination.
Value addition

1.      “By deploying telehealth solutions and programs, people who are suffering from other medical ailments during this time can receive care from home, without entering medical facilities, minimizing their risk of contracting the virus.”

Dedi Gilad, Tyto Care

2.      “Many in-clinic visits with mild acute respiratory infection can be followed up very closely, almost on a daily basis.”

Dr. Siaw Tung Yeng, MaNaDr

the National Digital Health Blueprint and strategies outlined by Niti Aayog in Health Systems for a New India: Building Blocks—Potential Pathways to Reforms.

Telemedicine Practice Guidelines

The health ministry issued telemedicine guidelines on Wednesday enabling doctors to write prescriptions based on telephone conversations that reduce risks of transmission for medical professionals as well as patients.

  • It aimed at decongesting healthcare facilities in the wake of Covid-19, will also make healthcare accessible to remote areas in general and make faster intervention possible with the current immobilisation due to coronavirus making hospital and clinic visits difficult.
  • The document provides information on various aspects of telemedicine, including on technology platforms and tools available to medical practitioners and how to integrate these technologies to provide healthcare delivery.
  • It also spells out how technology and transmission of voice, data, images and information should be used in conjunction with other clinical standards, protocols, policies and procedures to provide care.

Question: –

Telemedicine is gaining popularity in India in the wake of COVID-19. Discuss briefly what telemedicine is and what advantages it has over traditional treatments?

Looking ahead after the Ladakh walk back.

Why in News: –The last round of military-diplomatic talks between India and China (on January 24) was confirmed last week when China made the announcement of the start of disengagement between the two armies

Syllabus: – 

GS-2: International relations: India and its neighbourhood- relations.

GS-3: Security challenges and their management in border areas – linkages of organized crime with terrorism.

What was the Disengagement:

  • The last round of military-conciliatory talks among India and China (on January 24) was affirmed a week ago when China made the declaration of the beginning of separation between the two militaries
  • This isn’t the finish of the 10-month-old military stalemate yet however, substantially, the start of the end. The current separation is restricted to two puts on the Line of Actual Control (LAC) in Ladakh: north bank of Pangong lake and Kailash reach toward the south of Pangong.

3 factors of India China Ladakh conflict

  • There are three different destinations of conflict on the Ladakh line where the PLA had come in Depsang, Gogra-Hot Springs and Demchok and talks will be held to determine when current period of withdrawal is finished.
  • There have been standard conflicts between the troopers of the two sides at the north bank of Pangong Lake, almost a fourth of all the Chinese offenses on the LAC somewhere in the range of 2014 and 2019 have occurred in the Pangong Lake regions.
  • The Pangong Lake has restricted vital significance, however is a famous place of interest after the peak of the super hit Hindi film, 3 Idiots, was shot there.
  • It is an invite move in light of the fact that elevated pressures between the two atomic equipped Asian forces fill no valuable need for anybody, unquestionably not India’s.
  • The current withdrawal is restricted to two puts on the Line of Actual Control (LAC) in Ladakh: north bank of Pangong lake and Kailash reach toward the south of Pangong.
Different levels of Ladakh disputes
  • There are three different locales of dispute on the Ladakh line where the PLA had come in Depsang, Gogra-Hot Springs and Demchok and talks will be held to determine when current period of separation is finished.
  • There have been customary conflicts between the warriors of the two sides at the north bank of Pangong Lake, almost a fourth of all the Chinese offenses on the LAC somewhere in the range of 2014 and 2019 have occurred in the Pangong Lake territories.
  • The Pangong Lake has restricted vital significance, however is a mainstream place of interest after the peak of the super hit Hindi film, 3 Idiots, was shot there.
The Political priority:
  • In contrast to different zones of contestation, there are homes nearby the north bank which can notice any Chinese entrance. This implies the withdrawal at north bank was a political need.
  • The effect of sightseers visiting the territory again to flag regularity and prompted it being clubbed with the Kailash reach toward the south of the lake.
  • The Kailash range was the solitary spot where Indians had stepped up to the plate and hold up to this point vacant tops in end-August.
  • The weighty arrangement of troops and tanks got the Chinese off guard reacted by their own sending, with the different sides isolated by a couple of yards.
Unclear stance of the disengagement: –
  • The Kailash range was an admired that could start off a lot greater emergency with a minor mishap. The Chinese have been persistent that the different sides withdraw from this zone first.
  • India had opposed accepting that call as of recently, rather looking for a synchronous goal of the multitude of flashpoints on the Ladakh line.
  • The Indian government has not explained the explanations behind its difference in position which was unmistakably directed by something more than the craving to eliminate the riskiest flashpoint on the line.
  • India even doesn’t re-establish the state of affairs risk of April 2020 and the insights concerning the south bank are questionable, the separation bargain on the two banks of Pangong is a reasonable arrangement for India when seen from the restricted crystal of just these zones.
  • The considered from the viewpoint of the entire LAC in Ladakh, it brings up issues about the intelligence of surrendering the solitary influence India had at north bank for separation.
The Depsang issue:
  1. The leadership is aware of the strategic importance of the Depsang plains in the Daulat Beg Oldi (DBO) sector, not only due to its proximity to the Darbuk-Shyok-Daulat Beg Oldie (DSDBO) road, the DBO airstrip and the Karakoram Pass, but because of the threat it poses to Indian control over the Siachen glacier.
  2. DSDBO remains the only area on the Indian landmass where China and Pakistan can physically collude militarily, and has been identified by former northern army commanders as tough to defend in case of a Chinese military attack.
 Buffer zones and Suggestion for India’s interest:
  • The pardon that the Depsang issue goes before the momentum emergency on the LAC and in this manner should be dealt with independently holds little water, for it would be to India’s greatest advantage to club them together and locate an all-encompassing arrangement.
  • The current withdrawal plan gives us a window into the mentality of the Indian chiefs who lean toward the making of a ‘no watch’ zone or cushion zone as an answer for the strains on the LAC.
  • Before the cradle zone was made at the north bank of Pangong, a comparative support zone was made in Galwan in July 2020 around where India lost 20 warriors in a dangerous conflict a month sooner.
  • That cushion zone has held well till date, despite the fact that it denies India admittance to the regions up to PP14 which it watched before.
  • There are stresses that such cradle zones would lie significantly on the Indian side of the LAC, in this way changing over an until now Indian-controlled domain into a nonpartisan zone.
  • A no watch zone has not been reported, for the Kailash range and that uncovered the constraints of any arrangement to make such cradle zones on the whole the petulant boundary territories for harmony and serenity on the LAC. 
A power differential:
  • As the Indian media featured the fast speed of the PLA’s withdrawal from separation locales, diagonally proposing a Chinese shortcoming, the reaction from Chinese specialists was as a danger.
  • India doesn’t have the military limit and the political will to expel the Chinese soldiers out of its domain.
  • The force differential with China, India’s most ideal situation is to convey adequate soldiers to forestall any PLA entrance as was finished with an enormous arrangement on the LAC after May 2020. 
The impact on India’s strategy:
  • The political basic of guarding every last trace of an area, while without the fortitude to switch a Chinese entrance, is probably going to support an improved sending of the Indian Army up and down the LAC, from Ladakh to Arunachal Pradesh.
  • Not exclusively will it stretch the Army, it would redirect scant assets towards the mainland line from the oceanic space.
  • India’s appeal to the United States and the Quadrilateral Security Dialog, also called the Quad, immovably moored in the Indian Ocean, such a move would attempt for China’s potential benefit.
  • It is another matter that having hit a separation manage China, New Delhi itself may presently don’t be as energetic about the Quad as it two or three months prior when the Chinese danger was up and coming, lead to a reset of binds with China.
Way Forward
  • The choice of undertaking a brief compensation military activity in Chinese region, as upheld by the Non-arrangement 2.0 technique record created by Center for Policy Research in 2012, contains escalatory chances which an India in financial downturn does not have the craving for.
  • The reclamation of harmony and quietness on the LAC rather than an inversion to the norm bet as of April 2020, the public authority has settled on a political decision in Ladakh. It should bear the essential results of these decisions.
  • The separation and ensuing de-acceleration from Pangong Tso was accomplished after calm backchannel discussions between the different sides, and trust between the different sides, formation of ‘no watch’ zones and support region can prompt harmony and quietness on the LAC.
 Question: –

