DAILY MAINS NEWSLETTER FOR UPSC | 31 MAR 2021 | RaghukulCS

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DAILY MAINS NEWSLETTER FOR UPSC | 31 MAR 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Mains Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

31 MARCH 2021

Index

Mains Value Addition

Mains Analysis

Topic No

Topic Name

Source

1

“A road to progress”

The Hindu

2

India does not shine when only some gleam.

The Hindu

3

On the side of the future

Indian Express

Mains Value Addition

Amendments to NCT Act clarify LG’s role in Delhi, will lead to greater cooperation between Centre and UT

Syllabus –

 GS2- Federal Structure; Union Territory

Analysis: –

  • On December 20, 1991, Home Minister S B Chavan tabled the Constitution Amendment Bill in the Lok Sabha to add Article 239AA and 239AB to our Constitution.
  • The amendment paved the way for the setting up a legislative assembly and a council of ministers for the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi.
  • When the Bill was put to a vote, it was passed unanimously with all 349 members in the Lok Sabha supporting the bill.
  • Earlier this week, both Houses of Parliament voted overwhelmingly in favour of the amendments to the Government of the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi Act.
  • The amendments aimed to clear ambiguities in the roles of various stakeholders and provide a constructive rules-based framework for stakeholders within the government of Delhi to work in tandem with the Union government.
  • This rules-based framework is especially important given that Delhi is also our national capital and carries the symbolism that comes with being the seat of the sovereign power.
  • Cooperative federalism requires an environment of trust and mutual cooperation.
  • A necessary condition for such an environment is the distinct delineation of roles and responsibilities, the removal of ambiguities, and the definition of a clear chain of command among stakeholders.

Indian education system must stop chasing ‘learning outcomes’

Syllabus –

GS2- Education

Analysis: –

  • In the present context, which seeks to demonstrate, measure and quantify learning, learning outcomes (LO) have become a fetish with policymakers and textbook developers, an idea popularised by large-scale assessment surveys, such as the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER), in India.
  • LO essentially refers to grade-appropriate, basic competencies in numeracy and literacy, which school-going children are supposed to acquire.
  • The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), the apex body responsible for making curriculum, syllabus and textbooks, has already come out with two documents listing learning outcomes at elementary and secondary stages, while the one for the higher secondary stage is underway.
  • This is because the new National Education Policy 2020 underscores the importance of foundational skills as being central to a child’s schooling.
  • State Councils of Educational Research and Training (SCERT) will be soon expected to toe the line.

  • It was with great difficulty that National Curriculum Framework, prepared by NCERT in 2005, changed the form and nature of textbooks.
  • Any change of government at the Centre or state level was/is usually followed by a change in textbooks, particularly history. Besides blatant misuse as a political tool, textbooks suffer from other limitations.
  • They reproduce social inequalities by either omission of diverse social groups or their misrepresentation.
  • The landmark Learning Without Burden (LWB) committee (1993) identified dense, poorly written and weakly conceptualised textbooks as being primarily responsible, in addition to unwieldy syllabi and rote-based exam system, for burdening children’s school lives.
  • The NCF 2005, with its roots in LWB, redirected the meaning of quality education to curricular, pedagogic and assessment practices being followed inside the classrooms.

U.S. report flags curbs on Indian media

Syllabus – 

GS3- Science and tech

Analysis: –

  • In its 2020 Human Rights Report, the U.S. State Department said the harassment and detention of journalists critical of the(Indian) government in their reporting and on social media, has continued, although the government generally respected the freedom of expression.
  • It also said government’ requests for user data from Internet companies had increased “dramatically.”
  • The report, which is submitted each year to the U.S.Congress, is retrospective and contains a country-wise discussion of the state of human rights.
  • It also details cases against individual journalists and NGO activists, including Siddharth Varadarajan of The Wire (case by U.P.government) and Anirban Chattopadhyay of Anandabazar Patrika(summoningby Kolkata police).
  • The government made49,382 user data requests in2019 from Facebook, a 32%increase from 2018.
  • Over the same period, Google requests increased by 69%,while Twitter requests saw a68% increase.

