Daily Prelims Newsletter(UPSC)|11 JUN 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

11 June 2021-Friday

Table Of Contents

Environment

  • Sundarbans

Economy

  • Minimum Support Price 

Polity and Governance

  • Election Commission of India 

Places in News 

  • El Salvador

Environment

Sundarbans

Why in News?

The century old seaside Sunderban retreat which once also entertained India’s colonial rulers wasdestroyed due to cyclone Yaas.

About Sunderban:

  • It is a vast contiguous mangrove forest ecosystem.
  • It lies in the coastal region of Bay of Bengal spread across India and Bangladesh on the delta of the Ganga, Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers.
  • It is believed to have the world’s largest mangrove forests.
  • The Sunderban Delta is the only mangrove forest in the world that is inhabited by tigers.

Protected Areas:

  • The region was declared as SundarbanTiger Reserve in 1973
  • Later in 1984,Sundarbans National Park, which constitutes thecore region within the tiger reserve.
  • It was designated as aUNESCO World Heritage site in 1987.
  • Further, Sunderbans was designated as Biosphere Reserveunder Man and Biosphere Reserve Programmeby UNESCO in 2001.
  • In 2019, Sundarban Wetland was recognised as the ‘Wetland of International Importance’ under Ramsar Convention.

Fauna:

  • Critically endangeredNorthern river terrapin
  • Endangered Irrawaddy dolphin, Royal Bengal Tiger
  • Vulnerablefishing cat, etc.

Related Information: Mangroves

  • Mangroves are plants found ininter-tidal zones along coasts of tropical and subtropical
  • They are known to perform multiple ecological functions:
    • production of woody trees,
    • provision of habitat, food and spawning grounds for fin-fish and shellfish,
    • provision of habitat for birds and other valuable fauna,
    • protection of coastlines and
    • accretion of sediment to form new lands, etc.
  • According to India State of Forest Report, West Bengal has the highest percentage of area covered under Mangrove forests followed by Gujarat and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Economy

Minimum Support Price

Why in News?

GoI has hiked the minimum support price (MSP) for crops like common paddy, pulses, oilseeds and coarse cereals, after the decision was taken by the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA).

About MSP:

  • It is the minimum price for any crop which the government considers as remunerative enough for farmers and hence deserve of support.
  • It is the price government agencies pay when they procure the particular crop.
  • The Commission for Agricultural Costs & Prices (CACP) recommends MSPs for 22 crops and fair and remunerative price (FRP) for sugarcane.
  • CACP is an attached office under the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, GoI.
  • It was formed in1965.
  • It is an advisory body whose recommendations are not binding on the Government.
  • CACP consider following factors to determine MSP:
    • cost of cultivation.
    • Supply and demand situation for the commodity,
    • Market price trends both in domestic and global market
    • Parity vis-à-vis other crops,
    • Implications for consumers-inflation,
    • Environment soil and water use
    • Terms of trade between agriculture and non-agriculture sectors, etc.

Production Costs taken in fixing the MSPs:

  • The CACP considers both A2+FL and C2 costs incurredbefore recommending MSP.
  • A2 costs: cover all paid-out expenses, both in cash and kind, which is incurred by farmers on seeds, fertilisers, chemicals, hired labour, fuel, irrigation, etc.
  • A2+FL Costs: cover actual paid-out costs plus an imputed value of unpaid family labour.
  • C2 costs: account for the rentals and interest forgone on owned land and fixed capital assets, on top of A2+FL.

Polity and Governance

Election Commission of India

Why in News?

Former Chief Secretary of UP Anup Chandra Pandey was recently appointed as the new Election Commissioner.

About the Election Commission of India

  • The ECI is an autonomousconstitutional authority responsible to administer Union and State election processes in India.
  • The body administers elections to:
    • Lok Sabha,
    • Rajya Sabha,
    • State Legislative Assemblies in states of India,
    • Offices of the President and Vice President in the country.
  • Elections to panchayats and municipalities in the states are conducted by another constitutional body i.e., State Election Commission. Hence such elections are not responsibility of SEC.

Composition of ECI:

  • Initially,ECI had only one election commissioner but post the Election Commissioner Amendment Act 1989, it has been made a multi-member body.
  • The ECI consists of the Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) and such number of other election commissioners, as the President may from time to time fix.
  • Presently, ECI consists of the CEC and two other Election Commissioners.
  • At the state level, Chief Electoral Officer assists ECI. (Not to be confused with State Election Commissioners who conduct panchayat and municipal elections)

Appointment& Tenure of Commissioners:

  • The President appoints the CEC and other Election Commissioners.
  • They have a fixed tenure of six years, or up to the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier.
  • They enjoy the same status and receive salary and perks as given to theJudges of the Supreme Court (SC) of India.

Removal:

  • They can resign anytime by writing to the President of India or can also be removed before the expiry of their term.
  • As per Constitution, the CEC can only be removed from office only through a process of removal similar to that of a SC judge by the Parliament.

Procedure of Removal

  • He may be removed from office through a motion adopted by Parliament on grounds of proved misbehaviour or incapacity.
  • Removal requires a special majority of 2/3rd members present and voting with support by more than 50% of the total strength of the house.

NOTE:

  • The Constitution has not prescribed any qualifications for the members of the Election Commission.
  • It also has not specified the term of the members of the Election Commission.
  • The Constitution has also not debarred the retiring election commissioners from any further appointment by the government.

Places in News

El Salvador

Why in News?

El Salvador, a country in Central America, became the first country to make Bitcoin legal.

It was done to reduce cost incurred to intermediaries while receiving remittances.

About El Salvador:

  • El Salvador since 2001,does not have its own monetary policy.
  • US dollar is the official currency.
  • Along with Ecuador and Panama, El Salvador is currently among three nations in Latin America to have a dollarized economy.

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