Daily Mains Newsletter for UPSC 25 Jun 2022

Daily Mains Newsletter For
UPSC | RaghukulCS

25 June 2022 -Saturday


Table of Contents

Damage from Remaining Floods During Intensive Adaptation

In News, why?

  • The risk of river flooding is anticipated to rise with climate change and socio-economic development, according to a recent study titled Residual Flood Damage under Intensive Adaptation.
  • By attempting to quantify the cost of residual flood damage, residual flood damage under intensive adaptation attempts to determine the worldwide cost of implementing adaptive flood solutions based on local economic scenarios and cost adaption techniques (RFD).

RFD definition ?

  • RFD is the term used to describe increases in flood damage that are inescapable despite adaptation plans with manageable adaptation costs.
  • Infrastructure improvements that reduce flood hazards are a part of an adaptation plan in the context of floods.
  • RFD is a portion of the expected annual damage as a whole (EAD).
  • The average of flood damages determined across several occasions makes up the anticipated annual damage.
  • It is produced by subtracting future EAD projections from historical EAD (1970–2000). (set to 1000 years).

What have you discovered?

  • If Assam’s pace of readiness and climate adaption doesn’t pick up, it will take 943 years of flood protection measures to prevent a crisis like the one it is currently experiencing.
  • With 62 percent more rainfall than typical from March to May in 2022—a 10-year high—the flooding began as early as May.
  • As of right now, flooding along the Brahmaputra basin has impacted 33 of Assam’s 35 districts. As of June 20, over 100,000 hectares of agriculture had suffered damage from this year’s floods, which have affected over 4.2 million people.
  • It will take 966, 935, and 996 years for other flood-prone states including Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and Meghalaya, respectively.
  • Riverine floods, one of the greatest natural disasters in India, have come to be associated with financial losses. The Central Water Commission calculated that from 1953 to 2017, the country suffered losses from floods totaling more than Rs 37 lakh crores.
  • RFD and adaptive expenses are each anticipated to be over USD 4 million in South Asia.
  • Eastern China, northern India, and the central African continent all continued to have high rates of RFD (as a percentage of GDP).

Describe Flood.

  • It is the overflow of water onto typically dry ground. Floods can occur as a result of strong rains, incoming waves from the ocean, rapid snowmelt, or the failure of dams or levees.
  • Only a few inches of water are necessary for destructive floods to occur, or a property may be completely submerged. Floods can happen suddenly or gradually over a long period of time, lasting for days, weeks, or even longer. Of all weather-related natural disasters, floods are the most frequent and pervasive.
  • Because they combine the devastation of a flood with tremendous speed, flash floods are the most dangerous type of flooding.
  • When the capacity of the ground to absorb heavy rainfall is exceeded, flash floods happen.
  • They also happen when water fills typically dry creeks or streams or when enough water builds up for streams to overflow their banks, leading to quick elevations in water levels.
  • They can occur minutes after the precipitation that caused them, making it difficult to notify and safeguard the public in advance.
  • Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction; National Flood Commission Disaster Management Act; Flood Plain Zoning; National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA);

Open Network for Online Trading

In News, why?

  • The government recently began the Open Network for Digital Commerce (ONDC) pilot phase with the goal of “democratising” the nation’s rapidly expanding digital e-commerce market, which is currently controlled by the two U.S.-headquartered companies, Amazon and Walmart.

Describe ONDC.

  • About: The ONDC platform, which is supported by the government and is available to all users, intends to democratise e-commerce by transforming it from a platform-centric paradigm to an open marketplace for the exchange of goods and services.
  • A buyer registered on one participating e-commerce site (such as Amazon) may buy items from a vendor on another participating e-commerce site under the ONDC (for example, Flipkart).
  • Currently, for a transaction to take place through the same platform, both the buyer and the seller must be on the same app. For instance, in order to purchase a goods from an Amazon vendor, the buyer must visit Amazon.
  • It is a non-profit organisation that will provide a network to let any network-enabled applications find and interact with local digital commerce establishments across industries.
  • Beyond the retail industry, the open network concept encompasses all digital commerce categories, such as wholesale, mobility, food delivery, logistics, travel, urban services, etc.
  • All currently available digital commerce applications and platforms have the option to voluntarily embrace and join the ONDC network; it is neither an aggregator application nor a hosting platform.
  • The ONDC seeks to advance open networks built utilising open-sourced methodologies, open specifications, and open network protocols, independent of any particular platform.


