Daily Mains Newsletter for UPSC 04 Jan 2022

Daily Mains Newsletter For
UPSC | RaghukulCS

04 Jan 2022 - Tuesday

Index

Table of Contents

UN Security Council Reforms: India Must Lead

Introduction:

  • The United Nations Security Council (UNSC), one of the United Nations’ six major organizations, was founded during World War II. The organization grants enormous authority to its five permanent members (P-5) who emerged as the era’s dominant powers.
  • The United Nations Security Council (UNSC), with a responsibility to ensure international peace and security, is the focal point of global multilateralism.
  • There has long been an understanding of the need to enlarge the UN Security Council, both its permanent and non-permanent membership, in order to make it more reflective of the modern world, rather than the one in which it was founded in 1945.However, the Council has produced zero evidence of so-called progress.
  • In this context, India, which is now in the second year of its two-year term as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council, may play a larger and more vital role in bringing about UNSC changes.

The UN Security Council:

  • It appoints the UN Secretary-General and, in tandem with the UN General Assembly, elects’ justices to the International Court of Justice. Its decisions are legally obligatory on all nations since they are approved under Chapter VII of the UN Charter.
  • The UN Security Council has 15 members, 5 of who are permanent and 10 of whom are non-permanent.
  • China, France, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, and the United States are the five permanent (P-5) members.
  • The General Assembly elects ten non-permanent members for two-year periods.

India’s Membership:

  • India has served as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council seven times, and it joined the UN Security Council for the eighth time in January 2021, but India has been pressing for a permanent seat on the UN Security Council.

 Contribution of India:

  • In 1947-48, India actively participated in the creation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and spoke out strongly against racial injustice in South Africa.
  • India has helped to admit former colonies to the UN, handling violent conflicts in the Middle East, and keeping peace in Africa.
  • It has made significant contributions to the preservation of international peace and security.
  • India has participated in 43 peacekeeping operations, contributing more than 160,000 soldiers and India has the third-highest force contribution.

Concerns Regarding the UN Security Council’s Operation:

  • Absence of Meeting Records and Texts:
  • The UN Security Council’s present pace of advancement raises major concerns about the organization’s capacity to fulfill its mandate.
  • The standard UN norms do not apply to UNSC debates, and no recordings of its sessions are retained.
  • Furthermore, there is no “text” of the meeting to debate, edit, or protest to. In diplomatic discussions, the word “text” refers to a formal document including ideas and choices.
  • UN Security Council power play:
  • The major issue with the existing system is the elite class of nations seizing the controlling power of international security relations.
  • The veto rights enjoyed by the UN Security Council’s five permanent members are anachronistic in this day and age.
  • The present elite decision-making framework does not meet global security demands.
  • In its present structure, the UN Security Council has become a barrier to comprehending worldwide developments and dynamics in the field of human security and peace.
  • Divisions Among the P5:
  • Because of the UN’s significant polarisation, decisions are either not taken or are not heeded.
  • Disputes within the UN Security Council’s P-5 often restrict critical decisions.
  • These concerns may be seen in the onset of the coronavirus pandemic, like the UN, UNSC, and WHO failed to play an effective role in assisting governments in dealing with the spread of COVID.
  • An Unrepresentative Organization:
  • The UN Security Council has been unable to operate with credibility primarily owing to its unrepresentative character.
  • The absence of internationally significant nations from the UN Security Council like India, Germany, Brazil, and South Africa is cause for alarm.
  • The current inequalities in terms of the under-representation of areas, particularly Africa, Asia, and Latin America, are undermining the UN Security Council as a global organization.

 The Way Forward

  • Disparities in power connections must be addressed immediately because this is required to make the UN Security Council more democratic and give it more credibility to rule, ensuring that the values of international peace, security, and order are generally accepted.
  • Expansion of the UN Security Council.
  • The UNSC must have equitable representation from all areas in order to decentralize its governing power and control over states.
  • The decentralization of the UN Security Council’s decision-making procedures will allow it to evolve into a more representative, participative organization.
  • As a current non-permanent member of the UN Security Council, India may begin by writing a resolution providing a comprehensive set of ideas for restructuring the UNSC.
  • India can then approach other like-minded countries (India, Germany, Japan, and Brazil) and continue to expand its circle of support.
  • India must revitalize its connection with its traditional “global south” allies by voicing their peace and security concerns in the UN Security Council.
  • the Small Island States and Africa are two sub-groups of the global south that should be of special relevance in this context.

