Daily Prelims Newsletter(UPSC)|12 JUN 2021 | RaghukulCS

Daily Prelims Newsletter For UPSC
| RaghukulCS

12 June 2021-Saturday

Table Of Contents


  • Pakke Tiger Reserve
  • Crocodilian Species in India 


  • Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI)

Governmental Initiatives

  • Jal Jeevan Mission

International Relations 

  • Atlantic Charter 


PakkeTiger Reserve:

Why in News?

Pakke Tiger Reserve was recently in news due to workers strike.

About Pakke Tiger Reserve:

  • It is also known as Pakhui Tiger Reserve.
  • It won India Biodiversity Award 2016 for Conservation of threatened species due to its Hornbill Nest Adoption Programme.
  • Water Body: Bhareli or Kameng River,Pakke River, Nameri, Khari etc.
  • Nearby Protected Areas:
    • Papum Reserve Forest in Arunachal Pradesh,
    • Assam’s Nameri National Park,
    • Doimara Reserve Forest, and
    • Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary.
  • It falls within the Eastern Himalaya Biodiversity Hotspot.

Related Information: Hornbill

  • India is home to nine different species of hornbills.
  • The north-eastern Indian stateshave the highest diversity of hornbill species within India- Five hornbill species are found here.
  • NE Indiais the exclusive habitat for three of them, the wreathed hornbill (Aceros undulatus), the brown hornbill (Anorrhinusausteni) and the Rufous-necked hornbill (Acerosnipalensis).
  • The great hornbill is the statebird of Arunachal Pradesh and Kerala.
  • IUCN Status: Vulnerable
  • The Hornbill festival celebrated in Nagaland is named after this bird.
  • Hornbill which is the most revered and admired bird for the Naga community.

Crocodilian Species in India

Why in News?

Recently, Government of Odisha announced a cash award of ₹1,000 to conserve gharials in Mahanadi River Basin.

Related Information:

Three crocodilian species are found in India:

  1. Mugger or Marsh Crocodile:
  • The mugger is an egg-laying and hole-nesting species of crocodile.
  • Habitat:
    • Mostly restricted to the Indian subcontinent.
    • Mainly found in freshwater habitats like rivers, lakes, and marshes.
    • It is already extinct in neighbouring countries of Bhutan and Myanmar.
  1. Estuarine or Saltwater Crocodile:
  • It is the largest of all living reptiles including that of crocodiles.
  • The saltwater crocodile is infamous globally as a known maneater.
  • Habitat:
    • Found on eastern coast on India including- Bhitarkanika National Park (Odisha), the Sundarbans (West Bengal) and the Andamans and Nicobar Islands.
    • Also found across Southeast Asia and northern Australia.
  1. Gharial
  • Gharials have a long, thin snouts which resembles a pot (ghara in Hindi).
  • Role as Indicator Species: The presence of Gharials are a good indicator of clean river water.
  • Gharials are fish eating species and is known to be a relatively harmless to humans.
  • Habitat:
    • Mainly found in fresh waters of the Himalayan rivers like Ghagra, gandak, Girwa, Ramganga and the Sone river.
    • Also found in Chambal river(Madhya Pradesh).

Protection Status of these species are indicated below:



Saltwater Crocodile




Least Concern

Critically Endangered


Appendix I

Appendix I

Appendix I


Schedule I

Schedule I

Schedule I


Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI)

Why in News?

NHAI recently received the approval of SEBI to launch its Infrastructure Investment Trust (InvIT) to raise Rs 5,100 crore.

About SEBI:

  • It is a statutory body established in 1992 under the provisions of the SEBI Act, 1992.
  • In April 1988, SEBI was stablished as a non-statutory body as the regulator of capital markets in India.
  • SEBI, due to its functions can be referred to as:
    • quasi-legislative-draft regulations,
    • quasi-judicial- conduct inquiries, pass rulings.
    • quasi-executive body- impose penalties.

About Infrastructure Investment Trusts:

  • These are instruments working similar to mutual funds. They aim to pool small sums of money from large number of investors to invest in assets which give cash flow over a period. Also, a part of this cash flow would be distributed as dividend back to investors.
  • The minimum investment amount in an InvIT IPO is Rs 10 lakh, hence, they are suitable for high net-worth individuals, institutional and non-institutional investors.
  • They are listed on exchanges just like stocks — through IPOs.
  • However, the Indian InvIT market is not yet mature and has supported the formation of only 10 InvITs till date, out of which only two are listed.
  • InvITs are regulated by SEBI.

Governmental Initiatives

Jal Jeevan Mission

Why in News?

GoI recently allocated₹ 7,064 crore grant to Maharashtra under Jal Jeevan Mission, the highest given to any state under the scheme.

About JJM:

  • It aims to supply of 55 litres of water per person per day to every rural household through Functional Household Tap Connections (FHTC) by 2024.
  • Under Ministry of Jal Shakti.
  • It is centrally sponsored scheme.
  • It looks to create a janandolan for water, to make it everyone’s priority.

Key Programmes to be undertaken:

  • Creation of local infrastructure for source sustainability measures like rainwater harvesting, groundwater recharge, etc to be undertaken in convergence with other government programmes.
  • Prioritizing FHTCs in affected areas, like villages in drought prone and desert areas, Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana (SAGY) villages, etc.
  • Providing FHTCs to Schools, Anganwadi centres,Health centres, Gram Panchayat buildings, wellness centres and community buildings.
  • About Jal Jeevan Mission (Urban):Use of technological interventions to remove contaminants where water quality is an issue.
    • It was launched by the Budget 2021-22.
    • JJM (Urban) is under the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.
    • It aims to provide universal coverage of water supply to all households through functional taps in all statutory towns.
    • It will be a step towards Sustainable Development Goal- 6 i.e., clean water and sanitation.

    Key Objectives of JJM(Urban):

    • Securing tap and sewer connections.
    • Rejuvenation of existing water bodies.
    • Creating a circular water economy.

    International Relations

    Atlantic Charter

    Why in News?

    Recently, President Joe Biden and British PM Boris Johnson inspected the documents relating to the Atlantic Charter, signed by former British PM Winston Churchill and U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt in August 1941.

    The leaders now plan to sign a new Atlantic Charter, pledging to defend the principles, values, and institutions of democracy and open societies.

    About Atlantic Charter:

    • It was a joint declaration issued during World War II (1939-45) by the USA and Great Britain which set out a vision for the post-war world.
    • Among its major points were every nation’s right to choose its own government, easing the trade restrictions and a case for post-wardisarmament.
    • This document is considered one of the key steps toward the establishing the UN in 1945.

    Key components of The Atlantic Charter:

    The Atlantic Charter included eight common principles, including:

    • The USA and Britain agreed not to seek territorial gains from the war, and opposed any territorial changes made against the wishes of the concerned people.
    • To support restoration of self-government to those nations who had lost it during the war.
    • People must have the right to choose their own form of government.

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