Daily Mains Newsletter for UPSC 19 Jan 2022

Daily Mains Newsletter For
UPSC | RaghukulCS

19 Jan 2022 - Wednesday


Table of Contents

India appealed against the WTO's sugar ruling


  • India appealed to the WTO’s Appellate Body a decision of the WTO’s dispute resolution panel on sugar subsidies.

What is the point of contention?

  • In 2019, Australia, Brazil, and Guatemala filed a WTO complaint against India.
  • They said that the Indian government’s subsidies to sugar producers (including domestic and export subsidies) violate the limitations allowed by WTO trade regulations. India’s offer
  • They claim that these subsidies have resulted in greater sugar output and a decline in sugar prices on the worldwide market.
  • Subsidies cannot exceed 10% of the overall value of sugar production, as stipulated by WTO standards.
  • The WTO concluded that India’s sugar policy favoured indigenous producers at the expense of international producers via subsidies.
  • The panel suggested that India immediately remove suspected unlawful subsidies within 120 days of the report’s acceptance.
  • India provides assistance under
  • Assistance with Production
  • Buffers Stock
  • Marketing and Transportation Methodologies
  • India has argued that the WTO’s dispute panel judgement contains several inaccuracies and is thus absolutely unacceptable.
  • India is the world’s second-biggest producer of sugar, after Brazil.

What position does India take?

  • India has contended before the World Trade Organization that it does not provide direct subsidies to sugarcane growers and hence does not violate any international trade rules.
  • The other nations oppose mandating a minimum price (Fair and Remunerative Price) for sugar mills to purchase sugarcane from farmers in India.
  • States may also establish minimum procurement prices that are greater than the Centre’s to account for local realities.
  • It is thought that the government’s high procurement price for sugarcane contributed to a supply glut, which resulted in a decline in sugar prices.
  • The low price of sugar has impacted mills’ income and capacity to pay farmers, and numerous sugar mills are trapped in a debt trap due to stagnating consumer demand for sugar.
  • The Centre has even ordered the mandatory mix of sugarcane-derived ethanol with conventional fuels like gasoline and diesel.
  • State governments and the central government have intervened on several occasions to alleviate sugar mills’ financial burdens.
  • Earlier this month, the Centre agreed to restructure the Sugar Development Fund’s loans to sugar mills totalling more than Rs. 3,000 crore.
  • The Centre also approves cash on a monthly basis to encourage sugar mills to export sugar, depending on world sugar prices.
  • The Centre earmarked a total of Rs. 3,500 crore in the previous year’s budget to subsidise the export of 6 million tonnes of sugar.

What is the future possibility?

  • India has appealed to the WTO’s Appellate Body a decision by the WTO’s dispute resolution panel on sugar subsidies.
  • The WTO Appellate Body’s ruling on the dispute will be regarded final.
  • However, the WTO’s appellate body remains inactive due to disagreements among member nations over how to choose members, and it is already dealing with outstanding issues.
  • If India does not comply with the judgement, it may face retaliatory actions from other nations, including increased taxes on Indian exports and other harsh measures.
  • While such retaliatory actions may assist producers in these nations, they will impact consumers who have benefited from decreased sugar prices as a result of India’s subsidies.
  • These acts will undermine the WTO’s core mission.

Livestock Population in India


  • According to the twentieth livestock census, India now has a livestock population of roughly 537 million, with 95.8 percent residing in rural regions.
  • With the majority of the country’s livestock concentrated in rural and isolated locations, access to veterinary services is a significant barrier.
  • Livestock producers are often forced to travel great distances from their communities in order to cure their animals, which has a detrimental effect on their livestock’s lifespan and output.

India’s Livestock Sector:

  • India has 56.7 percent of the world’s buffaloes, 12.5 percent of the world’s cattle, 2.4 percent of the world’s camel population, and 3.1 percent of the world’s poultry (2nd largest poultry market in the world).
  • The livestock sector accounts for 4.11 percent of GDP and 25.6% of overall agriculture GDP. Rapid expansion in this sector has the potential to result in more equitable and inclusive growth.
  • This is because the majority of people involved are small landholders and landless farmers.

