DAILY MAINS NEWSLETTER FOR UPSC |23 Feb 2021| RaghukulCS

Daily Mains Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

23 FEB 2021

Index

Mains Value Addition

Mains Analysis

Topic No

Topic Name

Source

1

Dealing with the bigger neighbour, China.

 The Hindu

2

Adding heft to diplomacy with some help from science

The Hindu

3

India’s democratic exceptionalism is now withering away. The impact is also external

Indian Express

4

Taiwan is once again becoming the lightning rod in US-China tensions

Indian Express

Mains Value Addition

IIT Council

Syllabus – GS2-

Social Sector & Social Services (health, education, human resources – issues in development, management)

Analysis: –

  • The IIT Council has set up panels to take a gander at more noteworthy independence for the world class establishments, in accordance with the National Education Policy proposals.
  • It is assigned the task of preparing workforce to head the IITs, and inventive financing instruments.
  • The Council also recommended cutting IIT staff strength to lower levels.
  • The IIT Council is headed by the Education Minister and includes the directors of all IITs, and the chairs of each IIT’s Board of Governors.
  • It is meant to advise on admission standards, duration of courses, degrees and other academic distinctions.
  • It also lays down policy regarding cadre, methods of recruitment and conditions of service of employees.

Greater Tripraland

Syllabus – GS 2-

Union and State Legislatures (structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges; issues therein)

 Analysis: –

  • Tripura royal scion Pradyot Kishore Manikya has recently announced his new political demand of ‘Greater Tipraland’.
  • He claims that this would serve the interest of tribals, non-tribals, Tripuri tribals staying outside Tripura, even those outside India in Bandarban, Chittagong, Khagrachari and other border adjacent areas in Bangladesh.
  • ‘Greater Tipraland’ is essentially an extension of the ruling tribal partner Indigenous Peoples Front of Tripura – IPFT’s demand of Tipraland, which sought a separate state for tribals of Tripura.
  • The new demand seeks to include every tribal person living in indigenous area or village outside the Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council (TTAADC) under the proposed model.

Mains Analysis

Dealing with the bigger neighbour, China.

Why in News: –

China, continued, to practice “restraint in the Eastern Sector (the sector covered by the mcmahon Line) of the boundary with India. And, as if foreshadowing the events in Galwan in the summer of 2020.

Syllabus:

GS-2: India and its neighbourhood- relations. And Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

  • The mcmahon Line isa demarcation line between Tibet and the North-east region of India proposed by British colonial administrator Sir Henry mcmahon at the 1914 Simla Convention signed between British and Tibetan representatives.
  • It is currently the generally recognized boundary between China and India, although its legal status is disputed by the Chinese government.
  • The usual broadside about India “belittling” China’s sovereignty in Tibet followed “Our two countries have a basic misreading of each other’s priorities.”
  • How could India support the mcmahon Line when Tibet had “never possessed the right” to conclude sovereign agreements with the outside world

Problems in India China Relationship: –

  • The underlying problems with the India-China relationship even as their leaders practiced bucolic, informal summitry.
  • The two countries held up their relations as an example of how despite an unresolved boundary question, they had not allowed these differences to prevent the development of relations in other areas, including trade and economic ties as well as people-to-people interaction in various spheres.
  • The Peace and tranquillity in the border areas had also been maintained for over four decades. But the unravelling had begun.
  • Two nationalisms were contending and the untrammelled rise of China was generating new global power equations and alignments.
  • The gulf between India and China was growing. In 2020, Galwan signalled the collapse of the edifice of bilateral relations built on these weak foundations over three decades.

Timeline of the Peace agreements between India China:-

  1. Since 1993, India and China had arrived at a number of agreements to maintain peace and tranquillity and promote confidence building measures (cbms) in the border areas.
  2. These were starting with 1993: The Agreement on the Maintenance of Peace and Tranquillity along the Line of Actual Control in the India-China Border Areas;
  3. The Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the People’s Republic of China on Confidence-Building Measures in the Military Field Along the Line of Actual Control in the India-China Border Areas (1996);
  4. The Protocol between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the People’s Republic of China on Modalities for the Implementation of Confidence Building Measures in the Military Field Along the Line of Actual Control in the India-China Border Areas (2005);
  5. The Government of the People’s Republic of China on the Establishment of a Working Mechanism for Consultation and Coordination on lndia-China Border Affairs (2012);
  6. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the People’s Republic of China on Border Defence Cooperation (2013).

