Daily Mains Newsletter for UPSC 13 Jun 2022

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Daily Mains Newsletter for UPSC 13 Jun 2022

Daily Mains Newsletter For
UPSC | RaghukulCS

13 June 2022 - Monday


Table of Contents

The Ramsay-Hunt Syndrome

Why in the news?

Justin Bieber, the pop superstar, was recently diagnosed with Ramsay Hunt Syndrome.

What exactly is Ramsay Hunt Syndrome?

  • Ramsay Hunt Syndrome, commonly known as Herpes Zoster Oticus, is a virus infection of the geniculate ganglion (7th cranial nerve) of the facial nerve caused by a shingles infection.
  • When the nerves become inflamed, their capacity to function is lost, resulting in transient facial palsy or paralysis.
  • The body contains 12 cranial nerves. Ramsay Hunt Syndrome is caused by a viral infection that affects the 7th cranial nerve, which controls facial motions.
  • Ramsay Hunt Syndrome affects only around five to ten people out of every 100,000 people each year, making it an exceptionally rare condition.
  • Ramsay Hunt Syndrome is caused by the reactivation of the varicella zoster virus, which caused chickenpox and shingles in the patient earlier.
  • This virus belongs to the herpesvirus family and can remain dormant in the body.
  • Varicella Zoster Virus can reactivate due to a weakened immune system.
  • The condition is not contagious, although it can cause chickenpox in persons who have not been immunised.
  • Symptoms
    include a reddish area that may inflame into a persistent rash. On the side with the damaged nerve, the rash can penetrate into the eardrum, ear canal, ear lobe, tongue, and roof of the mouth.
  • The illness is often treated with antiviral treatments and corticosteroids (anti-inflammatory drugs).

India's Martial Arts Forms

Why in the news?

  • A maulvi recently intervened in Kashmir to safeguard thang-ta, a martial law practise.
  • Thang Ta is a popular martial art method in the state of Manipur.

What are the many types of martial arts in India?

  • Manipur – Thang Ta:
  • Huyen langlon is a Manipur-based Indian martial art.
  • Huyen signifies war in Meitei, while langlon or langlong might indicate net, wisdom, or art.
  • Huyen langlon is made up of two major components: Thang-ta (armed warfare) and Sarit Sarak (unarmed fighting).
  • The thang (sword) and ta are the primary weapons of huyen langlon (spear). The shield and axe are two other weapons.
Lathi Khela –

West Bengal:
Lathi is a wooden fighting weapon that has been utilised in Indian martial arts for centuries.

  • In Punjab and Bengal, the lathi, or stick, is utilised in martial arts.
  • Lathi is also widely used in sports, particularly in Indian villages.
  • A practitioner is referred to as a lathial.
Gatka –

Punjab: Gatka is a Sikh guru-related traditional martial art discipline.

