Daily Mains Newsletter for UPSC 10 Jan 2022

Daily Mains Newsletter For
UPSC | RaghukulCS

10 Jan 2022 - Monday


Table of Contents

Chinese Aggression

  • China has renamed 15 locations in Arunachal Pradesh, justifying the move by claiming historical, cultural, and governmental sovereignty over the region. Additionally, on January 1, 2022, China’s new land border legislation took effect, vesting the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) with complete responsibility for defending Chinese territory against “invasion, encroachment, infiltration, and provocation.” Similarly, China is building a bridge across the Pangong Tso lake, which India claims as its border.
  • All of these events intensify an already strained relationship.
  • Arunachal Pradeshwas renamed in 1971 when it became an Indian Union Territory, is not affected by Beijing’s decision, according to India’s External Affairs Ministry.
  • In this scenario, it is critical for India and China to initiate a meaningful disengagement process and overcome the problem of border conflict in order to usher in an ‘Asian Century.

Lake Pangong Tso

  • Pangong Lake is situated in Ladakh, Union Territory.
  • It is the world’s highest saltwater lake, standing at over 4,350m.
  • Pangong Lake is over 160 kilometers long, with one-third in India and the other two-thirds in China.

Associated Concerns

  • A confrontational border issue between India and China, along with Chinese collaboration with Pakistan, might spark a full-fledged conflict between the three nuclear-armed powers.
  • The frequent conflicts between the two countries have a detrimental effect on their economic trade and commerce, which is unhealthy for the two growing nations.
  • Capability development also demands careful consideration, all the more so given that the country’s economic circumstances will preclude any considerable rise in the Defense Budget in the near future.

Issues Associated with the Process of Disengagement

  • The events of the previous year generated immense suspicion, which continues to be a barrier, and China’s actions on the ground have not always matched its pledges.
  • India is critical of China’s territorial expansion policies.
  • Additionally, China is apprehensive about India’s allure to the US and the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue.
  • Due to the contested nature of the border and a lack of confidence between the two sides, perceived infractions of ‘no patrol’ zones might result in tragic consequences, as was the case in Galwan valley in 2020.

The Path Forward

  • Both sides should draw insights from the Wuhan and Mahabalipuram summits when it comes to improving India-China ties, which includes avoiding escalating disagreements.
  • Border forces should continue their communication, retire promptly, keep a safe distance, and de-escalate tensions.
  • Both parties should adhere to all existing agreements and norms governing China-India border disputes and avoid taking any action that might exacerbate the situation.
  • Continuation of talks through the Special Representatives mechanism, as well as sessions of the Working Mechanism for Consultation and Coordination on border issues.
  • In 2003, the Special Representatives (SRs) on the Boundary Issue were constituted. It gave critical suggestions for preserving peace and tranquillity in difficult border regions.
  • Both nations should work to finalise additional confidence-building measures.

Migration issue in India


  • When current patterns are examined, it becomes clear that migration is linked to climate change, technology, government policy, and the status of the economy.

What exactly is migration?

  • Migration is the process through which individuals leave their regular place of residence and cross either internal (within-country) or international (across country) boundaries.
  • According to the 2011 Census, India had 45.6 crore migrants (38 percent of the population) in 2011, up from 31.5 crore migrants in 2001. (31 percent of the population).
  • In 2011, domestic migration accounted for 99 percent of overall migration, while foreigners (international migrants) accounted for 1%.

What are the migratory patterns?

  • Internal migration flows may be categorized according to their source and destination countries. (a) Rural-rural (b) Rural-urban (c) Urban-rural (d) Urban-urban
  • According to the 2011 census, there was 21 crore, rural-rural migrants, accounting for 54% of all internal migration.
  • Another approach to categorize migration is as intra-state (migrating inside a state) or inter-state (migrating across states) (migrating between the states)
  • Intra-state migration accounted for about 88 percent of total internal migration in 2011.
  • A net out-migrants state is one in which more individuals leave the state than enter.
  • The excess of arriving migrants over outgoing migrants is referred to as net in-migration.