  • By standardising processes like inventory management, order management, and order fulfilment, the ONDC will make it simpler and easier for small enterprises to be found online and conduct business.
  • Potential Problems: Experts have identified a few probable potential problems, including the need for more e-commerce platforms to sign up and problems with customer support and payment integration.

What does it all mean?

  • Buyers and sellers can conduct business on ONDC regardless of the e-commerce portal they are linked to.
  • Smaller internet shops and new entrants may benefit greatly from this.
  • For larger e-commerce enterprises, who have their own procedures and technology in place for various operational sectors, a mandate for this could be a challenge.
  • The ONDC is anticipated to digitise the entire value chain, standardise operations, encourage supplier inclusion, increase logistical efficiency, and improve value for customers.
  • The platform allows for equal-opportunity participation and is anticipated to increase consumers’ access to and inclusion in e-commerce by allowing them to possibly find any seller, good, or service by using any compatible application or platform.
  • As a result, ONDC will genuinely be a “open network for democratic commerce” that supports transactions of any denomination.
  • The ONDC anticipates adding 90 crore customers and 12 lakh suppliers to the network during the following five years, enabling 730 crore more sales.

Urban Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana

In News, why?

  • Seven years of successful execution of the Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY)-Urban programme have recently been concluded.
  • PMAY-U has so far approved 122.69 lakh homes with a total investment of Rs 8.31 lakh crore, of which more than 1 crore have been grounded and more than 61 lakh have been finished and given to the beneficiaries.

Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana-Urban: What is it?