Incident to Quote: –

  1. In a section on the arbitrary deprivation of life, the report highlights the case of the Sattankulam (Tamil Nadu)custodial deaths of P.Jayaraj and his son J. Benicks, who were arrested for allegedly keeping their shop’s shutters open past permitted hours during the pandemic.
  2. The report takes note of the April 2020 detention of pregnant Jamia Millia student Safoora Zargar, who was protesting the citizenship laws.

Mains Analysis

“A road to progress”

Why in News: –

The achievements of Indian women in dairy farmers and contributing to India’s ‘White Revolution’ are perhaps the greatest cause for celebrating the Women’s History.

Syllabus: –

GS-1: Role of women and women’s organization.

GS-3: issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.

  • Despite of a majority of dairy farmers owning only small landholdings typically households with two to five cows is also a testament to the success of the dairy cooperatives models that were at the heart of Operation Flood.

What is the Operation Flood?

  • Operation Flood is the program that led to “White Revolution, launched on 13 January 1970, was the world’s largest dairy development program and a landmark project of India’s National Dairy Development Board (NDDB).
  • It transformed India from a milk-deficient nation into the world’s largest milk producer, surpassing the United States of America in 1998 with about 22.29 percent of global output in 2018.
  • Within 30 years, it doubled the milk available per person in India and made dairy farming India’s largest self-sustainable rural employment generator.
  • It was launched to help farmers direct their own development and giving them control of the resources they create.
  • All this was achieved not merely by mass production, but by production by the masses; the process has since been termed as the “White Revolution”.
  • If there was one technological breakthrough that revolutionized India’s organized dairy industry, it was the making of skim milk powder out of buffalo milk.
  • The man who made this possible was Harichand MeghaDalaya.

The Estimates: –

  • According to latest data, there are more than 1,90,000 dairy cooperative societies across the country, with approximately 6 million women members.
  • A study conducted on Women Dairy Cooperative Society (WDCS) members across Rajasthan showed that with the income generated through dairying, 31% of the women had converted their mud houses to cement structures, while 39% had constructed concrete sheds for their cattle.
  • Importantly, women-led cooperatives also provide fertile ground for grooming women from rural areas for leadership positions.
  • In many instances, this becomes the first step for women in breaking free from traditional practices.
  • Statistics indicate that small and marginal farmers have access to only 50-70% of the resources that large and medium farmers have.
  • The presence of collectives in the form of cooperatives and milk unions plays a significant role in enhancing the knowledge and bargaining power of women.

Institutionalising Milk production:

  • The approach made it possible to enhance backward and forward linkages in the dairy value chain, paving the way for freeing small farmers from the clutches of middlemen, and guaranteed minimum procurement price for milk.
  • A study by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) indicates that 93% of women farmers who receive training alongside financial support succeed in their ventures, compared to the 57% success rate of those who receive financial aid alone.
  • Institutionalising such inputs, the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) now organises farmer’s orientation programmes across the country, under which women farmers are trained in scientific best practices on animal health, fodder quality, clean milkproduction, and accounts management.

 

The Women’s role in Dairy Development:

  • A chapter on ‘Women and Development’ the first such in a “five-year plan document” stated:
  • ‘Efforts would be made to offer larger employment for them in the schemes for public distribution system, rural godowns, Oper-ation Flood II, dairy development and social forestry and in armed forces’.
  • Recent years have seen the rise of women-led dairy unions and companies.
  • To this end, the NDDB has played a proactive role in setting up women-led producer enterprises.
  • Last year, Amul Dairy released a list of 10 women dairy farmers who became millionaires by selling milk to the company.
  • For instance, NavalbenDalsangbhai Chaudhary from Vadgam earned almost ?88 lakh by selling 2,21,595 kg of milk in 2019-20, and MalviKanuben from Dhanera earned about ?74 lakh by selling 2,50,745 kg of milk.

Way Forward: –

  • The Modernization of the sector would require the introduction of procurement cold chains and fair and transparent milk procurement systems at the village level.
  • An increase in livestock population will not be sustainable for the sector without good quality fodder and feed and increased animal health coverage.
  • These testimonials of individual women dairy farmers are all the more remarkable for the fact that many of them have not had a formal education, but through the process of dairying and working with larger collectives, such as milk unions and cooperatives, they have mastered the nuances of finance and marketing.
  • Such a policy might have enhanced India’s dairy economy.