Now, the emphasis is on Mobile Veterinary Units (MVUs):

  • To address this issue, the Government has identified a number of measures under the updated Livestock Health and Disease Control(LH&DC) programme
  • A particular emphasis has been placed on ‘Establishment and Strengthening of Veterinary Services – Mobile Veterinary Units (MVUs).’
  • Until date, the government has provided doorstep services for artificial insemination and animal immunisation.
  • The Mobile Veterinary Units (MVUs) will be based on the doorstep delivery approach since most livestock producers cannot readily reach fixed hospitals.
  • The Parliamentary Standing Committee of the Union Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry, and Dairy has noted that insufficient diagnostic and treatment facilities for veterinary illnesses represent a significant issue, even more so given that zoonotic disease cases are increasing dramatically.
  • The majority of communities in the nation lack testing facilities, and when samples are obtained, they must be taken to surrounding blocks/districts for analysis.
  • Thus, Mobile Veterinary Units (MVUs) may play a critical role in bridging this gap.

Obstacles confronting cattle ranchers include the following:

  • According to the K. Jain Committee Report, livestock producers have higher problems than typical agricultural farmers, particularly when it comes to financing and livestock insurance.
  • Given that the majority of livestock producers have between two and four animals per family, extending the life and productivity of their livestock will contribute significantly to relieving rural poverty.
  • Currently, the nation is home to around 66,000 veterinary hospitals, polyclinics, dispensaries, and assistance centres.
  • And the LH&DC programme intends to address the constraints of stationary hospitals by bringing veterinary diagnosis and treatment services to farmers’ doorsteps for sicknesses, diseases, or any other emergency veterinary condition through mobile veterinary units.
  • A typical MVU now consists of a four-wheeler van with room for one veterinarian, one para-veterinarian, and a driver/attendant.
  • It also has room for needs such as diagnostic, therapy, and minor surgery equipment, as well as other basic requirements for the treatment of animals, awareness-raising audio-visual aids, and GPS tracking of the vehicle.
  • The LH&DC system provides for one MVU per lakh animals; however, in places with challenging terrain, the number of vans in service may be greater.

Resistance to antibiotics:

  • Untrained animal health experts, have historically been popular in rural India due to their low consultation fees and easy accessibility.
  • This has resulted in the improper administration of antibiotics as a result of erroneous prescriptions, particularly in instances of mastitis (inflammation of the udder in cattle).
  • Thus, antimicrobial resistance issues arise when an animal ceases to react to medicine to which it was previously receptive.
  • Antimicrobial resistance may be generated by a variety of circumstances, including excessive or insufficient doses, improper drug duration, and over prescription.
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified antibiotic-resistant “priority pathogens” that are the most dangerous to human health.
  • The Mobile Veterinary Units (MVUs) approach will help combat antimicrobial resistance.

Mobile Veterinary Units (MVUs) in the Livestock Sector:

  • As Mobile Veterinary Units (MVUs) become more prevalent around the nation, job prospects for veterinarians and assistants will increase significantly.
  • During the new coronavirus pandemic’s lockdown/s, we saw innovations from start-ups that enabled video consultations between livestock farmers and veterinarians, as well as applications that offer extensive information to farmers about livestock health and nutrition.
  • As a result, the private sector has a lot of room for innovation and involvement in the field of animal health and Mobile Veterinary Units (MVUs).
  • Additionally, as the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) model, becomes more prevalent, the Mobile Veterinary Units (MVUs) concept is prepared to deliver larger returns on investment.
  • For most farmers, cattle mortality or sickness might mean the difference between nutrition and hunger.
  • The animal health problem is exacerbated by the increased presence of medication distributors’ sales representatives in rural regions.


  • With a rising population, continual increases in food inflation, an unpleasant increase in farmer suicides, and the majority of India’s people engaged in agriculture as the main employment, animal husbandry is no longer a choice, but a necessity in today’s world.
  • Its effective, long-term, and skilful execution will significantly improve the socio-economic conditions of our society’s bottom strata.
  • Connecting animal husbandry, food processing, agriculture, research, and patents has the potential to transform India into a nutritional powerhouse of the globe.

Ethics | Paper – IV


  • Persuasion is the process of persuading another person or oneself to adopt a certain attitude by logical or symbolic methods.
  • Persuasion is an effort to gain the target’s “heart and mind.” Persuasion is a strategy used to try to change someone’s views, attitudes, intentions, motives, or behaviours.
  • Public service initiatives encouraging people to recycle and stop smoking are excellent examples of how persuasion may be used to enhance people’s lives.


  • Hedonism is a school of thought that holds that pursuing pleasure and avoiding pain are the sole factors that contribute to overall wellbeing.
  • Moral hedonism is a philosophical position that combines the ideals of hedonism with welfarist ethics, according to which what we should do is solely determined by how it impacts the well-being of individuals.
  • Hedonism, as an ethical system, holds that the pursuit of pleasure should be the primary objective of human existence. Hedonism is characterised by a relentless pursuit of pleasure and happiness.

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