The proposed disengagement of China from Ladakh region is fraught with major security implications for the countries of the region. Examine in light of the fact that India is faced with a plethora of challenges and needs to safeguard its own strategic interests.

The digital bargain

Why in News: –The battle between Google and, to a lesser extent, Facebook, and traditional news media in Australia reached a head earlier this month when the tech giant threatened to withdraw its popular search services from the country.

Syllabus: – GS3- Science and Technology

 ________________________________________

The bone of contention

  • The proposed law that outlines a haggling code to guarantee that media sources are made up for the substance they create is the primary purpose for the question.
  • The question outlines the issue of the predominance of a small bunch of organizations in the advanced news scene.
  • Given the withstanding significance of value news-casting in advising public discussion, it could give the layout to how news associations’ organizations and income models will develop.

Australianstand: –

  • The proposed law has come from the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, which found following a 18-month examination that the authority over the appropriation of substance that Google and Facebook have, and the benefit from news content they corner, undermines the suitability of customary media.
  • For instance, for each $100 of advanced publicizing income gathered in Australia, $53 goes to Google, $28 to Facebook and $19 is divided between the organizations that frequently really produce content.
  • Under the new law, if an arrangement can’t be reached between online stages and media houses in a specified period, the matter will go into discretion, where the choice will be restricting.
  • It is this last proviso that Google objects to the most.
  • As a trade-off — and a system — Google has dispatched its “News Showcase” in Australia, and is attempting to hit an arrangement with media bunches under the watchful eye of the new law becomes effective.
  • News Showcase and a comparative activity by Facebook in the UK in December 2020 compensation media sources permit charges to utilize their substance.
  • The dread, particularly among more modest media houses, is that without a law, they will have no haggling power versus advanced behemoth.
Way forward
  • In amusement, for instance, huge studios like Disney have dispatched their own foundation to rival any semblance of Netflix and Amazon.
  • Given the monopolistic control that Google and Facebook appreciate — and inquiries over their calculation drove publication judgment — safeguarding the variety of the media scene has merit.
  • Effectively, the apparition of guideline is by all accounts pushing these organizations to impart benefits to the individuals who make substance and report the news.
  • Dealings between old media and new in Australia will be distinctly watched.

 

Question: –

“There is little doubt that technology has changed how content is consumed and shapes how news outlets must evolve. “Critically analyse the statement in light of the recent initiatives in governing the Social Media.

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