Important Provisions of the agreements:

  1. The two sides shall carry out border defence cooperation on the basis of their respective laws and relevant bilateral agreements.
  2. The boundary question would be resolved peacefully; neither side would use or threaten to use force against the other “by any means”; that the two sides would respect and observe the Line of Actual Control (LAC).
  3. The  India –China would jointly check and determine the segments of the LAC where they had different views as to its alignment and further, speed up clarification and confirmation of the LAC since a common understanding of the Line was necessary.
  4. That military forces including field army, border defence forces, paramilitary forces and major categories of armaments in mutually agreed geographical zones along the LAC would be kept to a minimum level compatible with friendly and good neighbourly relations and the “requirements of mutual and equal security”.
  5. Military exercises would be undertaken only at specified levels with prior notification being given for such exercises near the LAC.
  6. The prior notice would be given regarding flights of combat aircraft within 10 kilometres from the LAC.
  7. If border personnel of the two sides came face-to-face due to differences in alignment of the LAC they would exercise self-restraint and avoid an escalation of the situation; channels of communication and border personnel meetings in case of contingencies were stipulated.

The China-Russia thread:

  • The normalization of Russia-China relations was the resolution of the border dispute between the two and the development of cbms in the border regions.
  • The Military confrontation a defining feature in their relations from the 1960’s, a strategic partnership of equality and trust oriented towards the 21st century was developed between Russia and China.
  • The Soviet Union conceded a long-standing Chinese demand to allow the adoption of the median line of the navigational channel of the Amur-Ussuri River as the boundary between the two countries.
  • The Soviet moves to reduce China’s sense of insecurity followed.
  • These were the removal of SS-20 intermediate-range ballistic missiles including from along the border with China and agreement to negotiate military cbms. Moscow also made unilateral troop reductions.
  • In April 1990, an Agreement on the Guidelines of Mutual Reduction of Forces and Confidence-building in the Military Field in the Area of the Soviet-Chinese Border was signed.
  • This committed the two governments to the reduction of military forces to the lowest level suited to normal good neighbourly relations on “an equal basis for mutual security”.
  • In May 1991, an Agreement on the Eastern Sector of National Boundaries was concluded by the two countries, resolving 98% of outstanding boundary issues.
  • They also agreed that the zone of military cbms would be 100 km on each side of the border.

 Significance of Russia: –

  1. The main characteristic of these cbms was the willingness of the bigger power the Soviet Union to undertake unilateral concessions and asymmetric reductions in military strength vis-à-vis China.
  2. The collapse of the Soviet Union, far from hindering the process of normalization only smoothened it further Russia and China continued to improve relations.
  3. Russia and China strategic convergence spurred on by shared suspicion about the overwhelming preponderance of U.S. global power at the end of the Cold War.
  4. The success of their alignment post-1989 and the Deng Xiaoping-Gorbachev Summit was that they identified common interests and were committed to building a relationship that was “broadly based and institutionalized” (Jingdong Yuan).
  5. The military cbms and tension-reduction along the border were ‘nested’ and fostered in a vast network of cooperative alignments that Russia and China built up in numerous areas once they agreed to normalize their relations.

 What are the Indian Concerns:

  1. Where our experience with China on cbms and tension-reduction along the border differs from the experience of Russia is that, the five Agreements we signed between 1993 and 2013.
  1. This agreement not nurtured in an environment of a steady enhancement of mutual trust and political commitment for building a strong infrastructure of bilateral relations between India and China.
  1.  Unlike in the Russia-China case, no final boundary settlement accompanied these cbms to sustain and strengthen their operation.
  2. Even a joint clarification of the LAC remained unattainable.
  1. China as the bigger power, unlike the Soviet Union under Gorbachev in its dealings with Beijing, has never signalled willingness to make asymmetric or unilateral concessions to India or act in a manner, especially in our neighbourhood, that enhances India’s trust or confidence.

 Way Forward:

  • Measures to reinforce harmony and peacefulness and certainty working in the boundary regions had clearly been delivered outdated and deficient as equipped showdown supplanted a shaky construction of alleged tranquil concurrence.
  • The Periodic gatherings between officials of the significant Military Regions of China and Army Commands of India and between divisions answerable for military tasks may beat pressure among India and china.
  • On the off chance that a dubious circumstance emerges regarding any action by one or the other side in boundary regions where there is no normal comprehension of the line of real control, either side has the privilege to look for an explanation from the opposite side.

