Daily Mains Newsletter for UPSC 21 Jan 2022

Daily Mains Newsletter For
UPSC | RaghukulCS

21 Jan 2022 - Friday

Index

Table of Contents

Time for Governance 4.0

Context:

  • While the covid epidemic and the various issues created may begin to diminish in the next year, a slew of other concerns, ranging from climate action failure to the eroding of social cohesion, do not seem to be going away.
  • To address these issues, leaders will need to adopt a new, more inclusive governance model. However, in recent years, the public’s trust in their leaders seems to be ebbing.
  • A sound governance model acts as an unseen guarantor of economic and social stability. It is past time for the world to transition from its old, ineffective methods of governance to Governance 4.0, as advocated at the World Economic Forum’s Davos Summit, which emphasises on long-term strategic thinking with more inclusiveness.

Governance:

  • ‘Governance’ refers to the decision-making process and the mechanism through which choices are executed. It is applicable to a variety of situations, including corporate governance, international governance, national governance, and municipal governance.

Governance 1.0:

  • Following WWII, both public and corporate governance were characterised by the reign of a “strong leader”.
  • This style of leadership functioned effectively in a culture where knowledge was expensive, hierarchical administration was generally straightforward, and technological and economic advancements benefitted practically everyone.

Governance 2.0

  • Governance 2.0 arose around the end of the 1960s and emphasised the supremacy of material riches, coinciding with the advent of “shareholder capitalism.” and the growing financialization of the world.
  • Managers who were only answerable to shareholders ruled supreme and have worldwide reach. While the 2008 global financial crisis provided a setback to this strategy, its limited vision survived.

Governance 3.0:

  • Crisis management predominates decision-making, with leaders focused only on operational concerns and displaying a blatant contempt for unintended consequences.
  • The covid shock ushered in Governance 3.0, and this model’s iterative approach has resulted in haphazard handling of the epidemic and its aftermath.

Consequences of Inadequate Governance:

  • Inadequate or weak governance is a risk factor for disasters and is associated with a number of other risk factors, including poverty and inequality, and poorly planned urban expansion.
  • Poor governance often leads to suffering for the most vulnerable, including the poor, the elderly, women, children, and the environment.

The Requirement for a New Governance Model:

  • Global governance continues to face an unsolved issue, both institutions and leaders are no longer fit for purpose.
  • As the Fourth Industrial Revolution and climate change continue to wreak havoc on contemporary life, public and corporate governance must adapt.
  • A new governance paradigm is needed for the planet, one that prioritises society and environment before business and profit.

Approaches in Governance 4.0

  • Governance 4.0 must replace the existing focus on short-term results with a long-term strategic mindset.
  • Concentrating on pandemics, socioeconomic crises, and people’s mental health is necessary, but so is action to combat climate change, reverse biodiversity loss and environmental degradation caused by human activities, and handle associated difficulties such as forced migration.
  • The new model will supersede the tunnel vision and top-down approach of the old. In an increasingly complex and linked world rife with discontinuities, the duties of each stakeholder in society must evolve.
  • Enterprises cannot continue to overlook their social and environmental implications, and governments must also be held accountable for ensuring that businesses take responsibility.
  • The reliance on a limited view of economics and short-term financial concerns must end. Rather than that, any new government structure must be founded on the supremacy of community and environment.
  • While finance and business are important, they must serve society and the environment, not the other way around.
  • Numerous leaders, notably corporate CEOs who advocate for environmental, social, and governance measures, as well as certain political leaders, are eager to pioneer a new era of governance.
  • Such leaders should be embraced as trailblazers who advocate for a particular action to combat climate change and address social inequality.

Conclusion:

Although the measurement of stakeholder accountability is still in its infancy, the establishment of uniform measures will help us to determine whether leaders are adopting a wider perspective of their roles and responsibilities.

Antimicrobial Resistance: A Big Concern

Introduction:

  • Hundreds of thousands of people die each year as a result of formerly curable illnesses such as lower respiratory and bloodstream infections that have developed resistance to treatment.
  • A comprehensive assessment of the global impact of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), spanning 204 countries and territories and published in The Lancet, found that 27 million people died in 2019 as a direct result of AMR, which has surpassed HIV/AIDS and malaria as the leading cause of death worldwide.