  • It instils sword and stick fighting abilities as well as self-control.
  • Gatka is thought to have started when the 6th Sikh Guru Hargobind used ‘Kirpan’ for self-defense during the Mughal rule.
  • Gatka, a form of stick fighting between two or more practitioners, is a milder counterpart of the more lethal Shastar Vidya. In Gatka, wooden sticks (soti) and shields have replaced the deadly swords of Shastar Vidya.
  • It is regarded as a combat method.
  • Everyone was required to use weapons for self-defense by the 10th Guru, Gobind Singh.
  • It was previously restricted to gurudwaras, nagar kirtans, and akharas, but it now has a presence in sports following the founding of the Gatka Federation of India (GFI) in 2008.
  • It is now used to demonstrate self-defense and combat abilities and is open to people of all faiths and communities.
Kerala Kalaripayattu
  • Kalaripayattu is a combat technique based on ancient human body knowledge.
  • It developed in Kerala between the third and second centuries BC. It is now performed in portions of Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
  • A ‘Kalari’ is the location where this martial technique is practised. It is a Malayalam word that refers to a type of gymnasium. Kalari literally translates to “threshing floor” or “battlefield.” The term Kalari originally appears in Tamil Sangam literature to indicate a battlefield as well as a war arena.
  • It is thought to be one of the oldest fighting systems still in use.
  • It is also regarded as the forefather of modern Kung Fu.
Madhya Pradesh’s Mallakhamb
  • Mallakhamb is an Indian subcontinental traditional sport in which a gymnast performs aerial yoga or gymnastic poses and wrestling grips using a vertical stationary or suspended wooden pole, cane, or rope.
  • The word Mallakhamb is derived from the terms malla (wrestler) and khamb (pole). The phrase literally means “wrestling pole,” and it refers to a historic training tool used by wrestlers.
  • This sport has been popular in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.
  • Silambam –
  • Tamil Nadu: Silambam is a weapon-assisted martial art. It is well-known in Tamil Nadu.
  • A wide variety of weapons are used in silambam.
  • Silambam art features animal motions like snakes, tigers, and eagles. The use of footworks is a key feature of many art genres.
  • This martial art form was founded by Lord Muruga (son of Lord Shiva, also known as Kartekeya) and sage Agasthya.
  • Musti Yuddha-
  • Varanasi: It is essentially an unarmed fighting style.
  • This martial art form is mostly associated with the city of Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh.
  • Punches, kicks, knees, and elbows are frequently used in this martial art.
  • It teaches him how to defend oneself without the use of weapons or ammo.
  • This martial art style necessitates perfect physical and mental synergy.
Kathi Samu – Andhra Pradesh:
  • Kathi Samu is a well-known ancient martial art from the state of Andhra Pradesh.
  • The use of various types of swords is particularly common in this martial art style.
  • The site where Kathi Samu is performed is known as ‘Garidi.’
  • The stick combat known as ‘vairi’ plays an important role in Kothi Samu as a preparation to the actual sword fight.
  • ‘Gareja,’ in which a person wields four swords, two in each hand, is another fundamental component of sword skills.
Sqay – Kashmir:
  • Sqay is a martial art from Kashmir.
  • It’s similar to sword fighting.
  • Armed sqay wield a curved single-edged sword and a shield.
  • Armed sqay can hold a sword in each hand.
  • Unarmed tactics include kicks, punches, locks, and chops.
  • Sqay employs a variety of approaches. Techniques and instruction for single and double swords in both freehand and sword.
Paikha Akhadha – Odisha:
  • Paikha akhada, often spelled paika akhara, is an Odia word that means “warrior scholl.”
  • In Odisha, it was used as a peasant militia training school.
  • It is utilised to do traditional physical activities.
  • This performance art employs rhythmic gestures and weapons swung in time with the beat of the drum.

Councils of Zonal Government

Why in the news?

The Minister of Home Affairs recently presided over the 25th meeting of the Western Zonal Council in Diu.

What issues were discussed at the meeting?

  • Rural banking services should be improved.
  • Monitoring of rape and sexual assault cases involving women and children, as well as the establishment of Fast Track Courts for such cases.
  • Identity verification of marine fishermen on the high seas.
  • Development of local contingency plans for mass rescue operations at sea by coastal states, as well as encouragement of the Make in India initiative through preference in public procurement.
  • Various difficulties concerning the western states’ borders, security, infrastructure, transportation, and industry.

What exactly are Zonal Councils?

  • Zonal Councils are statutory (rather than constitutional) bodies.
  • They are founded by a Parliamentary Act, the States Reorganisation Act of 1956.
  • The act split the country into five zones: Northern, Central, Eastern, Western, and Southern, with each zone having its own zonal council.
  • Several variables were considered when creating these zones, including:
  • The country’s natural divides.
  • River systems and communication methods
  • The shared cultural and linguistic heritage.
  • Economic development, security, and law and order requirements

Aside from the Zonal Councils described above, a North-Eastern Council was established by a separate Act of Parliament, the North-Eastern Council Act of 1971.

Assam, Manipur, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Tripura, and Sikkim are among its members.

These are advisory organisations that provide recommendations on any item of shared interest in the realm of economic and social planning between the Centre and the States, such as boundary disputes, linguistic minorities, inter-State transportation, or issues related to state reorganisation.