Question: –

‘Russia is using its bigger power to undertake unilateral concessions and asymmetric reductions in military strength vis-à-vis China, In the light of this statement, discuss its impact on India.

Adding heft to diplomacy with some help from science

Why in News: –

 The pandemic gives India a unique space to mainstream science and technology in its domestic and foreign policies.

Syllabus:

GS-2: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

GS-3: Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

  • The appreciation of leaders of Brazil and Canadian PM for securing vaccines manufactured in India has gained much attention, in global world.
  • India efforts to address this health emergency were met with even more vocal appreciation by leaders from its partners from the Global South world.
  • India’s ongoing ‘Vaccine Maitri’ campaign is aimed at provisioning COVID-19 vaccines to countries both near to and away from its immediate neighborhood.
  • It is one of the most important recent initiatives to leverage its science and technological advantages for the furtherance of its foreign policy objectives.

Vaccine Maitri:

  • India had announced a vaccine rollout for Bhutan, Maldives, Bangladesh, Nepal, Myanmar and Seychelles which comes in line with its Neighbourhood First Policy.
  • India to send 5 lakh Covid-19 vaccines to Sri Lanka as part of ‘Vaccine Maitri, and all SAARC nations.

History of Science in India:-

  • India’s global priorities in science and technology were clearly articulated by its first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru during his address to the country’s Science Congress on January 21, 1959.
  • Nehru was aware of both the constructive and destructive power of science and made India’s intention of seeking international scientific advances for the country’s development.
  • This added emphasis on averseness to inter-state rivalries.
  • This template would set the tone for India’s international science and technology engagement for much of the 20th century.
  • It must be met with mixed results as more powerful states such as the United States sought to curb its ambitions in critical spheres such as its nuclear and space programmers.

India’s efforts in Science:

  1. Despite limitations, India still managed to assist its partners from the Global South in key areas of science and technology such as health across Asia and Africa.
  2. The country’s national confidence would also rise during the final decade of the last century as economic dynamism led to a more pro-active assertion of its interests.
  3. India established the Office of the Principal Scientific Adviser to the Government of India in November 1999.
  4. By the early years of the 21st century, it sought to reduce its dependence on foreign countries to then emerge as a net provider of development assistance in the international system.

 India strategic partnerships bearing substantial science and technology:

  • The 21st century international system was more conducive to the country’s science and technology designs in spheres such as nuclear and space technology due to a thaw in ties between India and the United States.
  • This has given the rise of an aggressive China and other consequential challenges to the international system.
  • India would sign strategic partnerships bearing substantial science and technology components with advanced economies such as the United Kingdom, Japan, Israel, Germany, the European Union, Singapore, the United Arab Emirates, Canada, South Korea and Australia even as it strengthened its traditional partnerships with countries such as France and Russia.

 India’s critical policy frameworks:

  • The country’s Science and Technology Policy 2003 and Science, Technology and Innovation Policy 2013 clearly related international science and technology cooperation with national interest.
  • Recently, Prime Minister has been categorical in placing science and technology at the forefront of the country’s diplomatic engagement.
  • India’s state instruments of diplomacy would also begin to show a more visible alignment to international science and technology cooperation.
  • India currently fields four Development Partnership Administrations under its Ministry of External Affairs consequential given that President Ram Nath Kovind, in Cuba in June 2018, declared that the country had “placed science and technology at the center of its development cooperation strategy”.

 The COVID-19 response:

  • India’s science and technology prowess would be tested internationally by 2019 through an unprecedented global disruption originating from China in the shape of the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • India was swift to address the global challenge by initially sending medicines such as hydroxychloroquine and paracetamol to over 150 countries, welcomed by its partners across the world.
  • India’s pharmaceutical firms such as the Serum Institute of India competently partnered with the U.K.’s Oxford/astrazeneca vaccine project while others such as Bharat Biotech gave rise to indigenous vaccines in the shape of Covaxin.
  • India’s response came at a time where the developed world was pre-occupied in trying to address its own domestic issues and China’s health diplomacy much like its other development assistance came with prohibitive costs.

