Daily Prelims Newsletter(UPSC)|04 JUN 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

04 June 2021-Friday

Table Of Contents

Science and Technology

  • Venus Planet 
  • Gaganyaan Mission 

Polity and Governance 

  • Election Commission of India 

International Relations 

  • UN Human Rights Council (UNHRC) 
  • Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) 

Science and Technology

Venus Planet

Why in News?

Recently, NASA announced two new robotic missions to Venus.

About Planet Venus:

  • It is the second planet from the Sun in the solar system.
  • It is also thesixth planet size and mass.
  • It is the second brightest natural object in the night sky after moon.
  • Unlike the other planets in the solar system, onlyVenus and Uranus spin clockwise on their axis.
  • It is the hottest planet in the solar system particularly due tohigh concentration of carbon dioxide which produces an intense greenhouse effect.
  • Venus takes longer to rotate on its axis than to complete one orbit of the Sun, thus aday on Venus is longer than a year.
  • Venus is called Earth’s twindue to similarities in their masses, sizes, and densities and their similar relative locations in the solar system.
  • No planet approaches as close to Earth as Venus; at its nearest it is the closest large body to Earth other than the Moon.
  • Other Missions to Venus:Venus is known to have 90 times the atmospheric pressure of Earth.
    • US:Mariner series, Pioneer Venus 1 and 2, Magellan in 1989.
    • Russia:Venera series
    • Japan:Akatsuki in 2015.
    • Europe:Venus Express in 2005.
    • India plans to launch a new orbiter named Shukrayaan to Venus by 2024.

    Gaganyaan Mission

    Why in News?

    With recent lockdowns in various states, the operation at ISRO have been hit.However, ISRO is using all its resources to keep Gaganyaan mission on time.

    About Gaganyaan Mission:

    • Gaganyaan is a mission by the ISRO aiming to send a three-member crew to space for a period of five to seven days by 2022 when India completes 75 years of independence.
    • Under the GaganyaanMission:
      • Three flights would be sent into orbit.
      • There will be two unmanned flights followed by one human spaceflight.

    • The Gaganyaan’sOrbital Module will have three Indian astronauts, including a woman.
    • It will be designed to circle Earth inlow-earth-orbit i.e., at an altitude of 300-400 km from earth for 5-7 days.

    Payloads envisioned for the mission:

    • Crew module –which will carry human beings.
    • Service module – will be powered by two liquid propellant
    • It will also be equipped with emergency escape and emergency mission abort system.

    Related Information:

    • It will be launched by GSLV Mk III, also referred as the LVM-3 (Launch Vehicle Mark-3).
    • The prospective cosmonauts studied in detail with the systems of the Soyuz manned spaceship in Russia.

    Polity and Governance

    Election Commission of India

    Why in News?

    As per a statement by an official at Election Commission EVM and VVPAT tally data shows 100% match in recently concluded assembly elections.

    About the Election Commission of India

    • The ECI is an autonomousconstitutional authority responsible to administer Union and State election processes in India.
    • The body administers elections to:
      • Lok Sabha,
      • Rajya Sabha,
      • State Legislative Assemblies in states of India,
      • Offices of the President and Vice President in the country.
    • Elections to panchayats and municipalities in the states are conducted by another constitutional body i.e., State Election Commission. Hence such elections are not responsibility of SEC.

    Composition of ECI:

    • Initially,ECI had only one election commissioner but post the Election Commissioner Amendment Act 1989, it has been made a multi-member body.
    • The ECI consists of the Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) and such number of other election commissioners, as the President may from time to time fix.
    • Presently, ECI consists of the CEC and two other Election Commissioners.
    • At the state level, Chief Electoral Officer assists ECI. (Not to be confused with State Election Commissioners who conduct panchayat and municipal elections)

    Appointment& Tenure of Commissioners:

    • The President appoints the CEC and other Election Commissioners.
    • They have a fixed tenure of six years, or up to the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier.
    • They enjoy the same status and receive salary and perks as given to theJudges of the Supreme Court (SC) of India.

    Removal:

    • They can resign anytime by writing to the President of India or can also be removed before the expiry of their term.
    • As per Constitution, the CEC can only be removed from office only through a process of removal similar to that of a SC judge by the Parliament.

    Procedure of Removal

    • He may be removed from office through a motion adopted by Parliament on grounds of proved misbehaviour or incapacity.
    • Removal requires a special majority of 2/3rd members present and voting with support by more than 50% of the total strength of the house.

    NOTE:

    • The Constitution has not prescribed any qualifications for the members of the Election Commission.
    • It also has not specified the term of the members of the Election Commission.
    • The Constitution has also not debarred the retiring election commissioners from any further appointment by the government.

      International Relations

      UN Human Rights Council (UNHRC)

      Why in News?

      Recently, Palestine blamed India for suppressing human rights of its people as India abstained from voting on the latest resolution on the Palestinian issue at UNHRC.

      About UNHRC:

      • The UNHRC is a United Nations body with mission of promoting and protecting human rights around the world.
      • It was reconstituted from its predecessor organisation, the UN Commission on Human Rights.
      • Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland.
      • The UNHRC passes non-binding resolutions on human rights issues through a periodic review of all 193 UN member states called Universal Periodic Review (UPR).
      • It also oversees expert investigation of violations of human rights in specific countries.

      Composition of UNHRC:

      • It has 47 members elected for three-year terms on a regional group basis from 5 groups.
      • To become a member, a country must receiveabsolute majority, i.e. the votes of at least 97 of the 193 states of the UN General Assembly.
      • Member Countries are allowed only two consecutive terms.

      Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)

      Why in News?

      GoI recently approved the signing and ratification of an Agreement on ‘Cooperation in the field of Mass Media’ between the member states of SCO.

      About SCO:

      • SCO is a permanent inter-governmental international organisation.
      • It is a Eurasianpolitical, economic and military organisation striving to maintain peace, security and stability in the region.
      • It was created in the year 2001.
      • SCO’s official languages are Russian and Chinese.
      • Members States:
      • China, Kyrgyzstan,Kazakhstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, India, and Pakistan.
      • SCO has two Permanent Bodies:
        • SCO Secretariat in Beijing,
        • Executive Committee of the Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure (RATS) in Tashkent (Uzbekistan).
      • The Chairmanship of SCO is rotated every year by Member States.

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