Daily Prelims Newsletter|02 July 2021|RaghukulCS|UPSC

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

02 July 2021-Friday

Table Of Contents

Science and Technology

  • Herd Immunity


  • Core Sector

Polity and Governance

  • Central Vigilance Commission

Art and Culture

  • Kalbeliya Dance Form

International Relations

  • International Monetary Fund

Science and Technology

Herd Immunity

Why in News?

Many experts believed Israel has achieved Herd Immunity but recent spike in cases due to Delta variant has created a matter of concern.

About Herd Immunity:

  • Community immunity or herd Immunity occurs when a large number of people are vaccinated or have developed immunity against a disease, lowering the chances of others being infected by it.
  • When a sufficient percentage of population is vaccinated, it slows the spread of disease.
  • The decline of disease incidence is greater than the proportion of individuals immunized either by vaccines or recovering from virus.
  • It happens because vaccination reduces the spread of an infectious agent by reducing the amount and/or duration of pathogen shedding by vaccines, retarding transmission.
  • This approach requires infected people to build natural immunity and stop the human-to-human transmission. Thus, the disease spread will be subsequently


Core Sector

Why in News?

Six out of the eight core sectors recentlyreported 16.8% positive growth, largely due to the base effects from May 2020.

About Eight Core Sectors:

  • Eight core industries (in decreasing order of their weightage) are:
    • Petroleum and Refinery Products
    • Electricity
    • Steel
    • Coal
    • Crude Oil
    • Natural Gas
    • Cement
  • These comprise about 40% of the weightage of items included in the Index of Industrial Production (IIP).

Related Information: IIP (Index of Industrial Production)

  • It tracks manufacturing activity in different sectors of the economy.
  • Published by the Central Statistical Organisation (CSO) under MoSPI every month.
  • It classifies the industry groups under:
    • Broad sectors like manufacturing, mining, and electricity.
    • Use-based sectors like capital goods, basic goods, intermediate goods, infrastructure goods, consumer durables, and consumer non-durables

Polity and Governance

Central Vigilance Commission

Why in News?

Vigilance Commissioner Suresh Patel has taken charge of new CVC.

About CVC:

  • It is the apex vigilance institution created via executive resolution, based on the recommendations of Santhanam committee in 1964.
  • Later, in 2003 it was conferred with statutory status by Central Vigilance Commission Act, 2003.
  • It submits its report to the President of India annually.
  • On receipt of such report, the President causes the report to be laid before each House of Parliament.
  • The CVC is notunder any Ministry/Department. It is an independent body responsible only responsible to the Parliament.
  • CVC has no investigation wing of its own.
  • It depends on the CBI and Chief Vigilance Officers (CVO) of central organizations.


  • Consists of CVCs along with 2 other vigilance commissioners.


  • They are appointed by the President of India on the recommendations of a committee consisting of:
    • Prime Minister,
    • Union Home Minister and
    • Leader of the Opposition in Lok Sabha (if there is no LoP then the leader of the single largest Opposition party in the Lok Sabha).

Term in Office:

  • Their term is 4 years or 65 years, whichever is earlier.
  • Removal:
  • The CVC or any VCs can be removed from his office only by order of the
  • The grounds for removal are proved misbehavior or incapacity concluded as such by the Supreme Court enquiry on a reference made to it by the President.

Art and Culture

Kalbeliya Dance Form

Why in News?

Recently, an app called chendavia is gaining popularity among the learners of Kalbeliya dance. 
AboutKalbeliya Dance:

  • This dance is considered as an expression of the Kalbelia community’s (of Rajasthan) traditional way of life.
  • Kalbeliya Dance was included in the UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organizations) list of Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH) in 2010.
    • UNESCO’s List of ICH is made up of those intangible heritage elements which help demonstrate diversity of cultural heritage propagate about its importance.
  • The dance form consists of swirling and graceful movements which make it a treat to behold.
  • It is generally performed for any joyous celebrationin the Kalbeliyacommunity.
  • Kalbelia dance is only performed by women while men play the instruments and provide music.


Instruments & Dress:

  • Women with flowing black skirts dance and swirl, thus replicate the movements of a serpent.
  • Men accompany them with the khanjariand poongi instruments, traditionally played to capture snakes.
  • The dancers also wear traditional tattoo designs, jewellery and garments richly embroidered containing small mirrors and silver thread.

Kalbeliya Tribe:

  • People of Kalbeliya tribe were once professional snake handlers, today evoking their former occupation in music and dance that is evolving in new and creative ways.
  • They live a nomadic life and belong to the scheduled tribes.

International Relations

International Monetary Fund

Why in News?

Recently, IMF chief economist Gita Gopinath will be honoured by a prestigious American foundation ahead of the US Independence Day.

About IMF:

  • The IMF was set up in 1945 along with the World Bank after the Second World War to assist the reconstruction of war-ravaged countries.
  • These two organisations were agreed to be set up at a conference in Bretton Woods, USA. Hence, they called as the Bretton Woodstwins.Membership: 189 countries (almost global membership). India joined on 27th December 1945.
  • The IMF’s primary objective is to ensure the stability of the international monetary system i.e., the system of exchange rates which enable countries (and their citizens)to transact with each other.
  • Also, the IMF is mandated to include all macroeconomic and financial sector issues that impact global financial stability.

Important Reports published by the IMF:

  • Global Financial Stability Report
  • World Economic Outlook

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