 Challenges ahead:-

  1. India’s, Aatmanirbhar Bharat initiative, attempts to secure maximum self-reliance through capacity building and creating an environment where science and technology can not only answer its own national needs and cross-border interests but also global challenges, there are issues that must be addressed.
  2. India’s financial apportionment to science and technology related research must rise to enable the country’s own rise as must participation of its states, universities and private sector in research and development efforts.
  3. The time is also right for India’s young scientists and technologists to be made more aware of the country’s foreign policy objectives, and to also enable all stakeholders in the policy establishment to learn more about science and technology to bridge the intellectual divide.

Way Forward

  • India’s help by “The Ministry of External Affairs” has seen a restructuring with a Cyber Diplomacy Division, an E-Governance & Information Technology Division and a New Emerging & Strategic Technologies Division to manage science and technology issues in the nation’s diplomatic matrix.
  • As scientists developed vaccines to COVID-19 virus, it was India, an established leader in vaccine manufacturing that rose to the challenge of global provision. Beyond idealist invocations, India’s COVID-19 response also came closely aligned with its Neighborhood First, Act East, Indo-Pacific and Look West policies.
  • The ongoing COVID-19 crisis has presented the country a unique space to mainstream science and technology in its domestic and foreign policies. It is now up to India’s decision-makers to conclusively convert this crisis into an opportunity.

Question: –

India has achieved remarkable successes in COVID Vaccines development including the Vaccine Maitri’ campaign ? Explain critically.

India’s democratic exceptionalism is now withering away. The impact is also external

Why in News: –

Steven Levitsky and Daniel Ziblatt, two of the finest political scientists of their generation, wrote How Democracies Die and this is one of the most widely read books worldwide on politics in recent years.

Syllabus:

 GS 2: Polity and governance

  • The recent military coup in Myanmar was an aberration for contemporary times, as was the coup in Thailand in 2014 and in Pakistan in 1999.
  • Such coups were quite common in the 1960s and 1970s. More prevalent now is what scholars are calling “democratic backsliding”, a new concept to depict democratic erosion led by elected politicians, often quite legally.
  • “Many government efforts to subvert democracy”, write Levitsky and Ziblatt, “are legal in the sense that they are approved by the legislatures or accepted by the courts”.
  • They use copious examples from Latin America and Europe, their respective areas of expertise, and the damage done by Donald Trump to the US, the land of their birth and residence.
  • What is legal, they emphasise, is not necessarily democratic. Undemocratic legislation can be passed, or existing laws manipulated to undermine democracy.
  • Levitsky and Ziblatt are now clearly relevant to IndiaIndia’s democracy is backsliding, not because of the generals and soldiers, but because elected politicians are subverting democracy.
  • Very soon, two of the most widely read annual democracy reports — by America’s Freedom House and Sweden’s V-Dem Institute — will be published. They had argued last year that India was on the verge of losing its democratic status
 India undemocratic, or only “Partly free”:
  • Partisans of Delhi’s ruling regime will vociferously decry these formulations, contending that the Ruling government was elected by the people, and it is only enacting what it was voted for.
  • They will say that parliament has approved central’s legislation, from Kashmir to citizenship amendment, from preventive detention to farm reforms. Therein lies the fundamental conceptual confusion.
  • For democratic theory, elections are necessary, but not sufficient. Elections alone cannot be equated with democracy.
  • Democracy is measured by a composite indexThe overall judgement depends partly on elections, and partly on what the elected governments do between elections.
  • Democratic theory lays out two kinds of post-election requirements: One pertains to institutional constraints on the executive, another to civil liberties.

Democratic exceptionalism:

  • Democratic backsliding in India is especially concerning because India’s democracy, according to most leading scholars, was exceptional.
  • Decades of research showed that democracies could indeed be established at low levels of income, but they tended to survive generally at high levels of income.
  • Until recently, barring the exception of 1975-77, India had spectacularly defied this statistically valid theorisation.
  • Only one developing country, Costa Rica, has a better democratic record. But Costa Rica is infinitely smaller and six times richer than India.
  • Robert Dahl, the world’s leading democratic theorist after the Second World War, called India the greatest contemporary exception to democratic theory.
  • India’s democratic exceptionalism is now withering away.
  • Democracies do not charge peaceful protestors with sedition, do not have religious exclusionary principles for citizenship, do not curb press freedoms by intimidating dissenting journalists and newspapers.
  • They also do not attack universities and students for ideological non-conformity, do not browbeat artists and writers for disagreement, do not equate adversaries with enemies, do not celebrate lynch mobs, and do not cultivate judicial servility.
  • A democracy which speaks with one voice, which elevates citizen duties over citizen rights, which privileges obedience over freedom, which uses fear to instil ideological uniformity, which weakens checks on executive power, is a contradiction in terms.
  • For democratic theorists, these are all signs of creeping authoritarianism, not of democratic deepening.

