Daily Prelims Newsletter(UPSC)|05 May 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

05 May 2021

Table Of Contents

Science and Technology
  • Ebola Virus Disease
Polity and Governance 
  • National Human Rights Commission 
Governmental Initiatives 
  • Operation Samudra Setu-II 
International Relations 
  • G-7 or ‘Group of Seven’ 
Places in News 
  • Taiwan 

Science and Technology

Ebola Virus Disease

Why in News?

Recently, Congo has declared end of 12th Ebola outbreak in its country.

About Ebola Virus Disease (EVD):

  • EVD was formerly referred as theEbola haemorrhagic fever.
  • It is a severe and often fatal illness in humans.
  • The average EVD fatality rate ranges at around 50%.

Mode of Transmission:

  • Animal to human transmission: It is introduced in the human population through close contact with the blood, secretions, or other bodily fluids of infected animals like chimpanzees, gorillas, monkeys, porcupines, etc.
  • Human-to-human transmission: It spreads via direct contact with blood or body fluids of an infectedperson,or any object contaminated by them.
  • Prevention Methods:
    • Community engagement to inculcate appropriate behaviour.
    • Case to case management, surveillance and contact tracing
  • Treatment Methods:
    • Early support with rehydration,
    • Symptomatic treatment does improve survival rate.
    • As of today there is no licensed treatment proven to neutralise the virus but many blood, immunological and drug therapies are under development.

Polity and Governance

National Human Rights Commission

Why in News?

NHRCtook suo-motu cognisance of media reports regarding the recent violence in West Bengal, post declaration of results.

About NHRC:

  • Members:
    • Chairman (Retd. Supreme Court Chief Justice or Judge), and
    • Seven other members (of which three are ex-officio members)
  • Appointed by: President, on recommendation of high-powered committee headed by Prime Minister.
  • Selection Committee Members:
    • The Prime Minister (chairperson)
    • The Home Minister
    • The Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha
    • The Leader of the Opposition in the Rajya Sabha
    • The Speaker of the Lok Sabha
    • The Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha
  • Tenure of Service: The Chairperson and the members are appointed for 3 years or till the age of 70 years, whichever is earlier.
  • They are eligible for re-appointment in NHRC, but not under any other central or state government.

Key Takeaways:

  • NHRC caninvestigate grievances pertaining to the violation of human rights either suo moto or after receiving a petition.
  • It has the power to interfere in any judicial proceedings involving allegation of violation of human rights.
  • It can visit any jail or any other institution under the control of government to see the living conditions of the inmates and to make recommendations.
  • It can review the safeguards provided under the constitution or any statute for the protection of the human rights and can recommend appropriate measures.
  • It has the powers of a civil court.
  • It can recommend to both the central and state governments to take suitable steps to prevent the violation of Human Rights in the country.
  • It submits its annual report to the President who causes it to be laid before each House of Parliament.

Governmental Initiatives

Operation Samudra Setu-II

Why in News

Indian Navy has recently launched Operation Samudra Setu-II for shipment of Oxygen-filled containers to India.

About Operation Samudra Setu-II:

  • Seven Indian Naval ships have been deployed for shipment of liquid medical oxygen-filled cryogenic containers and associated medical equipment from different countries.

Operation Samudra Setu:

  • Operation Samudra Setu was launched in May 2020 to augment the national effort in repatriating Indian citizens from overseas during the Covid-19 pandemic.
  • It was launched along with Vande Bharat Mission (VBM).
  • VBM was the biggest civilian evacuation exercise to bring back Indian citizens stranded abroad, amidst the coronavirus-induced travel restrictions.
  • It also surpassed the large-scale airlift of 1,77,000 people in 1990 at the onset of the Gulf War.

International Relations

G-7 or ‘Group of Seven’

Why in News?

India has been invited to the G7 meeting as a guest country.

About G7:

  • It is an intergovernmental organisation formed in 1975.
  • It meets annually to discuss issues of common interest like global economic governance, international security and energy policy.
  • The groupdoesn’t have a formal constitution or a fixed headquarters.
  • The decisions taken by the leaders during annual summits are non-binding on the member countries.
  • Members:G7 is a bloc of industrialized democracies i.e.France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, Japan, the United States, and Canada.
  • In 1997, G7 was joined by Russia and it was renamed as G8.
  • However, the group came to be recalled G7, since Russia was expelled as a member in 2014 following Russia’s annexation of the Crimea region of Ukraine.
  • Apart from leaders of member countries, important international organizations like European Union, IMF, World Bank and the United Nations are also invited to its summits.

    Places in News

    Taiwan

    Why in news?

    India has recently received assistance from Taiwan, including batches of oxygen concentrators and cylinders.

    About Taiwan:

    • Taiwan is also referred as the Republic of China (ROC).
    • It is an island off the southern coast of China.
    • It has been independently governed from mainland China since 1949.
    • Neighbours:
      • China (officially the People’s Republic of China, PRC),
      • Japan,
      • Philippines
    • Taiwan holds distinction as the most populousstate that is not a member of the United Nations and also the largest economy outside the UN.
    • It is considered aglobal leader in chip manufacturing.
    • PRC views the island as a province, while in Taiwan (a territory with its own democratically elected government) leading political voices have differing views on the island’s status and its relationship with the mainland China.

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