  • As part of the government’s objective to provide urban housing for all by the year 2022, the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs is implementing the Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY) (MoHUA).
  • By offering a rebate on the Interest Rate of a Home Loan during Repayment via EMI, it makes Home Loans Affordable for the Urban Poor (Equated Monthly Installments).
  • The Mission helps urban residents in the EWS/LIG and MIG categories, including slum dwellers, who face a housing crisis.
  • EWS (Economically Weaker Section): A family’s annual income is limited to Rs. 3,00,00.
  • Low Income Groups (LIG) and Middle Income Groups (MIG I & II) have annual family income caps of Rs. 6,00,000 and Rs. 18,00,000, respectively.
  • A beneficiary family will consist of a husband, wife, and any unmarried daughters or sons.
  • In Situ Slum Redevelopment (ISSR) is one of the four verticals of PMAY-U.
  • In order to provide houses to qualified slum dwellers, this vertical would be executed with the idea of “Land as a Resource” with private sector participation.
  • Slum: A densely populated area with at least 300 people, or roughly 60 to 70 houses, that is poorly built, congested, and located in an unclean environment without adequate sanitary or drinking water amenities.
  • Benefits of EWS, LIG, MIG (I & II) beneficiaries seeking housing loans from banks, housing finance companies, and other similar organisations for purchasing, building, or improving homes are eligible for an interest subsidy of: 6.5 percent on loan amounts up to Rs. 6 Lakh.
  • 3 percent on loans up to 12 lakh rupees, and 4 percent on loans up to 9 lakh rupees
Partnership for Affordable Housing (AHP):
  • A project for affordable housing may include a mix of homes in various categories, but it will qualify for Central Assistance if at least 35% of the project’s homes fall under the EWS category.
  • Beneficiary-led individual home construction (BLC): Eligible families belonging to EWS categories are provided with Central Assistance up to Rs. 1.5 lakh per EWS dwelling for individual house building/improvement.
  • Demand-driven Housing shortage decisions are made in accordance with demand assessments made by the States and Union Territories under PMAY-U, enhancing the cooperative federalist spirit (UTs).
  • Except for the CLSS vertical of the PMAY-U, which is being implemented as a Central Sector Scheme, the Mission is carried out as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS).
  • The Union government fully funds all Central Sector Schemes, which are carried out by the Central Government apparatus.
  • State governments implement the Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS), with a portion of the financing coming from the States.
  • The practise of adding location information to various media, such as photography, is known as geotagging.
  • According to the PMAY-U regulations, the state government is required to make sure that every house constructed under the programme is geotagged to the Bhuvan HFA (housing for all) application.
  • The Indian Space Research Organization created the Indian Geo Platform known as Bhuvan (ISRO).
  • Users can access a variety of map-related services through this web-based application.
Women’s Empowerment:
  • The Mission supports women’s empowerment by allowing female members to own homes solely or jointly.
  • Women (with a top priority for widows and unmarried women), people from Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes/Other Backward Classes, minorities, people with impairments, and transgender people are also given preference.
  • Affordable Rental Housing Complexes (ARHCs) are one of the programmes funded by PMAY-U.
  • It falls under PMAY-sub-scheme. U’s
  • Having access to decent, cheap rental accommodation close to their place of employment will make it easier for urban migrants and the impoverished to live in the industrial sector as well as in non-formal urban economies.
  • The Global Home Technology Challenge aims to find and mainstream a variety of cutting-edge, environmentally friendly, and disaster-resistant construction technologies for the housing construction industry.
  • All stakeholders, including the MoHUA, central nodal agencies, primary lending institutions, beneficiaries, and citizens, are integrated on the CLSS Awas Portal (CLAP), an unified platform that operates in real time.
  • The platform streamlines application processing and enables beneficiaries to monitor the status of their subsidies.

Draft Regulations on Child Involvement in the Entertainment Industry

In News, why?

  • Draft Guidelines to Regulate Child Protection within the Entertainment Industry have been published by the National Commission for the Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR).
  • The Commission released the “Guidelines to Regulate Child Participation in the Entertainment Industry” in 2011. With the latest draught, social media and Over-the-Top (OTT) platforms are now included in the rules’ expanded purview.

What are the New Guidelines’ Main Highlights?

The District Magistrate’s approval:
  • The District Magistrate in the area where the activity will take place must now be consulted by anyone planning to produce an audio-visual media production or a commercial event involving children.
  • A disclaimer stating that precautions were taken to prevent child abuse, neglect, or exploitation must be displayed by producers throughout the duration of filming.
  • Stringent Penal Provisions: The commission has also required that child performers and youngsters utilised in entertainment must be registered with District Magistrates and that breaking the rules will result in harsh penalties, including jail.
Provisions of Various Acts:
  • Parents who exploit their kids for financial gain must face consequences. The provisions of the several Acts that safeguard children have now been incorporated into the recommendations.
  • The standards have been updated to include provisions from the Juvenile Justice Act of 2015, Child Labor Amendment Act of 2016, Protection of Children from Sexual Offenses Act of 2012, Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules of 2021, etc.
  • Under numerous laws, including the Child and Adolescent Labor Act of 1986, the Protection of Children from Sexual Offenses Act of 2012, and the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act of 2015, various penalties for offences have been established.
  • The new regulations will encompass TV shows including reality shows, serials, news and educational media, movies, content on OTT platforms, content on social media, performing arts, advertisements, and any other way that kids are exposed to commercial entertainment.\
  • Children cannot be cast in roles or situations that are inappropriate for their age, maturity, emotional or psychological development, or sensitivity. Children also cannot be subjected to behaviour that could harm their emotional well-being, such as taunting, humiliating, or discouraging them.
  • Children cannot be portrayed drinking, smoking, or using any other drugs, or engaging in any type of antisocial behaviour or criminal action.
  • Any activity involving nudity is prohibited for children.
  • During a shoot, at least one parent, legal guardian, or known individual must be present. For newborns, the parent, legal guardian, and a registered nurse must also be present.
  • Harmful lighting and tainted cosmetics are prohibited. Minors, especially those under the age of six, are not allowed to be exposed to these things.
  • Every member of the cast or crew who might come into contact with children during the performance must provide a medical fitness certificate attesting to their health and stating that they do not have any visible communicable diseases. The employees must also have their identities verified by the police.
Ensure Child’s Education:
  • In accordance with the Right to Education (RTE) Act of 2009, the producer is also required to guarantee the child’s education. This includes providing the kids with enough nourishing food, drink, and medical facilities while they are working on the production.
  • A youngster is only permitted to work one shift each day, with breaks every three hours.
  • Revenue of the Child Placed in a Fixed Deposit: At least 20% of the child’s income from the production or event must be deposited immediately into an account in the child’s name with a nationalised bank. This account may be credited to the child upon reaching majority.
Content Developed by the Child or his Family/Guardian:

  • According to Section 3(2)(a) of the Child Labor and Adolescent Labour Act of 1986, content created by the Child or his Family/Guardian shall be treated as children working in a family enterprise.

What Children-Related Constitutional Provisions Are There?

  • Every child is guaranteed by the Constitution the right to live in dignity, the right to personal liberty, the right to privacy, the right to equality, the right against discrimination, and the right against exploitation (Articles 21 through 25). (Article 23 & 24).
  • Every kid in the age range of 6 to 14 has the right to a free, required basic education (Article 21 A)
  • The State is required by the Directive Principles of State Policy, and in particular Article 39(f), to ensure that children are provided with the opportunities and resources they need to develop in a healthy way, in conditions of freedom and dignity, and that childhood and youth are safeguarded against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment.

Short Range Vertical Launch Air to Surface Missile

In News, why?

  • Defense Research & Development Organization (DRDO) and the Indian Navy recently conducted successful flight tests of the Vertical Launch Short Range Surface to Air Missile (VL-SRSAM) from an Indian Naval Ship at Integrated Test Range (ITR), Chandipur off the coast of Odisha.
  • Important Information: VL-SRSAM was created and developed jointly by three Defense Research and Development Organization facilities for the deployment of Indian Naval warships.
  • The missile is capable of destroying a variety of close-range airborne threats, including sea-skimming targets.
  • Many anti-ship missiles, as well as some fighter or strike aircraft, employ the sea skimming manoeuvre to evade radar and infrared detection.
  • The missile’s design enables it to strike fast-moving aerial targets at a range of 40 to 50 km and an altitude of roughly 15 km.
  • Its design is based on the Beyond Visual Range Air to Air Missile known as the Astra.
  • The Defence Research and Development Organization created the Astra (“weapon”) air-to-air all-weather beyond-visual-range active radar homing missile for India.
  • A Beyond-Visual-Range (BVR) missile is an air-to-air missile that can engage targets at distances of at least 20 nautical miles.


  • Cruciform wings:
  • These four tiny wings, which are positioned in the shape of a cross on either side of the projective, provide a stable aerodynamic posture.
  • Thrust vectoring refers to the capability of a missile to vary the angular velocity, attitude, and direction of the thrust from its engine.
  • The force that propels an aeroplane through the air is called thrust.
  • Canisterized system: By controlling the interior climate, it is easier to transport and store the weapon and extends its shelf life.

Naval combat

It is a conflict that takes place in and on the sea, the ocean, or any other area where there is a significant body of water, like a sizable lake or wide river.

Protection Mechanism

  • A technological countermeasure, it shields naval ships from adversary radar and radio frequency (RF) missile seekers.
  • Anti-ship missile defense missiles
  • These systems need to be able to detect warships quickly and react to them quickly.

Aayog NITI

In News, why?