 Conclusion

  • The year 2022 will be the second and last year of India’s eighth non-permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council.
  • It would be well spent if it were utilized to kick off a more substantive and practical process of reforming the UN Security Council.
  • There is no more compelling indication of a developing power’s influence.

The time has arrived for Universal Basic Income.

What is the issue?

  • With significant inequality and growing anxiety that technology would exacerbate the inequalities and disrupt the nature of labour, universal basic income (UBI) has received attention.

What exactly is UBI?

  • A universal basic income (UBI) is an unconditional and universal entitlement to a basic income to satisfy people’s necessities simply for being citizens.
  • The primary characteristics of UBI are that it should be universal rather than targeted, that it should be unconditional rather than connected to labor or employment, and that it should be in cash.
  • UBI is envisioned as a means of redistributing resources from the wealthy to the poor.
  • It is intended to provide an income to all people in order for them to live a decent life with their fundamental requirements met.

What is the need for a Universal Basic Income?

  • UBI fosters many of the fundamental ideals of a society that regards all people as free and equal.
  • If a well-functioning financial system exists, a Universal Basic Income may simply be the quickest method to reduce poverty.
  • Administrative efficiency is a method of ensuring that state welfare payments are more efficient, allowing the state to focus on other public goods.
  • Inequality is at an all-time high, prompting UBI to become a fundamental pillar of fiscal policy.
  • It is certain that economic growth will be far weaker than it has been over the last 50 years, emphasizing the necessity for a UBI.

What is the relationship between global growth and UBI?

  • Economic growth is equal to the sum of population increase and productivity growth. Population growth has slowed in China and India, while fertility rates are declining in the majority of the industrialized world.
  • According to the World Bank, worldwide population growth will slow from 1.03 percent this year to 0.5 percent in 2050and further to 0.03 percent in 2100.
  • Thus, unless there are game-changing productivity increases, future economic growth will be smaller than in the past.
  • Several technologies, such as smartphones, smart homes, AI, blockchain technology, and so on, have the potential to boost productivity.
  • Over the last 50 years or so, productivity-enhancing technology such as personal computers, the internet, and mobile phones have made each individual three times more productive than they were in 1961.
  • While it is hard to predict whether productivity improvements will be larger, lower, or the same as in the past, it is crucial to remember that productivity gains seem to diminish with time.
  • The yearly productivity growth rate has declined from 3.47 percent in 1966 to 1.90 percent currently.
  • Economic and productivity growth have been extremely erratic, while population growth has been progressively dropping.
  • If average productivity growth in the future is anticipated to be the same as it has been in the past, global growth will likely be lower than roughly half of the time.
  • Recessions will be much more common than in the previous 50 years. During recessions, growth slows, people lose their jobs, businesses fail, interest rates decrease, and inequality rises.
  • Because public policy must recognize this, UBI is a notion whose time has come.

How can the UBI be put into action?

  • To maintain long-term government surpluses, UBI implementation will need both prudent budgeting of current benefits and additional levies.
  • Many countries are already pondering efficient taxation methods.
  • The greatest method to implement UBI without stifling growth is to dramatically raise taxes on assets and capital-based income while actually lowering direct and indirect taxes.
  • Because the economy is now expanding, there are more job vacancies, most firms in the organized sector are doing well, and interest rates are increasing, the moment for implementing UBI couldn’t be better.

Ethics | Paper – IV

Accountability for Performance:

  • Managers are held responsible for defining and changing performance objectives and work goals, discovering growth opportunities, providing continual feedback and coaching, and recognizing and analyzing performance outcomes via performance accountability.
  • Every government employee should feel accountable or responsible to the government, the public, and his conscience for his non-performance or underperformance, failure to achieve standards, and underutilization of resources.

In-house reporting system:

  • In-house reporting system refers to a system established by an organization to meet the standards of effective functioning in order to prevent and detect violations of law, shortfalls, achievements, problems, and issues in policy-making through consultations, coordination, reprimands, and rapprochement.

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