Consequences:

  • The biggest impact of these developments is, of course, internal. Those opposed to the ruling regime are frequent targets of attack — political, legal, physical, financial.
  • But the impact is also external. Prime Minister has often claimed that since his rise to power, India has been accorded greater respect in the world. Even if that was true in his first term, the perceptions are now changing.

 India At International Level:

  • The international standing of nations is normally a combination of the strategic, the economic and the political.
  • Compared to China, whose GDP is now five times as large as India’s, India exercises lesser economic power internationally.
  • The expected economic invigoration after 2014 is yet to occur. Democracy was unquestionably one of India’s biggest international assets.
  • In purely strategic terms, given the rising anti-China chorus in world capitals, India’s significance will no doubt remain, but politics may now compete with geopolitics.
  • Because of China, India will certainly be embraced as a partner, but the embrace will not be ardent or wholehearted if its democratic backsliding continues.

Way Forward

  • The Indian government’s alarming departures from democratic norms could blur the values-based distinction between Beijing and New Delhi.
  • While India held successful elections last spring, the ruling party has distanced itself from the country’s founding commitment to pluralism and individual rights, without which democracy cannot long survive.
  • Beyond Kashmir, there has been no mass arrest of politicians, and many more state governments are run by political parties that do not rule in Delhi.
  • If these two variables also change, India’s democracy will be well and truly dead.

Questions: –

Elections alone cannot define what it means to be democratic. Critically analyse.

Taiwan is once again becoming the lightning rod in US-China tensions

Why in News: –

Syllabus:

 GS 2: International Relations

  • Taiwan’s security situation worsens amidst mounting economic, political and military pressure from China.
  • One countervailing factor appears to be preventing the crisis from boiling over into a full-scale war that could draw the US and Japan into it.
  • It is Taiwan’s so-called “silicon shield”. This silicon shield protects Taiwan from China.
  • As Taiwan becomes the world’s most dangerous flashpoint, the geopolitical consequences for Asia are real.
  • Although Delhi has embraced the Indo-Pacific maritime construct, it is yet to come to terms with Taiwan’s critical role in shaping the strategic future of Asia’s waters.

 Significance of Taiwan: –

  • Taiwan’s dominance in the production of semiconductors deters China from trying to occupy the island.
  • On the face of it, China’s enormous military power can easily crush Taiwan’s independent existence, but the collapse of Taipei’s semiconductor industry will pose a major economic and national security threat to the US.
  • Besides many American civilian industries, the US armed forces and their military equipment run on Taiwanese chips.
  • Any Chinese attack on Taiwan that disrupts the flow of semiconductors would produce significant challenges not only for the US but also China that relies on semiconductor supplies from Taiwan.

 Taiwan Industry:

  • Taiwan is the world’s leading producer of semiconductors and other electronic components.
  • The global division of labour in the age of electronics has seen a significant concentration of chip production in Taiwan.
  • China has been the factory for the global economy, Taiwan is the world’s foundry for semiconductors.
  • The Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TMSC) has more than 55 per cent of the global market share in the production of high-end custom-made chips.
  • It is fashionable these days to declare “data as the new oil”. But there will be no generation of data without the semiconductors that are the forgotten physical basis of our ever-expanding digital economy.
  • It might be more accurate to say that “semiconductors are the new oil” and their production is increasingly dominated by Taiwan and the TMSC.

 Taiwan Is Between Us and China:

  • China, which imports nearly $300 billion worth of chips annually, has big plans to become self-reliant. Despite massive investments, China might not be able to catch up quickly on advanced chip production.
  • As part of its strategy to promote domestic manufacturing, the Joe Biden Administration wants to revive chip production in the US.
  • Washington knows that complete self-reliance is not possible; its preference is to rebuild digital supply chains away from China and with reliable partners.
  • Taiwan is central to this strategy, and Taipei’s special position in the global production of semiconductors is unlikely to diminish in the near future.
  • Taiwan’s pre-eminence in semiconductor production seemed a mere curiosity in the era of globalisation.
  • It had little political meaning so long as China let Taiwan be.
  • Washington got along with Beijing and the interdependence between the US and China deepened. All three conditions are now being reversed.

