Daily Prelims Newsletter|05 July 2021|RaghukulCS|UPSC

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

05 July 2021-Monday

Table Of Contents

Environment

  • Vembanad Lake

Science and Technology

  • Tuberculosis (TB)

Economy

  • GST Compensation Cess
  • Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI)

Polity and Governance

  • President’s Rule

Science and Technology

Vembanad Lake

Why in News?

Kerala houseboats in Vembanad Lake will begin soon amidst a robust vaccination drive in the region.

About Vembanad Lake:

  • It is the longest lake in India.
  • Local Names:
    • Punnamada Lake in Kuttanad,
    • Kochi Lake in Kochi.
  • Several small islands are present in the lake, e.g. Vypin, Mulavukad, Vallarpadam, Nediyathuruthu,Willingdon Island.
  • The lake is popular for The Nehru Trophy Boat Race.
  • GoI has included the Vembanad wetland under National Wetlands Conservation Programme.
  • It was included in the list of wetlands of international importance, under the Ramsar Convention for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands in 2002.
  • It is the second largest Ramsar site in India after the Sundarbans of West Bengal.
  • Location:

Science and Technology

Tuberculosis (TB)

Why in News?

In post COVID period, there is increased number of people diagnosed and suffering from severe Tuberculosis.

About TB:

  • TB is abacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that most often affect the lungs.
  • TB is spread from person to person through the air via cough, sneeze, or spit, as these propel the TB germs into the air.
  • Symptoms: Cough with sputum and blood at times, chest pains, weakness, weight loss, fever and night sweats.
  • TB is a treatable and curable disease.
  • Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a form of TB caused by bacteria that do not respond to first-line TB drugs isoniazid and rifampicin. It is treatable and curable by using second-line
  • Drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) is a more serious form of MDR-TB caused by bacteria that do not even respond to the most effective second-line anti-TB drugs. This is often untreatable.

Initiatives by India on this front

  • The Nikshay Portal: It is a national TB information system to manage information of patients, and treatment.
  • NikshayPoshan Yojana (NPY): Aims to provide financial support to TB patients for their nutrition.
  • TB HaregaDeshJeetega Campaign: Launched in 2019 it showcases the highest level of commitment to eliminate TB.
  • The Saksham Project bythe Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS)- provides psycho-social counselling to DR-TB patients.

Economy

GST CompensationCess

Why in News?

GST Compensation cess to continue beyond 2024 to clear arrears and borrowings.

About GST Compensation

  • Under the GST Compensation Act, 2017, GoI guaranteed the States that they would be compensated for any loss of revenue during the first five yearsafter GST implementation, i.e., until 2022.
  • For this purpose, a cess would be levied on sin and luxury goods.
  • This Act also assumed that the GST revenue of the Stateswould grow at 14% every year, from the amount collected in 2015-16, after all the taxes were subsumed by the GST.

About Compensation cess fund:

  • A compensation cess fund was created through which States were to be paid for any such shortfall.
  • An additional cess was imposed on items like pan masala, cigarettes and tobacco products, aerated water, caffeinated beverages, coal and certain passenger motor vehicles.
  • The GST Act states that the proceeds of cess thus collected and “such other amounts as may be recommended by the [GST] Council” would be credited to GST Compensation Cess fund.

Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI)

Why in News?

Recently, the SEBIhasclear IPO application for Zomato.

About SEBI:

  • It is a statutory body established in 1992 under the provisions of the SEBI Act, 1992.
  • In April 1988, SEBI was stablished as a non-statutory body as the regulator of capital markets in India.
  • SEBI, due to its functions can be referred to as:
    • quasi-legislative-draft regulations,
    • quasi-judicial- conduct inquiries, pass rulings.
    • quasi-executive body- impose penalties.

About Securities Appellate Tribunal

  • SAT is a statutory body established under the SEBI Act, 1992.
  • Composition: A Presiding Officer and Two other members.
  • The Presiding officer of SAT is appointed by the GoI in consultation with the Chief Justice of India or his nominee.
  • It has same powers as vested in a civil court.
  • Appeals against SAT’s decisions can be filedin the Supreme Court.
  • SAT can hear and dispose appeals against orders passes by
    • SEBI or by an adjudicating officer under the SEBI Act,1992.
    • Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA).
    • Insurance Regulatory Development Authority of India (IRDAI).

Polity and Governance

President’s Rule

Why in News?

The Supreme Court has recently agreed to hear a plea seeking directions to the GoI to impose President’s Rule in West Bengal over the alleged incidents of post-poll violence.

About President’s Rule:

  • The President’s Rule is imposed through the invocation of Article 356 by the President on the advice of the Union Council of Ministers (CoM).
  • Under Article 356, the President of Indiais empowered to suspend state government and impose President’s rule in any state if
    • “he is satisfied that such a situation has arisen in which the government of the state cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution”.
  • It is also referred to as ‘State Emergency’ or ‘Constitutional Emergency’.

Implications after imposition:

  • Upon the imposition of this rule, the Council of Ministers will be immediately dissolved.
  • The President caneither suspend or dissolve the state legislative assembly.
  • The state will fall under the direct control of the Union executive, and the Governor will continue to be the head of the proceedings, representing the President of India.

Parliamentary Approval and Duration:

  • A proclamation imposing President’s Rule must be approved by both the Houses of Parliament (Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha) within two months from the date of its issue.
  • The approval takes place through simple majority in both the House, that is, a majority of the members of the House present and voting.
  • Such a proclamation is initially valid for six months and can be extended for a maximum period of three years with the approval of the Parliament, every six months.

Role of Report of the Governor:

  • Under Article 356, President’s Rule is imposed if the “President, upon receipt of the report from the Governor of the State or otherwise, is satisfied that a situation has arisen in which the government of the State cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution”.

Revocation:

  • The President’s Rule may be revoked by the President at any time by a subsequent proclamation.
  • Such a proclamation does not require parliamentary approval.

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