What are the factors that contribute to migration?

  • Climate change—as a result of this, people relocate from vulnerable to safer places with the goal of establishing a more secure existence.
  • The majority of the world’s population, particularly in Asia, lives in coastal cities, which will be the first to be affected by increasing sea levels as temperatures rise.
  • With employment rapidly disappearing as a result of the increasing usage of AI and sophisticated technology, individuals are compelled to relocate to areas where they can find work to feed their families.
  • Ironically, it is also the answer to some of the most severe problems confronting crucial sectors such as agriculture.
  • Singapore’s main ’30 by 30′ project intends to grow at least 30% of its food by 2030.
  • Individuals move to nations with superior governance, infrastructure, and migrant-friendly regulations in order to improve their standard of living.
  • Canada and Japan are the two main nations that provide them.
  • Additionally, Canada’s newly formed Start-Up Visa Program provides large subsidies to assist technology firms in relocating to Canada and bringing their ideas to reality.
  • With Japan facing demographic decline, more than 13% of all houses are abandoned, and the unoccupied housing stock continues to expand as older persons die and the young migrate to larger cities.
  • The primary reason for internal migration is marriage and family.
  • Inter-state migrants moved more often in search of jobs.

What difficulties do migrant workers face?

  • Article 19(1)(e) of the Constitution ensures that all Indian citizens have the right to stay and settle in any part of India’s territory, subject to reasonable limits in the public interest or for the preservation of any scheduled tribe.
  • Inadequate social security and health care.
  • Inadequate enforcement of the legislation requiring minimal safety requirements.
  • In metropolitan regions, a lack of affordable housing and necessary amenities.
  • The difficulties inherent in integrating immigrants and combatting xenophobia
  • Competition for jobs between migrant and indigenous employees
  • Costs incurred by the government in providing social services to migrants

What actions has the government done in relation to migrant labour?

  • The Inter-State Migrant Worker Act of 1979 (ISMW Act) requires labour firms to recruit migrants to
  • Obtain a license
  • Register migrant workers with the appropriate government agencies.
  • Arrange for the worker to get a passbook including their identifying information.
  • The legislation also specifies the salaries and safeguards (including housing, free medical care, and protective gear) that the contractor must give.
  • The central government authorised states to utilise the State Disaster Response Fund to house migrating migrants.
  • The central government approved buses and Shramik special trains, subject to state coordination.
  • The One Nation, One Ration Card plan was created to guarantee that ration cards could be transferred.
  • This enables anyone to get rations from any Fair Price Shop in India.
  • Under PMAY, the Aatma Nirbhar Bharat Abhiyaan has created a plan for Affordable Rental Housing Complexes for Migrant Workers and Urban Poor.
  • During the epidemic, some state governments (including Bihar, Rajasthan, and Madhya Pradesh) gave one-time financial handouts to returning migrant workers.
  • The Uttar Pradesh government announced the granting of a Rs 1,000 upkeep payment for returning migrants who are needed to undergo quarantine.

What is the urgent need of the hour?

  • With migration becoming an unavoidable trend in the next years, it is critical for a rising country like India to take this into consideration when drafting national policy.
  • Predictive approaches for estimating migrant populations and allocating appropriate infrastructure assistance to them will aid in the creation of sustainable cities and lives.

Ethics | Paper – IV


  • Selflessness entails having little or no care for one’s own fame, status, or wealth. Indeed, being unselfish entails showing concern for others and acting on a desire to assist others without expecting or desiring recompense for assistance.
  • Civil servants’ jobs require them to prioritize public interests. There may be instances when an official is forced to sacrifice family time in order to fulfill professional commitments. Additionally, selflessness contributes to the development of an organization’s integrity and honesty.
  • Selflessness is shown by a mother’s dedication to her kid, which compels her to constantly prioritize the child’s needs before her own.


  • Truthfulness is defined as the capability to speak the truth without lying.
  • Truth is anything that has been established via the use of facts or sincerity.
  • Someone who discloses their true age is an example of truthfulness.

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