Daily Prelims Newsletter(UPSC)|01 JUN 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

01 June 2021-Tuesday

Table Of Contents

Environment

  • Kaziranga National Park 

Science and Technology

  • Vitamin-D
  • Biofuels 

Economy 

  • NPCI (National Payments Corporation of India) 

Polity and Governance 

  • Central Vigilance Commission

Environment

Kaziranga National Park

Why in News?

Kaziranga National Park was in news recently.

About Kaziranga National Park:

  • Located in Assam as indicated in the image.
  • It is also the single largest undisturbed and representative area in the Brahmaputra Valley floodplains.

Protection Status:

  • In 1974, it was declared as National Park.
  • In 2007, it was declared as a tiger reserve.

International Status:

  • It was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in the year 1985.
  • It is also recognized as an Important Bird Area by BirdLife International.

Important Species Found:

  • It has the world’s largest population of one horned rhinoceros.
    • However, Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary has the highest density of one-horned rhinos in the world.It also has second highest number of Rhinos in Assam after Kaziranga National Park.
  • Most of the focus of conservation efforts in Kaziranga NP are focused on the big four species—Royal Bengal tiger, Rhino, Elephant, and Asiatic water buffalo.
  • Kaziranga NP is also home to 9 of the 14 species of primates found in the Indian subcontinent.
  • Important Water Body: Diphlu River running through it.
  • Other national parks in Assam are:
    • Dibru-Saikhowa National Park,
    • Manas National Park,
    • Nameri National Park,
    • Rajiv Gandhi Orang National Park.

Science and Technology

Vitamin-D

Why in News?

Recently, a study published has highlighted that high Vitamin-D levels reduce risks of COVID infection.

About Vitamin-D:

  • It is a fat-soluble vitamin naturally present in very few foods like fish liver oils, beef liver, cheese, and egg yolks.
  • It can also be produced endogenously
    (inside the body) when ultraviolet rays from sunlight strike the skin and trigger vitamin-D synthesis.

Role of Vitamin-D:

  • It helps maintain adequate calcium and phosphate concentrations in blood therebypreventing weakening of bones.
  • It also has other roles in the body like cell growth, neuromuscular and immune function, and reduction of inflammation.

Effects of Deficiency of Vitamin-D:

  • Rickets in children and Osteomalaciae., softening of bones in adults.
  • Bones can become thin, brittle, or mis-shapen.

Biofuels

Why in News?

According to International Energy Agency (IEA), transport biofuel production declined 8% globally in 2020 as the pandemic limited travel.

About Biofuels:

  • Any hydrocarbon fuel produced from an organic matter (living or once living) in a short period (days, weeks, or even months) is referred as a biofuel.
  • They may be solid, liquid or gaseous in nature:
    • Solid: Wood, dried plant material, manure, etc.
    • Liquid: Bioethanol, Biodiesel
    • Gaseous: Biogas.
  • Usage:
    • Can replace or be used in addition to diesel, petrol or other fossil fuels for transport, and other applications.
    • Can also be used to generate heat and electricity.
  • Reasons in favour of use:
    • the rising prices of oil,
    • High emission of the greenhouse gases from fossil fuels,
    • Augment farmer’s income, by obtaining fuel from agricultural crops.

Categories of Biofuels

  1. First generation biofuels:
  • Made from food sources like sugar, starch, vegetable oil, or animal fats using conventional technology.
  • Examples:Bioalcohols, Biodiesel, Bioethers, Biogas, etc.
  1. Second generation biofuels:
  • Produced from non-food crops or non-edible and crop wastes, e.g. stems, husks, wood chips, and fruit skins, etc.
  • Converted to bio-fuels by thermochemical reactions or biochemical conversion.
  • Examples: cellulose ethanol, biodiesel, etc.
  • These biofuels emit less greenhouse gases as compared to first generation biofuels.
  1. Third generation biofuels:
  • Produced from micro-organisms like algae.
  • Example: Butanol
  • Micro-organisms like algae can be grown on land and water unsuitable for normal food production.
  • However, fertilizers used in the production of such organisms lead to environment pollution.
  1. Fourth Generation Biofuels:
  • Genetically engineered crops which take in high amounts of carbon are used and harvested as biomass.
  • These crops are further converted into fuel using second generation techniques.

Some of such fuels are considered as carbon negative since their production pulls out carbon from environment.

Economy

NPCI (National Payments Corporation of India)

NPCIhas recentlytied up with Turkey’s global payment solutions company PayCore, to drive cashless payments across the country.

About NPCI:

  • National Payments Corporation of India acts as an umbrella body for operation of retail payment in India.
  • It was established by the RBI and Indian Bank’s Association under the provisions of the Payment and Settlement Systems Act, 2007.
  • Presently, NPCI operates the following payment systems:
    • National Financial Switch (NFS).
    • Immediate Payment System (IMPS).
    • RuPay Cards- Debit cards, prepaid cards, credit cards
    • National Automatic Clearing House (ACH).
    • Aadhaar Enabled Payments System (AEPS).
    • Operation of Cheque Truncation System.
  • Products of NPCI:
    • National Common Mobility Card.
    • Bharat Interface for Money (BHIM).
    • Unified Payments Interface (UPI).
    • Bharat Bill Payment System.

Polity and Governance

Central Vigilance Commission

Why in News?

GoI has seeked applications for the post of CVC asking applicants to write 300 words assay justifying their suitability to the post.

About CVC:

  • It is the apex vigilance institution created via executive resolution, based on the recommendations of Santhanam committee in 1964.
  • Later, in 2003 it was conferred with statutory status by Central Vigilance Commission Act, 2003.
  • It submits its report to the President of India annually.
  • On receipt of such report, the President causes the report to be laid before each House of Parliament.
  • The CVC is notunder any Ministry/Department. It is an independent body responsible only responsible to the Parliament.
  • CVC has no investigation wing of its own.
  • It depends on the CBI and Chief Vigilance Officers (CVO) of central organizations.

Composition:

  • Consists of CVCs along with 2 other vigilance commissioners.

Appointment

  • They are appointed by the President of India on the recommendations of a committee consisting of:
    • Prime Minister,
    • Union Home Minister and
    • Leader of the Opposition in Lok Sabha (if there is no LoP then the leader of the single largest Opposition party in the Lok Sabha).

Term in Office:

  • Their term is 4 years or 65 years, whichever is earlier.
  • Removal:
  • The CVC or any VCs can be removed from his office only by order of the

The grounds for removal are proved misbehavior or incapacity concluded as such by the Supreme Court enquiry on a reference made to it by the President.

Sale is Live

New Arrivals Magazines

Buy This Magazine at Just @50 Rs.

Click On Magazine Image  to Buy.

Buy This Magazine at Just @30 Rs.

Click On Magazine Image  to Buy.

Buy This Magazine at Just @30 Rs.

Click On Magazine Image  to Buy.

Share With Your Friends

Share on facebook
Facebook
Share on twitter
Twitter
Share on linkedin
LinkedIn
Share on whatsapp
WhatsApp
Share on print
Print

Leave a Reply