Daily Prelims Newsletter(UPSC)|07 JUN 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

07 June 2021-Monday

Table Of Contents


  • Black Carbon 

Science and Technology

  • Anti-hail Gun Test 


  • National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT) 

Governmental Initiatives 

  • SAGE (Senior-care Ageing Growth Engine) Initiative 

International Relations 

  • Financial Action Task Force (FATF) 


Black Carbon

Why in News?

The World Bank in recently conducted research study stated the impact of Black Carbon over the Himalaya, Karakoram, and Hindu Kush (HKHK) mountain ranges, where glaciers are known to be melting faster than the global average ice mass.

The report is titled as “Glaciers of the Himalayas, Climate Change, Black Carbon and Regional Resilience”.

Important findings in the report:

  • Black carbon deposits generated by human activity accelerate the pace of glacier and snow meltdown in the Himalayan region.
  • The rate of retreat of HKHK glaciers is estimated to be faster in the eastern side than the western side (0.3 metres per year in the west to 1.0 metre per year in the east).
  • Deposits of BC hastening the pace of glacier melt in two ways:
    • by decreasing surface reflectance of sunlight (Albedo) and
    • by raising air temperature.

About Black Carbon (BC):

  • It is a short-lived pollutant that is the second-largest contributor to warming of the Earthafter carbon dioxide (CO2).
  • Unlike the other greenhouse gas emissions, BC can be quickly washed out and thus be eliminated from the atmosphere if emissions stop.
  • BC generally is a localised source of warming with greater local impact.
  • BC is formed through the incomplete combustion of
    • fossil fuels,
    • biofuel,
    • biomass, etc.,

and, it is emitted in both anthropogenic and naturally occurring soot.

Sources of black carbon in HKHK regions:

  • Industry- primarily brick kilns, and
  • Residential burning of solid fuel,
  • On-road diesel fuels,
  • Open burning in the region.

Science and Technology

Anti-hail Gun Test

Why in News?

To help out horticulturists and agriculturalists who face crop damage due to hailstorms, the Government of Himachal Pradesh will soon be testing the use of indigenously developed Anti-hail guns.


  • It is produced by cumulonimbus clouds, which are mostly large and dark and cause thunder and lightning.
  • In these clouds, winds blow up the water droplets to heights where they freeze into ice.
  • The frozen droplets then begin to fall but are soon pushed back up by the upward winds and more droplets further freeze onto them, thereby resulting in multiple layers of ice on the hailstones.

  • Since, this fall and rise is repeated several times, the hailstones become too heavy and fall down.

About Anti-hail guns:

  • It is a machine which generates shock waves to disrupt the natural growth of hailstones in clouds.
  • It comprises of a tall, fixed structure resembling an inverted tower, several metres high, with a long and narrow cone opening towards the sky.
  • The gun is fired by feeding an explosive mixture of acetylene gas and air into its lower chamber, which releases a shock wave (which travel at supersonic speeds i.e., faster than the speed of sound).
  • These shock waves then supposedly stop water droplets in clouds from turning into hailstones, and they fall simply as raindrops.


National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT)

Why in News?

The Supreme Court recently directed the GoI to complete the process of reappointment of the members of NCLAT at the earliest.


  • The NCLAT was constituted under Companies Act, 2013.
  • It acts as appellate tribunal:
    • against the orders of the National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT).
    • against the orders passed by NCLT(s) under Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 (IBC).
    • against the orders passed by Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India under IBC.
    • against any direction or decision made by Competition Commission of India (CCI).
  • The chairperson and members of the NCLATis appointed in consultation with the Chief Justice of India (CJI).
  • Appeals against decisions of NCLAT lies with Supreme Court of India.

Related information:

  • NCLT or National Company Law Tribunal is a quasi-judicial body which adjudicates issues pertaining to the companies in the country.
  • It is formed under Companies Act, 2013.

Governmental Initiatives

SAGE (Senior-care Ageing Growth Engine) Initiative

Why in News?

Recently, Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment (MoSJ&E) has launched the SAGE initiativealong with SAGE portal for elderly persons.

About SAGE Initiative:

  • The SAGE is envisioned to be a “one-stop access” of elderly care products and also the services by credible start-ups.
  • The start-ups would be selected on the basis of their innovative products, approach and services.
  • The products by these start-ups should be able to provide servicesin sectors like health, housing, care centres, technological access linked to finances, healthand wealth management, legal guidance, etc.
  • A fund up to₹ 1 crore as a one-time equity will be granted to each selected start-up.
  • The initiative takes into consideration India’s elderly population that is on the rise as per various surveys.

International Relations

Financial Action Task Force (FATF)

Why in News?

Pakistan improved its ratings with the Asia Pacific Group (APG) on Money Laundering, a 41-country grouping that is a regional associate of the FATF, ahead of a decision on its grey listing status later in June, 2021.

About FATF:

  • It is an inter-governmental body established in 1989 on the initiative of the G7
  • Headquarter: Paris, France (in OECD Headquarter)
  • India became member of FATF in 2010.
  • Key functions:
    • Combat Money Laundering
    • Combat terrorist financing
    • Combat threats to the integrity of international financial system.
  • The FATF Plenary is the highest decision-making body of the FATF. It meets three times per year.

Blacklist and Grey list:

  • Blacklist:Also knowns as Non-Cooperative Countries or Territories (NCCTs).
    • These countries were found to support terror funding and money laundering activities.
    • Blacklist is revised regularly, adding, or deleting entries.
  • Grey List: Thesecountries were found to be safe haven for supporting terror funding and money laundering activities.
    • The inclusion here serves as a warning to the country that it may enter the blacklist.
  • Countries in the grey list may face:
    • Economic sanctions from IMF, World Bank, etc.
    • Problem in getting loans from IMF, World Bank, and other countries.
    • Reduction in international trade, etc.

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