 Economic heft and political concerns: –

  • China has ratcheted up pressure on countries that have diplomatic relations with Taiwan.
  • It has also compelled international organisations to push Taiwan out of their activities, even when Taiwan had much to contribute.
  • For example, the World Health Organisation has been unwilling to engage Taipei, despite its impressive performance in coping with the COVID-19 crisis and its potential to contribute to the global management of the pandemic.
  • Beyond the diplomatic, the PLA’s aggressive tactics in and around Taiwan have been routinely probing the latter’s defences.
  • This is widely seen as reflecting President Xi Jinping’s ambition to rush Taiwan’s reunification — which could secure his legacy in modern Chinese history.
  • Washington will continue to seek some technological decoupling and diversification of sensitive supplies away from China. 
  • Taiwan will inevitably be the key element in the American quest for resilient supply chains in the digital domain.

 India And Taiwan:

  1. Amid conflict between China and India, India needs to explore alternate diplomatic and militaristic routes to counter China. One such viable option is establishing formal diplomatic ties with Taiwan.
  2. Taiwan’s position as a semiconductor superpower opens the door for more intensive strategic-economic cooperation between Delhi and Taipei.
  3. In the first decades after independence, Delhi deliberately avoided contact with Taiwan in the name of upholding the position that the PRC is the sole representative of the Chinese people.
  4. Although many countries stood by the one-China principle, they did not avoid cooperation with Taiwan. Delhi, however, was rather rigid.
  5. This changed in the early 1990s, when it began to engage with Taiwan, but the policy remained a restricted one.
  6. Some retired diplomats feel India should leverage its relations with Taiwan to balance its ties with China and negate the latter’s “alliance” with its all-weather friend Pakistan, which is now dangerously close to becoming China’s satellite.
  7. In the last few years, though, there has been a steady expansion of bilateral engagement between Taiwan and India. Trade has increased from about $1 billion in 2001 to about $7 billion in 2018.
  8. The previous central government has made a special effort to woo Taiwanese companies that are moving some of their production away from China to other destinations in Asia.
  9. There is scope for convergence between the Indian government’s Act East policy and Taiwan’s New Southbound Policy.
  10. Both policies aim to increase regional influence and gain political and economic benefits from their partners in the region.

Taiwan’s Significance for India: –

  • By establishing formal diplomatic ties with Taiwan, India can bolster its legitimacy as the leader of the democratic world, especially at a time when the role of US has been undermined.
  • By institutionalizing formal diplomatic relations with Taiwan, India can clearly send a message to China that if it does not respect “One India policy”, then India will not also follow “One China” policy.
  • Further, recognizing Taiwan will make it clear to China that India is very assertive.
  • India will not back down from sending dedicated naval and air assets in the disputed South China Sea region to enforce the freedom of navigation principle.

 Challenges:

  • Part of the problem is that India’s strategic community continues to view Taiwan as an adjunct to India’s “One-China policy” — oscillating between keeping needless distance with Taipei when ties with Beijing are warm and remembering it when Sino-Indian ties enter a freeze.
  • Every Indian approach towards Taiwan has met with sharp reactions from China. This has considerably constrained the development of broad-based ties between the two countries beyond the realms of culture, education, and investments.
  • As a possible retaliatory measure, China can stop exports of API (active pharmaceutical ingredients), television, chemicals, chips, textiles and many more, from India.
  • China will also collaborate with Pakistan by intensifying terrorism in the Kashmir valley and the northeast of India.

Way Ahead:

  • While there has been some progress, Delhi is yet to tap into the full range of commercial and technological opportunities possibilities with Taiwan. This is particularly true of semiconductor production.
  • Delhi must begin to deal with Taiwan as a weighty entity in its own right that offers so much to advance India’s prosperity.
  • Delhi does not have to discard its “One-China policy” to recognise that Taiwan is once again becoming — after many decades of relative quiet — the lightning rod in US-China tensions.
  • China has surpassed India to become an economic powerhouse. It has now embraced aggressiveness to enforce an expansionist outlook. In such a situation, providing legitimacy to the existence of Taiwan may be dubbed as a necessary step.

Question: –

Discuss the political developments in Taiwan in the last two years. Should they be of any cause of concern to India?

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