About Antimicrobial Resistance:

  • Recently, the United Nations (UN) began classifying antimicrobial resistance (AMR) as a concern on a level with Ebola and HIV.
  • Antibiotic resistance is a subset of antimicrobial resistance, or AMR, which is a microbe’s capacity to withstand medication’s effects.
  • Antimicrobial resistant-microbes exist naturally and are found in humans, animals, food, and the environment (in water, soil and air).
  • They may spread between humans and animals, particularly via animal-derived food, as well as from person to person.
  • Inadequately handled sewage effluent carrying resistant bacteria that contaminates the environment further exacerbates the burden of AMR.
  • Inadequate infection control, unsanitary facilities, and improper food handling all contribute to the development of AMR.
  • AMR is aided by improper medication usage, such as the use of antibiotics to treat viral diseases such as the flu.
  • WHO established the Global Antimicrobial Monitoring System (GLASS) in 2015 to collaborate closely with WHO-collaborating centres and established antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks.
  • Countries participating in GLASS are invited to progressively adapt the surveillance criteria and indicators in accordance with their national objectives and available resources.

Antimicrobial Resistance in India: A Quick Overview

  • India has one of the highest rates of bacterial illnesses in the world.
  • Each year, an estimated 4,10,000 children aged five or younger die of pneumonia in India, accounting for about 25% of all child mortality.
  • Today, India’s crude death rate from infectious illnesses is 417 per 100,000 people.
  • In fisheries, the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) has prohibited the use of antibiotics and a number of other pharmacologically active drugs.
  • In the chicken business, where many commercially available pre-mixed meals include antibiotics, there is no oversight.

The Factors That Contribute to Acquired Antimicrobial Resistance:

  • Antimicrobials are overused, misused, and used improperly (e.g., antibiotics are used to treat viral illnesses).
  • In underdeveloped nations, increased availability to over-the-counter antibiotics.
  • Antibiotics with a wide range of action rather than antibiotics with a restricted scope of action (targeting specific microbes only).
  • Dumping of pharmaceutical company effluents that have been improperly handled.
  • Antibiotics are used in modest dosages in cattle feed to promote growth in developed nations.
  • Inadequate sanitation and hygiene necessitate the prolonged usage of antimicrobials.

Global Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (GRAM) report:

  • The Global Research on Antimicrobial Resistance (GRAM) study estimated mortality associated with 23 infections and 88 pathogen-drug combinations using statistical modelling.
  • Apart from the 7 lakh fatalities directly attributable to AMR (which would not have happened if the illnesses had been drug-susceptible), additional 49.5 lakh deaths were directly attributable to AMR.
  • In 2019, it is expected that HIV/AIDS and malaria killed 8.6 lakh and 6.4 lakh people, respectively.
  • Of the 23 infections analysed, medication resistance caused 9.29 lakh fatalities directly and was linked with 3.57 million deaths in six (E coli, S aureus, K pneumoniae, S pneumoniae, A baumannii, and P aeruginosa).
  • A single pathogen-drug combination — methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or MRSA – has been directly responsible for almost 1 lakh fatalities.
  • Resistance to two kinds of antibiotics – fluoroquinolones and beta-lactam antibiotics – that are often regarded as the first line of defence against serious infections accounted for more than 70% of AMR-related fatalities.

Why is this report important?

  • This is the first time we have evidence-based estimates of the potential morbidity and death costs of medication resistance.
  • We attempted to determine the potential burden of these illnesses in the nation.
  • However, drug-resistant illnesses are not documented as causes of death, but rather as symptoms or the ailment for which the patient was hospitalised.
  • It has not yet been connected to clinical outcomes. That is one of the primary reasons we have not been able to convince lawmakers to take meaningful action to solve the issue.

Conclusion:

  • A multi-stakeholder strategy is required, including corporate business, charitable organisations, and citizen activists. Private pharmaceutical businesses must assume responsibility for medication distribution.
  • While charitable organisations must support the research of new antibiotics, citizen activists must raise awareness.
  • These stakeholders must understand that the only way to halt the spread of resistance is to enhance cleanliness and immunisation rates.
  • Thus, increasing public knowledge and comprehension is the most critical component in combating antibiotic resistance. AMR is a growing hazard to global public health that demands action from all levels of government and cultures.

Ethics | Paper – IV

Accountability:

  • Individuals who are held accountable are required to explain, justify, and accept responsibility for their actions.
  • Accountability is synonymous with answerability, blameworthiness, culpability, and the expectation of account-giving in terms of ethics and governance. 
  • For example, Accountability is shown when an employee confesses to making a mistake on a project.

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