Daily Mains Newsletter for UPSC 18 Jan 2022

Daily Mains Newsletter For
UPSC | RaghukulCS

18 Jan 2022 - Tuesday

Index

Table of Contents

Quantum Technology and India:

Introduction:

  • The worldwide quantum economy has made great gains in recent years, thanks to huge expenditures from both governments and the private sector.
  • Since the previous decade, countries such as the United States, France, Germany, China, and Russia have been investing resources and human capital in Quantum Technology; nevertheless, India may have to work overtime to close the gap in its effort to achieve dominance in this sector.
  • While India has not made much headway in the realm of quantum technology yet, it is better late than never. The establishment of the National Mission for Quantum Technologies and Applications demonstrates India’s resolve to catch up with other technologically sophisticated nations (NM-QTA).

The Quantum Tech:

  • Quantum Technology is founded on the concepts of quantum mechanics, which were established in the early twentieth century to explain nature on the atomic and elementary particle scales.
  • The first phase of this ground-breaking technology laid the groundwork for comprehending the physical universe and resulted in the widespread use of lasers and semiconductor transistors.
  • A second revolution is presently underway with the objective of bringing quantum physics’ characteristics into the world of computation.

A Comparative Study of India and China:

  • In 2008, China began doing research and development (R&D) in the realm of quantum technology.
  • By 2022, China will have developed the world’s first quantum satellite, established a quantum communication line connecting Beijing and Shanghai, and acquired two of the world’s fastest quantum computers.
  • This was the culmination of a decade-long research effort aimed at attaining important advances.
  • Quantum Technology continues to be a highly focused area of long-term research and development in India.
  • Without a consistent emphasis on R&D, just a few hundred researchers, industry experts, academics, and entrepreneurs are now working on the subject.
  • Large technology companies such as Google, Microsoft, and IBM have established programmes devoted to quantum computing and its applications.
  • Similarly, numerous Indian businesses, like QNu Labs, BosonQ, and Qulabs.ai, are pioneering the development of quantum-based technologies for cryptography, computation, and cybersecurity.

India’s Corresponding Initiatives:

  • In 2018, the Department of Science and Technology introduced the Quantum-Enabled Science and Technology (QuEST) initiative, committing Rs. 80 crore over three years to expedite research.
  • In his 2020 Budget address, India’s Finance Minister announced the establishment of the National Mission for Quantum Technologies and Applications (NM-QTA), which would invest Rs. 8000 crore over five years to enhance the country’s quantum sector.
  • In October 2021, the government will also launch C-Quantum DOT’s Communication Lab and present a Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) solution created in-house.

Associated Difficulties

  • Although the NM-QTA was introduced in the 2020 Budget address, the mission has yet to gain approval, and no money has been allocated, distributed, or used under the NM-QTA for fiscal years 2020-21.
  • Additionally, the Union Minister of Science and Technology asserted that no private sector partners had been discovered for the NM-QTA and that no one outside the government had been consulted for the national mission.
  • Quantum computing has the potential to break cryptographic encryption, which is used to safeguard communications and computers.
  • It may also represent a problem for the government since if this technology falls into the wrong hands, all the government’s official and secret data will be vulnerable to hacking and exploitation.
  • The difficulty is in utilising the quantum superposition features in a highly regulated way. Qubits are notoriously delicate and quickly lose their “quantumness” if not carefully regulated.
  • Additionally, they need a careful selection of materials, design, and engineering to function well.
  • On the theoretical front, the task is to develop quantum computing algorithms and applications.

The Path Forward

  • The primary objective should be to design a comprehensive plan for the next 10-15 years.
  • The strategy must guarantee that resources are not misallocated and that efforts are focused on critical areas that give economic and strategic advantages.
  • Additionally, the government’s main objective must be to pay enough attention to individuals who can contribute to the development of quantum technology.
  • It would also be advisable to establish a regulatory framework for quantum computing before its widespread availability, outlining the parameters of its permissible usage on a national and worldwide level.
  • The major objective must be to build quantum science and technology centres of excellence inside university institutions and government research organisations.
  • A substantial portion of the Indian government’s expenditure must be directed toward such organisations specialising in quantum R&D.
  • State governments may play a critical role in establishing semiconductor fabrication facilities in the near future.
  • The construction of cooperative “quantum innovation centres” by the Centre and states may aid in the effective allocation of resources and the establishment of a well-connected quantum research network in the nation.
  • It is necessary to harness the power of start-ups and large technology businesses engaged in the development of quantum technologies and applications.
  • While academic institutions play a significant role in research, quantum technology firms and start-ups are critical in translating and commercialising this knowledge into useful applications or products.
  • Quantum technology agreements with the United States, Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom, among others, should serve as a foundation for India to explore cooperative quantum technology initiatives.

