Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

01 April 2021

Table Of Contents

Science and Technology 
  • Mars Missions 
Polity and Governance
  • Overseas Citizens of India (OCI)
Governmental Schemes 
  • Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana-Gramin 
International Relations 
  • New Development Bank 
Places in News
  • Nile River 
  • Sabarmati River Front Development project

Science and Technology

Mars Missions

Why in News?

NASA exchanges data of its Mars mission with India and some other countries to lower the risk of a collision, as their spacecraft are orbiting the Mars.

About NASA’s Mars 2020 Mission

It is designed to improve our understanding of the geology of Mars and look for possible signs of ancient life on the planet.

  • Its duration is at least one mars year (about 687 Earth days).
  • Planned Mission Steps:
    • Collect
    • Fetch
    • Transfer
    • Return


  • Perseverance Rover, part of this missionis the most sophisticated mobile laboratory sent to Mars.
  • It’s landing site is Jezero Crater.
  • Jazero Crater is an ancient river delta that has rocks and minerals that could only form in water.

India’s Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM)/ Mangalyaan

  • It was launched from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Andhra Pradesh by ISRO in 2013.
  • It was launched by a PSLV C-25 rocket.
  • It aimsto studyMartian surface, mineral composition as well as scan its atmosphere for methane (an indicator of life ever present on Mars).

Polity and Governance

Overseas Citizens of India (OCI):

Why in News?

There is some change in rules of carrying passports of OCI card holders.

About OCI:

  • Overseas Citizenship of India (OCI) Scheme was started in 2005 by making amendments to Citizenship Act, 1955.
  • In 2015, the Government of India merged PIO (Person Of Indian Origin) card with OCI card.



  • Person applying for OCI card must hold a valid Passport of another country.
  • Individuals who do not have citizenship of any other country are ineligible to apply for OCI status.
  • Individuals whose parents or grandparents hold/held citizenship of Pakistan and Bangladesh are ineligible to apply for OCI status.

Benefits for OCI cardholders:

  • Lifelong Visa to visit India multiple times.
  • No need to register with Foreigners Regional Registration Officer (FRRO) or Foreigners Registration Officer (FRO) for any duration of stay.
  • Except for acquisition of agricultural and plantation properties, they have similar facilities which are extended to NRIs in economic, financial and educational fields.
  • Treated at par with NRIs regarding – entry fees for national monuments, practice of professions like nurses,doctors, dentists, advocates, architects, etc.

Restrictions for OCI Card Holders:

  • Do not have right to vote.
  • Do not have right to any public service/government jobs.
  • Cannot hold offices of – Prime Minister, President, Vice -President, Judge of Supreme Court and High Court, MP or MLA or MLC.
  • Cannot own agricultural property.

Governmental Schemes

Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana-Gramin

Why in News?

Due to the adverse impact of Covid-19, onlyabout 5% of the sanctioned houses under the PMAY-Gramin, have reached its completion stage for the year 2020-2021.

About PMAY-G:

  • Launched in 2016.
  • Objective: “Housing for All” by 2022
  • Under Ministry of Rural development.
  • Aim:
    • Provide a pucca house equipped with basic amenities to all rural families, who are homeless or living in kutcha houses.
    • To help rural BPL people in construction of dwelling units and upgradation of existing unserviceable kutcha houses by aiding in the form of a full grant.
  • Beneficiaries: SCs/STs, freed bonded labourers, widows or next-of-kin of defence personnel killed in action, ex-servicemen and retired members of the paramilitary forces, disabled persons and minorities.
  • Selection of Beneficiaries is done through a three process:
    • Socio Economic Caste Census 2011,
    • Gram Sabha, and
    • Geo-tagging.

International Relations

New Development Bank

Why in News?

Finance Minister has urged the NDB to consider working closely with India’s new development financing institution for funding infrastructure projects in India.

About New Development Bank

  • During the Sixth BRICS Summit in 2014the leaders agreed to establish the New Development Bank (NDB) by Fortaleza Declaration.
  • The aim of the bank is to mobilize funds for infrastructure and sustainable development in the countries.
  • The ownership structure of NDB is unique, as each of the BRICS countries have an equal share and no country has any veto power.
  • NDB is headquartered in Shanghai, China.

About BRICS:

  • BRICS is an acronym for the grouping of the world’s leading emerging economies, i.e., Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa.
  • The British Economist Jim O’Neill coined the term BRIC in 2001 to describe the four emerging economies of Brazil, Russia, India, and China.
  • The grouping was formalisedin 2006.
  • South Africa joined BRIC in 2010, after which the group adopted the changed acronym BRICS.
  • The chairmanship of BRICS is rotated annually among the members, in accordance with the acronym B-R-I-C-S.
  • The BRICS Leaders’ Summit is convened annually.

Places in News

Nile River

Why in News?

The dispute over water sharing of Nile river has again resurfaced among the basin countries, particularly due to Ethiopia building a giant dam over one of the river’s large tributary.

About Nile River:

  • The River Nile flows through Africa.
  • It originates in Burundi, a country south of the equator, flowing northward through north-eastern Africa, and later flowing through Egypt and before finally draining into the Mediterranean Sea.
  • Source of water: One of the main sources isLake Victoria, and other feeder rivers like the Kagera
  • The Nile River is considered as the longest rivers in the world.
  • The Nile basin includes parts of Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, Congo (Kinshasa), Kenya.
  • The River forms an arcuate delta before emptying into the Mediterranean Sea.
  • Deltas with triangular or fan-shape are called arcuate (arc-like) deltas.

Sabarmati River Front Development project:

Why in News?

It is an environmental improvement and urban rejuvenation project to renew Ahmedabad.

About Sabarmati river:

  • It is one of the fewwest flowing riversapart from Narmada and Tapti.
  • Origin: Aravalli hills near in Udaipur Dist of Rajasthan.
  • Mouth of river: Gulf of Khambat
  • Important City located on its bank: Ahmedabad.

Started From 14 Mar 2021

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