  • The Northern Zonal Council is made up of the following states:
  • Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan, the National Capital Territory of Delhi, and the Union Territory of Chandigarh.
  • The Central Zonal Council includes Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh.
  • The Eastern Zonal Council is made up of Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Sikkim, and West Bengal.
  • The Western Zonal Council is made up of the states of Goa, Gujarat, and Maharashtra, as well as the union territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli.
  • The Southern Zonal Council is made up of the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Puducherry, as well as the Union Territory of Puducherry.
Structure of the Organization:
  • Each of these Councils is chaired by the Union Home Minister.
  • Vice Chairman: By rotation, the Chief Ministers of the States involved in each zone serve as Vice-Chairman of the Zonal Council for that zone, each for a year at a time.
  • Members: The Chief Minister and two other Ministers from each state selected by the Governor, as well as two members from Union Territories included in the zone.
  • Advisers: The Planning Commission (now NITI Aayog) nominates one person for each of the Zonal Councils, as well as Chief Secretaries and another officer/Development Commissioner appointed by each of the Zone’s member states.
  • Bringing forth national integration is one of the goals.
  • Putting a stop to the rise of acute state consciousness, regionalism, linguism, and particularistic inclinations.
  • Allowing the Center and the States to collaborate and share ideas and experiences.
  • Creating a climate of cooperation among states for the successful and timely completion of development initiatives.
Functions of the Councils:

 Any matter of common interest in the field of economic and social planning, Any matter concerning border disputes, linguistic minorities, or inter-State transportation, Any matter connected with or arising from the reorganisation of the States under the States Reorganization Act

One candidate, one district

Why in the news?

Recently, the Chief Election Commissioner requested that the Ministry of Law and Justice limit a candidate’s ability to run for only one seat.

  • It also suggested a prohibition on exit polls and opinion polls, as well as various restrictions on conducting and publicising the findings of opinion polls from the day an election is initially announced until the election is completed in all of its phases.

What is the context?

  • According to Section 33(7) of the RPA (Representation of the People Act), 1951, a single candidate may run in a maximum of two constituencies.
  • More constituencies were permitted until 1996, when the RPA was revised to limit the number of constituencies to two.
  • Since 1951, many politicians have used this factor to run for more than one seat – sometimes to divide the opponent’s vote, sometimes to demonstrate their party’s power across the country, sometimes to cause a ripple effect in the region surrounding the constituencies in favour of the candidate’s party, and all parties have taken advantage of Section 33. (7).

What are the Problems?

One act cancels out another:
  • Because no Candidate can represent more than one Constituency, the concept of this system appears illogical and ridiculous.
  • The irony of Portion 33(7) of the RPA is that it leads to a situation in which it is contradicted by another section of the same Act — notably, Section 70.
  • While Section 33(7) enables candidates to run for two seats, Section 70 prohibits candidates from representing two Lok Sabha/state constituencies. Assembly.

A by-election strains the public purse:

  • When one of the constituencies is sacrificed, a by-election is automatically triggered shortly after the general election.
  • For example, after winning both Vadodara and Varanasi in 2014, Prime Minister Narendra Modi left his seat in Vadodara, prompting a by-election.
  • Lakhs of taxpayer rupees must be spent because of a by-election that could have easily been avoided.
  • Prior to 1994, when candidates could run for up to three seats, the financial burden was significantly greater.

Voters Lose Interest:

  • Not only are repeated elections pointless and costly, but they also cause voters to lose interest in the voting process.
  • Invariably, fewer voters will show out to vote in the by-election than in the primary election a few days earlier.

What are the Benefits of Running for Two Seats?

  • The system of one candidate and two constituencies gives the polity and candidates a “wider option.”
  • Eliminating the rule could jeopardise the rights of candidates running in elections and limit the polity’s ability to choose candidates.

What are the Election Commission’s recommendations?

  • The Election Commission proposed changing Section 33(7) to allow only one candidate to run for a single seat.
  • This occurred in 2004, 2010, 2016, and 2018.
  • A method should be established in which if a candidate runs in two constituencies and wins both, he or she bears the financial burden of holding the subsequent by-election in one of the constituencies.
  • A Vidhan Sabha election would cost Rs 5 lakh, while a Lok Sabha poll would cost Rs 10 lakh.

What are exit surveys and opinion polls?

  • An opinion poll is a pre-election survey that collects voters’ perspectives on a variety of election-related matters.
  • An exit poll, on the other hand, is done immediately following a vote to measure support for political parties and their candidates.

What exactly are exit polls and opinion polls?

  • An opinion poll is a pre-election survey that gathers people’ views on a variety of election-related issues.
  • An exit poll, on the other hand, is conducted soon after a vote to assess support for political parties and candidates.

The Way Forward

The adage “one person, one vote” is a founding premise of Indian democracy. Maybe it’s time to change and broaden that philosophy to “One person, one vote; one candidate, one constituency.”

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