Daily Prelims Newsletter(UPSC)|03 JUN 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

03 June 2021-Thrusday

Table Of Contents

Science and Technology 

  • H10N3 bird flu strain 

Polity and Governance 

  • National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) 
  • National Human Rights Commission 
  • Disaster Management Act 

Art and Culture 

  • Kathakali Dance Form 

Science and Technology

H10N3 bird flu strain

Why in News?

Recently, China has reported the world’s first human infection case of the H10N3 bird flu strain.

About H10N3 bird flu Strain:

  • It is a type of bird flu or avian flu. These diseases are common in wild aquatic birds worldwide and can also infect domestic poultry and other bird and animal species.
  • Transmission: The infected birds shed avian flu virus in their saliva, mucus, and poop, and humans can get infected when sufficient amount of the virus gets in the eyes, nose, or mouth, or is inhaled from infected droplets or dust.

Different strains of bird flu:

  • Several strains of bird flu have been discovered among animals in China but mass outbreaks in humans are rare.
  • The last reported human epidemic of bird flu in China occurred in 2016-2017, with the H7N9 virus.
  • H5N8 is another subtype of the Influenza A virus (also called as the bird flu virus). It presents a low risk to humans, however, is highly lethal to wild birds and poultry.

Polity and Governance

National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR)

Why in News?

Supreme Court has directed centre and NCPCR to examine ways to protect children who have suffered personal loss and trauma due to the pandemic.

About NCPCR:

  • NCPCR is a statutory body established in 2007 under, The Commissions for Protection of Child Rights (CPCR) Act, 2005.
  • It is under the administrative control of the Ministry of Women & Child Development.
  • According to this act,a Child is defined as a person in the 0 to 18 yearsof age group.
  • The Commission ismandated to ensure that all Laws and Policies are in consonance with the Child Rights as enshrined in the Constitution of India and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.
  • Under the RTE Act, 2009, the NCPCR can:
    • inquire into complaints about violation of the law.
    • summon an individual and demand evidence.
    • seek a magisterial enquiry.
    • file a writ petition in the High Court or Supreme Court.
    • approach the government concerned for prosecution of the offender.
    • recommend interim relief to those affected.
  • Composition:
    • Achairperson and six members of which at least two should be women.
    • All of them are appointed by GoI for three years.
    • The maximum age to serve in NCPCR is 65 years for Chairman and 60 years for members.

National Human Rights Commission

Why in News?

Former Supreme Court judge Arun Kumar Mishra will be the new chairperson of the NHRC.

About NHRC:

  • Members:
    • Chairman (Retd. Supreme Court Chief Justice or Judge), and
    • Seven other members (of which three are ex-officio members)
  • Appointed by: President, on recommendation of high-powered committee headed by Prime Minister.
  • Selection Committee Members:
    • The Prime Minister (chairperson)
    • The home minister,
    • The Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha
    • The Leader of the Opposition in the Rajya Sabha
    • The Speaker of the Lok Sabha
    • The Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha
  • Tenure of Service: The Chairperson and the members are appointed for 3 years or till the age of 70 years, whichever is earlier.
  • They are eligible for re-appointment in NHRC, but not under any other central or state government.

Key Takeaways:

  • NHRC caninvestigate grievances pertaining to the violation of human rights either suo moto or after receiving a petition.
  • It has the power to interfere in any judicial proceedings involving allegation of violation of human rights.
  • It can visit any jail or any other institution under the control of government to see the living conditions of the inmates and to make recommendations.
  • It can review the safeguards provided under the constitution or any statute for the protection of the human rights and can recommend appropriate measures.
  • It has the powers of a civil court.
  • It can recommend to both the central and state governments to take suitable steps to prevent the violation of Human Rights in the country.
  • It submits its annual report to the President who causes it to be laid before each House of Parliament.

Disaster Management Act

Why in News?

Recently, GoI has served show cause notice on former Bengal Chief SecretaryAlapan Bandyopadhyay under DM Act, 2005.

About the Disaster Management Act, 2005:

  • The stated objective of the DM Act, 2005 is to manage disasters, preparation of mitigation strategies, capacity-building, etc.
  • The Act establishes National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), with the Prime Minister as its chairperson.
  • The Act proposes to the Central Government to constitute a National Executive Committee to assist the NDMA.
  • All State Governments are also mandated to establish respective State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA).

Powers given to the Centre under DM Act, 2005:

  • It provides extensive powers to the central government and NDMA.
  • The Central Government, irrespective of any law in force can issue directions to any authority anywhere in India to facilitate or further assist in the disaster management.

Art and Culture

Kathakali Dance Form

Why in News?

Dr.Kalamandalam Gopi, turned 84 recently, is described as the ‘Evergreen Hero’ of Kathakali.

About Kathakali:

  • Kathakali is a classical dance form associated with Kerala.
  • It derives its name from ‘Katha’ meaning story and ‘kali’ meaning drama.
  • KoodiyattammChakiarkoothu, Ramanattamand Krishnattam are few of the ritual performing arts of Kerala to which the origin of Kathakali is generally attributed to.
  • Kathakali is a blend of dance, music and acting which dramatizes stories, mostly adapted from the Indian epics.
  • It is known for use of heavy make-up and stunning costumes (elaborate masks, huge skirts and big head-dresses).
  • Different facial and costume colours indicate different mental stages & character, e.g.:
    • Green – nobility,
    • Black – wicked,
    • Red patches – combining royalty & evil.
  • Hand gestures, facial expressions with eye movements are important aspect of this dance form.
  • Renowned Malayali poet Vallathol Narayana Menonis known to revive it in modern times.
  • Prominent Artists: Ramankutty Nair and Kalamandalam Gopi, Guru KunchuKurup, Gopi Nath, Rita Ganguly, etc.

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