Daily Prelims Newsletter(UPSC)|03 April 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

03 April 2021

Table Of Contents

Science and Technology 
  • Baikal-Gigaton Volume Detector (GVD)
Art and Culture 
  • Shivakumara Swamigalu
Governmental Initiatives
  • Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS)
Places in News 
  • Nigeria 
  • Ukraine 
News in Short 
  • Dadasaheb Phalke Award

Science and Technology

Baikal-Gigaton Volume Detector (GVD):

Why in News?

Russian scientists recently launched one of the world’s largestunderwater neutrino telescopes called Baikal-GVD underwater Lake Baikal.

About Baikal- GVD:

  • It is designed to study in detail the elusive fundamental particles called neutrinos and also to possibly determine their sources.
  • Other large neutrino detectors in the world:
    • IceCube at the South Pole
    • ANTARES in the Mediterranean Sea.

About Neutrinos:

  • The neutrino is also a tiny elementary particle, like protons and electrons, but arenot part of the atom. Such particles also exist in nature.
  • It has a very tiny mass and no charge.
  • It interacts extremely weakly with other matter particles. Hence, every second trillion of neutrinos falling on us pass unnoticed.
  • Source of Nutrinos:
    • Sun- Solar neutrinos
    • Stars:Stellar neutrinos,
    • Cosmic rays coming from beyond the solar system,
    • From the Big Bang from which our Universe originated.
    • They can also be produced in the lab.
  • The INO will study atmospheric neutrinos only. Solar neutrinos have much lower energy than the detector can detect.
  • Applications of Neutrino Science:
    • Properties of the sun
    • Constituents of the Universe
    • Probing early Universe
    • Medical Imaging, etc
  • India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) is also envisioned with Tata Institute of Fundamental Researchas the nodal institution in Bodi West Hills (Theni district) of Tamil Nadu.

Art and Culture

Shivakumara Swamigalu

Why in News?

Recently, the PM paid tribute to Shivakumara Swamigalu on his Jayanti.

About Shivakumara Swamigalu:

  • He was a prominent Lingayat scholar, educator, and a spiritual leader.
  • He belonged to Ramanagara District, Karnataka.
  • He was recerently called as ”Nadedaaduva Devaru” or the ”Walking God” among his followers.
  • They also was considered him as an incarnation of Basaveshwara, the 12th century social reformer, noted for his acceptance for all irrespective of their religion or caste.

About Lingayats

  • The term Lingayat refers to a person who wears a personal linga, the aniconic form of god Shiva, on the body.
  • They are the followers of the 12th-century social reformer-philosopher poet, Basaveshwara.
  • The Lingayats are strict monotheists. They worship only one God, i.e., Linga (Shiva).

According to Lingayat tradition, the word ‘Linga’doesn’t mean Linga established in temples, but the universal consciousness qualified by the universal energy (Shakti).

Governmental Initiatives

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS)

Why in News?

Recently, the daily wages under MGNREGS have been revised to ₹289 in Karnataka.


  • It was launched in 2006.
  • It is acclaimed as one of the largest work guarantee programmes in the world.
  • Objective:Guarantee 100 days of employment in every financial year to adult members of any rural household willing to do public work-related unskilled manual work.
  • Legal Right to Work:It aimsto addressing the causes of chronic poverty through a rights-based framework.
  • At least one-third of beneficiaries mustbe women.
  • Wages are to be paid according to the statutory minimum wages specified for agricultural labourers in the state under the Minimum Wages Act, 1948.
  • Demand-Driven Scheme: The most iconic part of MGNREGA’s design is its legally backed guarantee for any rural adult to get work within 15 days of demanding it, failing which there is a provision of ‘unemployment allowance’ to the job seeker.
  • Decentralised planning: Significant role of Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) in planning and implementing these works.
  • The act mandates Gram sabhas to recommend the works that are to be undertaken and at least 50% of the works must be executed by the Gram Sabha itself.

Places in News


Why in News?

A fighter jet of Nigeria is allegedly shot down by terrorist group Boko Haram.

About Nigeria:

  • It is a country in West Africa.
  • LandNeighbours:
    • Niger in the north,
    • Chad in the northeast,
    • Cameroon in the east, and
    • Benin in the west.
  • Its southern coast is on the Gulf of Guinea in Atlantic Ocean.

About Lake Chad:


  • Lake Chad is an endorheic freshwater lake bordering the above indicated countries.

  • It has shrunk by over 95% from about 1963 to 1998.


Why in News?

Recently, there has been exchange of words between USA and Russia on issue of Russia’s massive military deployment along Ukraine border.

About Ukraine:

  • Location: Eastern Europe
  • Surrounding Countries:Ukraine is bordered by Belarus, Russia, Moldova Romania, Hungary, Slovakia, and Poland.
  • Surrounding Seas: Sea of Azov, Black Sea.

News in Short

Dadasaheb Phalke Award:

  • Rajinikanth was recently conferred with the Dadasaheb Phalke Award 2019.
  • Dadasaheb Phalke award is India’s highest award in the field ofcinema.
  • It is presented annually at the National Film Awards ceremony by the Directorate of Film Festivals (an organisation set up by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting).
  • The award is given to people for “outstanding contribution to the growth and development of Indian cinema”.
  • It was first presented in 1969. The first recipient was actress Devika Rani, also remembered as “the first lady of Indian cinema.”

Started From 14 Mar 2021

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