Question: –

Dairy policy in India has otherwise not addressed itself to the central role of women in milk production and processing to the detriment both of the dairy economy and of women. Discuss.

India does not shine when only some gleam.

Why in News: –

After novel corona-virus pandemic, new architecture of economic growth must begin with to create better lives (shelter, food, &water to drink) for the majority. India must “build back better”, and create a new, more resilient, and more just economy.

 

Syllabus: –

GS-2: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources/Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

  • India a $5 trillion economy dream, the Indian government and its advisers are keen to recover the many lost quarters of GDP growth.
  • Government lost sight of how poorly India’s economic growth has been serving its citizens.
  • India ranked 102 among 117 countries.
  • The GHI (Global Hunger Index) 2020 report jointly published by Concern Worldwide and Welthungerhilfe, has placed India 94th position among 107 countries, much behind Bangladesh, Pakistan and Nepal.
  • The situation is grim and the country is battling widespread hunger.
  • Government said, International observers are wrong, because Indians are very kind people, who even give sweets to a dog when she delivers her puppies, and such kind people would never ever allow a human being to go hungry.
  • The World Happiness Report 2020 released by the UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network According to the report, Indian citizens is amongst the least happy in the world: India ranks a very low 144th out off 156 countries.
  • Nearly 70% of water being contaminated, India is placed at 120th amongst 122 countries in the water quality index, “Composite Water Management Index,” a report published by Niti Aayog in June 2018.
  • India has ranked 168th out of 180 countries in the 2020 Environmental Performance Index (EPI), according to researchers at Yale and Columbia universities, Report says say India de-carbonization agenda needs to accelerate, and the country faces a number of serious environmental health risks, including poor air quality.
  • The rankings under Ease of Living Index 2020 were announced for cities with a population of more than a million, Bengaluru, Pune, Ahmedabad best cities in EoLI 2020 (Million plus Category).

Inequities have widened in India:

  • According to the 2015 World Wealth Report, India had 198,000 high net worth individuals’ annual income over $1 million with a combined wealth of $785 billion.
  • While India’s stock markets rose during the pandemic and the very rich became even richer, the number of people who are poor in India with incomes of $2 or less a day is estimated to have increased by 75 million.
  • According to a report released by the World Bank, This accounts for nearly 60% of the global increase in poverty, the report says.
  • The global changes in employment and working hours, and highlighting some key inequalities of impact by country, income, gender, age, and type of work.

Challenges: –

  • New ways must be adopted to create a new post-pandemic normal. Sadly, the old ways are returning.
  • The government is back to chasing its $5 trillion GDP target.
  • Wealth creators (large companies and wealthy individuals) are being touted as the solution for growth.
  • Economic Power is being centralised.
  • Governance of the many by a few politically and economically powerful persons may work for a few, stroke-of-the-pen, bold reforms.
  • However, insufficiently tested vaccines and medicines, the side-effects of these bold solutions can cause great harm to the overall health of the system.
  • The best medical treatments are those that help the system to heal itself.
  • Therefore, communities must be allowed to, and assisted to, find their own solutions to complex problems.
  • The government of India has begun a massive[email protected]” campaign to celebrate, in 2022, the 75th anniversary of India’s independence.
  • India old Approach and the size of its GDP, the numbers of billionaires, the numbers of Indian multinationals, and the reach of its rockets in space, Or the condition of our holy Mother Earth ravaged by economic progress, and the conditions of hundreds of millions of citizens left behind.
  • Unemployment has also increased in many countries affected by the COVID-19 crisis.
  • Since 2006-08 there has been a huge reduction in the inequality of social welfare between countries.
  • This is not because well-being has become more equal — it has not, due to the huge fall in well-being in India.
  • But life expectancy has become much more equal, and the seven years increase in sub-Saharan Africa is truly remarkable.