Conclusion

The Indian government has taken the first step by recognising the relevance of quantum technologies by announcing its intention to launch a national mission in the country.

However, more work must be done in the areas of research and development and assuring active engagement of the business sector and academics, which may be accomplished via bilateral and international collaborations.

Criminalizing Intimate Partner Violence

What is the point of contention?

  • According to the Centre’s submission to the Delhi High Court, it was taking a constructive approach to the problem of criminalising marital rape.

What is rape in marriage?

  • The term “marital rape” (also known as spousal rape’) refers to unwelcome sexual relations between a man and his wife that are gained by coercion, the threat of coercion, or physical assault, or when she is unable to agree.
  • Poland was the first country to enact legislation clearly criminalising it in 1932.
  • India, along with Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Egypt, Algeria, and Botswana, is one of the nations that have not criminalised marital rape.

What provisions exist in India for marital rape?

  • Section 375 of the IPC defines rape and the idea of consent but excludes married couples from both definitions.
  • Sexual intercourse between a man and his own wife provided the woman is not under the age of 15, is not rape.
  • The genesis of the marital rape exemption may be found in the 1736 English treatise on criminal law known as the ‘History of the Pleas of the Crown.’ This exemption has subsequently been revoked in a number of nations, including England, which considered marriage to be a partnership of equals.
  • According to the World Bank, at least 78 nations, including the United States and Nepal, have explicit laws criminalising marital rape.
  • The Justice Verma Committee, which was established in 2012 to overhaul criminal legislation, has recommended eliminating the exemption for marital rape.

What is the obnoxious aspect of the exception?

  • It violates the right to bodily integrity, which was recognised in the case of State of Maharashtra v. Madhukar Narayan Mardikar, in which the court said that no one has the right to violate another’s person.
  • It is a violation of Article 14. (Right to equality)

How does the judiciary perceive the situation?

  • The Supreme Court increased the age of consent for married women to 18 in a 2017 decision, but that decision addressed only instances of child marriage, not the broader problem of marital rape.
  • In 2017, the Supreme Court criminalised rape with a minor wife in Independent Thought vs. Union of India.
  • A two-judge panel of the Kerala High Court affirmed a family court’s judgement to grant a divorce based on marital rape as physical and emotional cruelty.
  • In August 2021, the Chhattisgarh High Court decided that sexual intercourse or any sexual act between a husband and his spouse does not constitute rape, even if it is coerced or performed without the permission of a lawfully married woman.
  • In Joseph Shine vs. Union of India, 2018, the Supreme Court declared adultery to be a crime, stating that it is no longer accepted that when a woman joins a married partnership, she relinquishes her personality and rights.

What is the position of the Centre on this issue?

  • The administration has said repeatedly that criminalising marital rape would have a detrimental effect on the institution of marriage.
  • It said that doing so would violate Article 21. (Right to privacy).
  • There is a possibility that it would be abused by wives to harass their husbands under Section 498A of the Indian Penal Code (harassment committed against a married woman by her husband and in-laws) and the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005.
  • The Centre said that it was exploring a constructive approach to the problem of criminalising marital rape and has solicited recommendations for comprehensive criminal code revisions from a variety of stakeholders and agencies.

Ethics | Paper – IV

Forgiveness:

  • Forgiveness is often characterised as an individual, voluntary internal process of letting go of resentment, bitterness, wrath, and the desire for revenge and retribution against someone, including oneself, whom we think has harmed us.
  • Forgiveness is defined as the act of resolving previous grievances or persistent hostility toward a person or individuals. When you are angry with someone and then accept his apologies, you have shown forgiveness.

 

Transparency:

  • Transparency in government essentially implies that citizens should have access to public information whenever they wanted. They should be informed about the actions of public authorities and the manner in which policies are executed.
  • For Example, the uploading of data and information by government organisations and departments in accordance with the RTI laws.

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