  • Amitabh Kant, the CEO of NITI (National Institution for Transforming India) Aayog, is slated to step down, and Parameswaran Iyer, the former secretary of the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, will take his position.

NITI Aayog: What is it?

  • Background
  • On January 1st, 2015, the Planning Commission was replaced by a new organisation called NITI Aayog, with an emphasis on the “Bottom-Up” method to envision the vision of Maximum Governance, Minimum Government, mirroring the spirit of “Cooperative Federalism.”
  • Two Hubs are present.
  • The Team India Hub serves as a conduit between the States and the Center.
  • The Knowledge and Innovation Hub develops NITI Aayog’s capacity as a think tank.
  • Chairperson: Prime minister
  • Vice-Chairperson: To be chosen by the Prime Minister Governing Council: Lt. Governors of Union Territories and Chief Ministers of all states.
  • Regional Council: To address particular regional issues, comprised of the Chief Minister and the Lt. Governors, and presided by by the Prime Minister or a candidate for the position.
  • Ad-hoc Membership: Two ex-officio members on a rotating basis from prestigious research institutions.
  • Maximum of four ex-officio members from the Union council of ministers will be chosen by the prime minister.
  • Chief Executive Officer: Awarded the status of Secretary to the Government of India by the Prime Minister for a specific period of time.
  • Special Invitees: Subject-matter experts and specialists selected by the prime minister.
  • With the understanding that strong States lead to a strong nation, the objectives are to continuously promote cooperative federalism through organised support initiatives and procedures with the States.
  • to create methods for creating reliable plans at the village level and gradually combining these at higher tiers of governance.
  • to make sure that the interests of national security are taken into account in economic strategy and policy in sectors that are particularly mentioned.
  • should pay close attention to the groups in our society who might not receive enough benefits from economic advancement.
  • To offer guidance and promote collaborations between important stakeholders, like-minded Think Tanks on a national and international level, and institutions involved in policy research and education.
  • to establish a collaborative network of national and international specialists, practitioners, and other partners in order to encourage knowledge, innovation, and entrepreneurship.
  • providing a forum for the resolution of cross-departmental and cross-sectoral disagreements in order to hasten the implementation of the development agenda
  • to continue operating a cutting-edge Resource Center, serve as a repository for research on good governance and the best methods for achieving sustainable and equitable development, and assist in spreading this information to stakeholders.

Why is the Establishment of NITI Aayog Important?

  • The Planning Commission, a 65-year-old institution, was no longer necessary. In a command economic structure, it was important, but not now.
  • India is a diverse nation, and each of its states has unique strengths and weaknesses as well as different economic growth stages.
  • A “one size fits all” method of economic planning is no longer appropriate in this situation. In the current global economy, it cannot make India competitive.

What are the corresponding worries and difficulties?

  • NITI Aayog lacks the authority to make a transformative intervention because it has no discretionary funding authority to offer to states.
  • It only serves as a consultative body, advising the government on a variety of matters without vouching for the viability of its recommendations.
  • NITI Aayog has little influence over either public or private investment.
  • The organisation has recently become more politicised.
  • The NITI Aayog has been reduced to a glorified advisory organisation with insufficient authority to influence the government’s policies.

What are the NITI Aayog’s initiatives?

  • India SDG Index
  • Water Management Index Composite
  • SATH Project for Atal Innovation.
  • Desirable District Program
  • Index of School Education Quality
  • Index for District Hospitals
  • Health Rating
  • Farmer-friendly reform index and agriculture marketing
  • Index of Indian Innovation
  • Good Governance Index by Women Transforming India

Way ahead

  • giving the planning body the necessary authority so that it can bring about change.
  • It is necessary to allocate enough resources.
  • It is possible to hold it legally liable to the legislature for failing to accomplish the goals. More accountability would result from this.
  • Make sure the planning body continues to be an impartial organisation.
  • It is necessary to break the bureaucratic inertia by specialising it and establishing performance-based accountability.
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