Solutions: –

  • The old global economy Approach was very good for migrant capital, which could move around the world at will, its life made easier by countries vying to attract foreign capital, even bending their environmental and labour regulations to make it easier to do business.
  • The pandemic has revealed that the old economy was not good for migrant workers, however.
  • Their “ease of living” was often sacrificed for capital’s “ease of doing business”.
  • India urgently needs a new strategy for growth, founded on new pillars.
  • One is broader progress measures. GDP does not account for vital environmental and social conditions that contribute to human well-being and the sustainability of the planet.
  • These factors are ignored as what really matters including the health of the environment, and the condition of societies like public services, equal access to opportunities, etc
  • The ‘scientific’ approach does enable objective rankings of countries. However, as the Happiness Report explains, this ‘objective’ approach misses the point that happiness and well-being are always ‘subjective’.
  • What matters to people depends also on the conditions of others around them.
  • Wealthy people can be unhappy when they have less wealth than other wealthy people.
  • Everywhere, fairness, and trust in others and in institutions, contributes greatly to well-being.
  • Therefore, countries in which the spirit of community is high, such as the ‘socialist’ countries of Northern Europe, come on top of well-being rankings even when their per capita incomes are not the highest.

Way Forward: –

  • The Indian economy must grow to create more incomes for its billion-plus citizens.
  • Until the incomes of all rises, India will be a poor country from the perspective of the majority of its citizens, no matter how large it’s GDP.
  • Moreover, economic growth must no longer be at the cost of the environment.
  • A multi-pronged approach is needed to deal with the crisis.
  • More than 90 percent of the world’s workforce lived in countries where business closures were still in place for at least some sectors.

Question: –

Discuss how India should focus on sustainable employment to increase India’s economic growth.

On the side of the future

Why in News: –

Recent tragic events in Myanmar where, military overturning the election results last month, portends a new cycle of political repression, humanitarian disaster & geopolitical instability.

Syllabus: –

GS-2: India and its Neighbourhood-Relations.
  • India sooner or later will be drawn into chain of events in Myanmar due to its proximity& geopolitical role.
  • India shouldn’t ignore the humanitarian crisis unfolding in its backyard & remain indifferent to the sufferings of refugees.
  • Though the Rich and ASEAN nations are not responding adequately to the crisis because of the economic and political burden in helping refugees but India plans to take the risk.
  • India hasn’t subscribed to the principle of non-refoulement which is described as “Magna Carta” for the refuges as a response to a politically induced humanitarian disaster.
  • India always driven by “VASUDHAIVA KUTUMBAKAM” in cases of refugees. The Myanmar issue now posses real question to India’s image as well as basic fundamentals.

Necessary steps: –

  • It is a question of future because the Myanmar’s Democracy protest is spear headed by young with active support of opposition.
  • Since decades concerns of Northeast states in handling “trijunction” have been side-lined due to counterinsurgency fears & suspicion of northeaster political forces.
  • But at this historical juncture, to ignore reasonable & accommodative sentiments of Northeast would further marginal their role in India’s policies.
  • India being a long-term player in region should not only rely on Myanmar militarily as well as politically by helping & gaining local population support in order to counter insurgency and safeguard its borders.
  • With increasing spectators from Russia to Chain, India’s stakes in the geopolitical arena are going to be high.

 

Why does India support Democratic protest?

  • Because historically, Myanmar military is united & oppressive that hangs for long time through brutal repression.
  • Though country seems to be ready for democracy but its repressive military & elites including Suu Kyi are more conservative in harnessing democratic & progressive reforms.
  • Since with Russia entry, India’s options towards Myanmar military diminishing.
  • On economic front, Myanmar’s economic & connectivity ties provide momentum to India’s ACT EAST policy with engaging Northeast states as growth engine harbours.

Significance for India: –

  • India wants to be a key interlocutor in two contexts:
  • Key player role in shaping a global response to the crisis.
  • Possible role in helping with a settlement towards a less repressive transition within Myanmar.
  • But to have both roles, India needs widespread credibility with different groups within Myanmar & at same time India should loss its position as strategic cynicism that is willing to trade for long-term gains.

Way Forward: –

  • It is high time that India needs to have confidence in handling any risks politically & militarily, not by closing down its borders but by accommodating even the most basic humanitarian impulses India to realize its ideals & its strategic objectives should side line the myopically realistic or xenophobic impulses.

Question: –

With ambiguity in the future of Myanmar political developments, choices for India is simmering.Discuss.

Started From 14 Mar 2021

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